Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Assimilation Related Abstracts

6 Understanding Space, Citizenship and Assimilation in the Context of Migration in North-Eastern Region of India

Authors: Rajni Singh, Rakesh Mishra, Mukunda Upadhyay


This paper is an attempt to understand the abstract concept of space, citizenship and migration in the north-eastern region. In the twentieth century, researchers and thinkers related citizenship and migration on national models. The national models of jus sulis and jus sangunis provide scope of space and rights to only those who are either born in the territory or either share the common descent. Space ensures rights and citizenship ensures space and for many migrants, citizenship is the ultimate goal in the host country. Migrants with the intention of settling down in the destination region, begin to adapt and assimilate in their new homes. In many cases, migrants may also retain the culture and values of the place of origin. In such cases the difference in the degree of retention and assimilation may determine the chances of conflict between the host society and migrants. Such conflicts are fueled by political aspirations of few individuals on both the sides. The North-Eastern part of India is a mixed community with many linguistic and religious groups sharing a common Geo-political space. Every community has its own unique history, culture and identity. Since the last half of the nineteenth century, this region has been experiencing both internal migration from other states and immigration from the neighboring countries which has resulted in the interactions of various cultures and ethnicities. With the span of time, migration has taken bitter form with problems concentrated around acquiring rights through space and citizenship. Political tensions resulted by host hostility and migrants resistance has ruined the social order in few areas. In order to resolve these issues in this area proper intervention has to be carried out by the involvement of the National and International community.

Keywords: Migration, Space, Citizenship, Assimilation, rights

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5 Preservation of Near-Extinct African Culture: The Case of Yoruba Proverbs

Authors: Makinde David Olajide


Proverb is an important aspect of most indigenous culture in Africa including that of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria. As revealed by recent studies, Yoruba proverbs as an important cultural heritage are threatened and near extinct. This fear of proverb extinct in Yoruba cultural growth has been observed and expressed at different fora by many researchers and professionals including Art historians, culture patrons, social critics’ and teachers among others. Investigation revealed that the intangible nature of proverb is largely responsible for its continuous disappearance in the language structure and creative speeches which give the unique identity to the Yoruba people. Some of the factors that are responsible for culture extinct include: absence of moonlight stories by the elderly, the nuclear family system, and total assimilation of western culture, the concept of modernity and urban nature of Yoruba towns among others. Therefore, to preserve this creative heritage (proverb), there is need for a conscious shift of the traditional role of proverbs in speech development to its use as tool for artistic creations and expressions in visual form. The study was carried out between June, 2013 and February, 2015 in three Yoruba towns; Ilorin, Ede and Ogbomoso selected from Kwara, Osun and Oyo states respectively. The data used in this study were collected through oral and structured interviews. Fifteen interviewers were purposively selected in each of the study areas. It also employs the use of electronic and printed media to generate relevant literature on the subject matter. The study revealed that many Yoruba proverbs are preserved or hidden in text books, monograph, home videos, films and pastoral messages. However, this has not stopped the problem of lack of understanding of its usage, meaning and reasons for its extinction that may hinder its preservation for the incoming generations. This study concludes that indigenous culture can be revived and preserved for future generations when there is a conscious attempt to integrate or convert their traditional roles for present day realities and relevance in our social and educational needs.

Keywords: Culture, Preservation, heritage, Assimilation, extinct

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4 Dynamics of Hybrid Language in Urban and Rural Uttar Pradesh India

Authors: Divya Pande


The dynamics of culture expresses itself in language. Even after India got independence in 1947 English subtly crept in the language of the masses with a silent and powerful flow towards the vernacular. The culture contact resulted in learning and emergence of a new language across the Hindi speaking belt of Northern and Central India. The hybrid words thus formed displaced the original word and got contextualized and absorbed in the language of the common masses. The research paper explores the interesting new vocabulary used extensively in the urban and rural districts of the state of Uttar- Pradesh which is the most populous state of India. The paper adopts a two way classification- formal and contextual for the analysis of the hybrid vocabulary of the linguistic items where one element is necessarily from the English language and the other from the Hindi. The new vocabulary represents languages of the wider world cutting across the geographical and the cultural barriers. The paper also broadly points out to the Hinglish commonly used in the state.

Keywords: Assimilation, culture contact, Hinglish, hybrid words

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3 A Comparative Analysis: Cultural Reflections of Mexicans in the United States and Turks in Germany

Authors: Gülşen Kocaevli


This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis on the reflections of cultural elements such as language, festival, and food both in the case of Turkish immigrants in Germany and Mexican immigrants in the United States within a historical perspective. These reflections will be studied first by giving a certain background information on the migratory history of the two nations, Mexican immigration to the US, and Turkish immigration to Germany, respectively. These two cases were picked as the analytical subjects of this paper because both nations first migrated to the related country to constitute a labor force since there was a huge need for that due to several reasons such as the loss of manpower after certain wars or revolutions. At the end of this comparative study, it is speculated to be found that there are certain parallels between these two immigrant societies in the way that they reflect their cultures in the receiving country since both nations have a conventionalist nature which makes them tend more to protect their cultures and pay less effort to integrate into the society in which they are living. Even though this integration might be realized in certain fields like economic status and exogamy, it does not cover all segments nor is there any desire of the receiving government to integrate the immigrants but rather they make policies to assimilate them. This research paper will use a qualitative method which is fundamentally based on the interpretative data drawn from several sociological or ethnographic studies conducted in the related field. The primary and secondary resources of this paper will cover academic books, journal articles, particularly those reporting interviews with the immigrants, and certain governmental documents as well as publicized statistics regarding the subject of analysis. By the use of the aforementioned methodology and resources, the conventionalist nature of the two immigrant nations is aimed to be presented as the unifying factor in the way that Mexicans in the US and Turks in Germany reflect and protect their cultures in the form of language, festivals, and food.

Keywords: Culture, Immigration, Assimilation, German-Turks, Mexican Americans

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2 Migration, Assimilation and Well-Being of Interstate Migrant Workers in Kerala: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand


It may no longer be just anecdotal that every twelfth person in Kerala is a migrant worker from outside the state. For the past few years, the state has been witnessing large inflow of migrants from other states of India, which emerged as a result of demographic transition and Gulf emigration. Initially, the migrants were from the neighbouring states but, at a later period, the state started getting migrants from the distant parts of the country. Currently, migrants have turned to be a decisive force in the state and their increasing numbers have already started creating turbulences in the state. Over the past years, the increasing involvement of migrants in unlawful and criminal activities have generated apprehensions on their presence in the state. Moreover, at present, the Kerala society is not just hosting the first generation migrants, but there has been an increase in the second generation migrants making the situations more complex and diverse. In such a paradigm, the study ponders into the issues of migrants concerning their assimilation and well-being in the host society. Also, the study looks into the factors that impede the assimilation process, along with the perceptions of the migrants about the host society and the people. The study also tries to bring out the differences in the levels of assimilation among the migrants along the lines of religion, caste, state of origin, gender, stay duration and education. Methodology: The study is based on the empirical findings obtained out of the primary survey conducted on migrants employed in the Kanjikode industrial area of Kerala. The samples were selected through purposive sampling and the study employed techniques like observation, questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The findings are based on interviews conducted with 100 migrants. Findings and Conclusion: The study was an attempt of its kind in addressing the issues of assimilation and integration of interstate migrants working in the Kerala. As mentioned, the study could bring out differences in the levels of assimilation along the lines of different characteristics. The study could also locate the importance, and the role played by the peer groups and neighborhoods in accelerating the process of assimilation among the migrants. As an extension, the study also looked at the assimilation and educational issues of the migrant children living in Kerala, and it found that the place of birth, age at entry and the peer group plays a pivotal role in the assimilation process. The study through its findings recommends the need for incorporating the concept of inclusive education into the state educational system by giving due emphasis to the needs of the marginalized. The study points out that owing to the existing demographic conditions, the state will inevitably have to depend on migrant labor in future. Moreover, in such a paradigm, the host community and the government should strive to create a conducive environment for the proper assimilation of the migrants and which in turn can be an impetus for the fulfilment of the needs of both the migrants and the state.

Keywords: Integration, Well-being, Assimilation, Migrant Workers, Kerala

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1 Towards a More Inclusive Society: A Study on the Assimilation and Integration of the Migrant Children in Kerala

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand


For the past few years, the state of Kerala has been witnessing a large inflow of migrant workers from other states of the country, which emerged as a result of demographic transition and Gulf emigration. The in-migration patterns in Kerala have changed over the time with the migrants having a higher residence history bringing their families to the state, thereby making the process more complicated and divergent in its approach. These developments have led to an increase in the young migrant population at least in some parts of the state, which has opened up doubts and questions related to their future in the host society. At this juncture, the study ponders into the factors that are associated with the assimilation and wellbeing of migrant children in the society of Kerala. As one of the objectives, the study also analyzed the influence and role played by the educational institutions (both public and private) in meeting the needs and aspirations of both the children and their parents. The study gains significance as it tries to identify various impediments that hinder the cognitive skill formation and behaviour patterns of the migrant children in the host society. Data and Methodology: The study is based on the primary data collected through a series of interviews and interactions held with parents, children, and teachers of different educational institutions, including both public and private. The primary survey also made use of research techniques like observation, in-depth interviews, and case study method. The study was conducted in schools in the Kanjikode area of the Palakkad district in Kerala. The findings of the study are on the basis of a survey conducted in four schools and 40 migrant children. Findings: The study found that majority of the children have wholly integrated and assimilated into the host society. The influence of the peer group was quite visible in giving stimulus to the assimilation process. Most of the children do not have any emotional or cultural sentiments attached to their state of origin, and they consider Kerala as their ‘home state’ and the local language (Malayalam) as their ‘mother tongue'. The study could also find that the existing education system in the host society fails to meet the needs and aspirations of migrants as well as that of their children. On a comparative scale, to some extent, private schools have succeeded in fulfiling the special requirements of the migrant children. An interesting point that the study could pinpoint at is that the children of the migrants show better health conditions and wellbeing than compared to the natives, which is usually addressed as an epidemiologic paradox. As a concluding remark, the study recommends the inclusion concept of inclusive education into the education system of the state with giving due emphasis on those who are at higher risk of being excluded or marginalized, along with fostering increased interaction between diverse groups.

Keywords: Well-being, Assimilation, Kerala, migrant children

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