Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Aspergillus niger Related Abstracts

9 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef

Abstract:

Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

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8 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Masoumeh Ghasemi, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari

Abstract:

In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, lipase, Kilka fish oil, submerge fermentation method

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7 Characterization of Pectinase from Local Microorganisms to Support Industry Based Green Chemistry

Authors: Sasangka Prasetyawan, Anna Roosdiana, Diah Mardiana, Suratmo

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Pectinase are enzymes that hydrolyze pectin compounds. The use of this enzyme is primarily to reduce the viscosity of the beverage thus simplifying the purification process. Pectinase activity influenced by microbial sources . Exploration of two types of microbes that Aspergillus spp. and Bacillus spp. pectinase give different performance, but the use of local strain is still not widely studied. The aim of this research is exploration of pectinase from A. niger and B. firmus include production conditions and characterization. Bacillus firmus incubated and shaken at a speed of 200 rpm at pH variation (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C and incubation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 ) hours. Media was centrifuged at 3000 rpm, pectinase enzyme activity determined. Enzyme production by A. niger determined to variations in temperature and pH were similar to B. firmus, but the variation of the incubation time was 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours. Pectinase crude extract was further purified by precipitation using ammonium sulfate saturation in fraction 0-20 %, 20-40 %, 40-60 %, 60-80 %, then dialyzed. Determination of optimum conditions pectinase activity performed by measuring the variation of enzyme activity on pH (4, 6, 7, 8, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C, and the incubation time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) minutes . Determination of kinetic parameters of pectinase enzyme reaction carried out by measuring the rate of enzyme reactions at the optimum conditions, but the variation of the concentration of substrate (pectin 0.1 % , 0.2 % , 0.3 % , 0.4 % , 0.5 % ). The results showed that the optimum conditions of production of pectinase from B. firmus achieved at pH 7-8.0, 40-50 ⁰C temperature and fermentation time 18 hours. Purification of pectinase showed the highest purity in the 40-80 % ammonium sulfate fraction. Character pectinase obtained : the optimum working conditions of A. niger pectinase at pH 5 , while pectinase from B. firmus at pH 7, temperature and optimum incubation time showed the same value, namely the temperature of 50 ⁰C and incubation time of 30 minutes. The presence of metal ions can affect the activity of pectinase , the concentration of Zn 2 + , Pb 2 + , Ca 2 + and K + and 2 mM Mg 2 + above 6 mM inhibit the activity of pectinase .

Keywords: Green Chemistry, Aspergillus niger, pectinase, Bacillus firmus

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6 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi

Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye

Abstract:

Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: bioreactor, Bacterial, Purification, biodegradation, Fungi, Aspergillus niger, microbial load, greywater, organic matter and filtration

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5 Bioleaching of Precious Metals from an Oil-fired Ash Using Organic Acids Produced by Aspergillus niger in Shake Flasks and a Bioreactor

Authors: Payam Rasoulnia, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi

Abstract:

Heavy fuel oil firing power plants produce huge amounts of ashes as solid wastes, which seriously need to be managed and processed. Recycling precious metals of V and Ni from these oil-fired ashes which are considered as secondary sources of metals recovery, not only has a great economic importance for use in industry, but also it is noteworthy from the environmental point of view. Vanadium is an important metal that is mainly used in the steel industry because of its physical properties of hardness, tensile strength, and fatigue resistance. It is also utilized in oxidation catalysts, titanium–aluminum alloys and vanadium redox batteries. In the present study bioleaching of vanadium and nickel from an oil-fired ash sample was conducted using Aspergillus niger fungus. The experiments were carried out using spent-medium bioleaching method in both Erlenmeyer flasks and also bubble column bioreactor, in order to compare them together. In spent-medium bioleaching the solid waste is not in direct contact with the fungus and consequently the fungal growth is not retarded and maximum organic acids are produced. In this method the metals are leached through biogenic produced organic acids present in the medium. In shake flask experiments the fungus was cultured for 15 days, where the maximum production of organic acids was observed, while in bubble column bioreactor experiments a 7 days fermentation period was applied. The amount of produced organic acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results showed that depending on the fermentation period and the scale of experiments, the fungus has different major lixiviants. In flask tests, citric acid was the main produced organic acid by the fungus and the other organic acids including gluconic, oxalic, and malic were excreted in much lower concentrations, while in the bioreactor oxalic acid was the main lixiviant and it was produced considerably. In Erlenmeyer flasks during 15 days fermentation of Aspergillus niger, 8080 ppm citric acid and 1170 ppm oxalic acid was produced, while in bubble column bioreactor over 7 days of fungal growth, 17185 ppm oxalic acid and 1040 ppm citric acid was secreted. The leaching tests using the spent-media obtained from both of fermentation experiments, were performed at the same conditions of leaching duration of 7 days, leaching temperature of 60 °C and pulp density up to 3% (w/v). The results revealed that in Erlenmeyer flask experiments 97% of V and 50% of Ni were extracted while using spent medium produced in bubble column bioreactor, V and Ni recoveries were achieved to 100% and 33%, respectively. These recovery yields indicate that in both scales almost total vanadium can be recovered, while nickel recovery was lower. With help of the bioreactor spent-medium nickel recovery yield was lower than that of obtained from the flask experiments, which it could be due to precipitation of some values of Ni in presence of high levels of oxalic acid existing in its spent medium.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, bubble column bioreactor, oil-fired ash, spent-medium bioleaching

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4 Rejuvenation of Peanut Seedling from Collar Rot Disease by Azotobacter sp. RA2

Authors: Ravi R. Patel, Vasudev R. Thakkar

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Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to increase the production and decrees disease occurrence is a recent method in agriculture. An RA2 rhizospheric culture was isolated from peanut rhizosphere from Junagadh region of Gujarat, India and showed different direct and indirect plant growth promoting activity like indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, Ammonia and (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate) deaminase production, N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization in vitro. RA2 was able to protect peanut germinating seedling from A. niger infection and reduce collar rot disease incidence 60-35% to 72-41% and increase germination percentage from 70-82% to 75-97% in two varieties GG20 and GG2 of peanut. RA2 was found to induce resistance in A. hypogaea L. seedlings via induction of different defense-related enzymes like phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase and pathogenesis related protein like chitinase, ß – 1,3- glucanase. Jasmonic acid one of the major signaling molecules of inducing systemic resistance was also found to induced due to RA2 treatments. RA2 bacterium was also promoting peanut growth and reduce A. niger infection in pot studies. 16S rDNA sequence of RA2 showed 99 % homology to Azotobacter species.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, peanut, induce systemic resistance

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3 An Approach to Study the Biodegradation of Low Density Polyethylene Using Microbial Strains of Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence in Different Media Form and Salt Condition

Authors: Monu Ojha, Rahul Rana, Satywati Sharma, Kavya Dashora

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The global production rate of plastics has increased enormously and global demand for polyethylene resins –High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is expected to rise drastically, with very high value. These get accumulated in the environment, posing a potential ecological threat as they are degrading at a very slow rate and remain in the environment indefinitely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of commonly found soil microbes like Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence for their ability to biodegrade LDPE in the lab on solid and liquid media conditions as well as in presence of 1% salt in the soil. This study was conducted at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India from July to September where average temperature and RH (Relative Humidity) were 33 degrees Celcius and 80% respectively. It revealed that the weight loss of LDPE strip obtained from market of approximately 4x6 cm dimensions is more in liquid broth media than in solid agar media. The percentage weight loss by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus observed after 80 days of incubation was 15.52, 9.24 and 8.99% respectively in broth media and 6.93, 2.18 and 4.76 % in agar media. The LDPE strips from same source and on the same were subjected to soil in presence of above microbes with 1% salt (NaCl: obtained from commercial table salt) with temperature and RH 33 degree Celcius and 80%. It was found that the rate of degradation increased in the soil than under lab conditions. The rate of weight loss of LDPE strips under same conditions given in lab was found to be 32.98, 15.01 and17.09 % by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. The breaking strength was found to be 9.65N, 29N and 23.85 N for P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. SEM analysis conducted on Zeiss EVO 50 confirmed that surface of LDPE becomes physically weak after biological treatment. There was the increase in the surface roughness indicating Surface erosion of LDPE film. FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the degraded LDPE films showed stretching of aldehyde group at 3334.92 and 3228.84 cm-1,, C–C=C symmetric of aromatic ring at 1639.49 cm-1.There was also C=O stretching of aldehyde group at 1735.93 cm-1. N=O peak bend was also observed which corresponds to 1365.60 cm-1, C–O stretching of ether group at 1217.08 and 1078.21 cm-1.

Keywords: Microbial Degradation, Aspergillus niger, LDPE, Bacillus subtilus, Peudomonas fluroscence, common salt

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2 Kinetics Analysis of Lignocellulose Hydrolysis and Glucose Consumption Using Aspergillus niger in Solid State

Authors: Wahyudi Budi Sediawan, Akida Mulyaningtyas

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One decisive stage in bioethanol production from plant biomass is the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials into simple sugars such as glucose. The produced glucose is then fermented into ethanol. This stage is popularly done in biological method by using cellulase that is produced by certain fungi. As it is known, glucose is the main source of nutrition for most microorganisms. Therefore, cutting cellulose into glucose is actually an attempt of microorganism to provide nutrition for itself. So far, this phenomenon has received less attention while it is necessary to identify the quantity of sugar consumed by the microorganism. In this study, we examined the phenomenon of sugar consumption by microorganism on lignocellulosic hydrolysis. We used oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) as the source of lignocellulose and Aspergillus niger as cellulase-producing fungus. In Indonesia, OPEFB is plantation waste that is difficult to decompose in nature and causes environmental problems. First, OPEFB was pretreated with 1% of NaOH at 170 oC to destroy lignin that hindered A.niger from accessing cellulose. The hydrolysis was performed by growing A.niger on pretreated OPEFB in solid state to minimize the possibility of contamination. The produced glucose was measured every 24 hours for 9 days. We analyzed the kinetics of both reactions, i.e., hydrolysis and glucose consumption, simultaneously. The constants for both reactions were assumed to follow the Monod equation. The results showed that the reaction constant of glucose consumption (μC) was higher than of cellulose hydrolysis (μH), i.e., 11.8 g/L and 0.62 g/L for glucose consumption and hydrolysis respectively. However, in general, the reaction rate of hydrolysis is greater than of glucose consumption since the cellulose concentration as substrate in hydrolysis is much higher than glucose as substrate in the consumption reaction.

Keywords: Kinetics, Bioethanol, Hydrolysis, Aspergillus niger

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1 Effect of Some Metal Ions on the Activity of Lipase Produced by Aspergillus Niger Cultured on Vitellaria Paradoxa Shells

Authors: Abdulhakeem Sulyman, Olukotun Zainab, Hammed Abdulquadri

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Lipases (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolases) (EC 3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. They account for up to 10% of the enzyme in the market and have a wide range of applications in biofuel production, detergent formulation, leather processing and in food and feed processing industry. This research was conducted to study the effect of some metal ions on the activity of purified lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells. Purified lipase in 12.5 mM p-NPL was incubated with different metal ions (Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺). The final concentrations of metal ions investigated were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 mM. The results obtained from the study showed that Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ ions increased the activity of lipase up to 3.0, 3.0, 1.0, and 26.0 folds respectively. Lipase activity was partially inhibited by Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ with up to 88.5% and 83.7% loss of activity respectively. Lipase activity was also inhibited by K⁺ with up to 56.7% loss in the activity as compared to in the absence of metal ions. The study concluded that lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells can be activated by the presence of Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ and inhibited by Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, lipase, metal ions, Vitellaria paradoxa

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