Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Asian carp Related Abstracts

2 Dry-Extrusion of Asian Carp, a Sustainable Source of Natural Methionine for Organic Poultry Production

Authors: I. Upadhyaya, K. Arsi, A. M. Donoghue, C. N. Coon, M. Schlumbohm, M. N. Riaz, M. B. Farnell, A. Upadhyay, A. J. Davis, D. J. Donoghue

Abstract:

Methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, is essential for healthy poultry production. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry. However, for organic poultry, a natural, cost effective source of methionine that can replace synthetic methionine is unavailable. Invasive Asian carp (AC) are a potential natural methionine source; however, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish methionine. Commercially available rendering is environmentally challenging due to the offensive smell produced during production. We explored extrusion technology as a potential cost effective alternative to fish rendering. We also determined the amino acid composition, digestible amino acids and total metabolizable energy (TMEn) for the extruded AC fish meal. Dry extrusion of AC was carried out by mixing the fish with soybean meal (SBM) in a 1:1 proportion to reduce high moisture in the fishmeal using an Insta Pro Jr. dry extruder followed by drying and grinding of the product. To determine the digestible amino acids and TMEn of the extruded product, a colony of cecectomized Bovans White Roosters was used. Adult roosters (48 weeks of age) were fasted for 30 h and tube fed 35 grams of 3 treatments: (1) extruded AC fish meal, (2) SBM and (3) corn. Excreta from each individual bird was collected for the next 48 h. An additional 10 unfed roosters served as endogenous controls. The gross energy and protein content of the feces from the treatments were determined to calculate the TMEn. Fecal samples and treatment feeds were analyzed for amino acid content and percent digestible amino acid. Results from the analysis suggested that addition of Asian carp increased the methionine content of SBM from 0.63 to 0.83%. Also, the digestibility of amino acid and the TMEn values were greater for the AC meal with SBM than SBM alone. The dry extruded AC meal analysis is indicative that the product can replace SBM alone and enhance natural methionine in a standard poultry ration. The results from feed formulation using different concentrations of the AC fish meal depict a potential diet which can supplement the required methionine content in organic poultry production.

Keywords: extrusion, Asian carp, natural methionine, organic poultry

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1 Invasive Asian Carp Fish Species: A Natural and Sustainable Source of Methionine for Organic Poultry Production

Authors: Komala Arsi, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue

Abstract:

Methionine is an essential dietary amino acid necessary to promote growth and health of poultry. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry diets and is temporarily allowed in organic poultry feed for lack of natural and organically approved sources of methionine. It has been a challenge to find a natural, sustainable and cost-effective source for methionine which reiterates the pressing need to explore potential alternatives of methionine for organic poultry production. Fish have high concentrations of methionine, but wild-caught fish are expensive and adversely impact wild fish populations. Asian carp (AC) is an invasive species and its utilization has the potential to be used as a natural methionine source. However, to our best knowledge, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish as a methionine source. In this study, we co-extruded Asian carp and soybean meal to form a dry-extruded, methionine-rich AC meal. In order to formulate rations with the novel extruded carp meal, the product was tested on cecectomized roosters for its amino acid digestibility and total metabolizable energy (TMEn). Excreta was collected and the gross energy, protein content of the feces was determined to calculate Total Metabolizable Energy (TME). The methionine content, digestibility and TME values were greater for the extruded AC meal than control diets. Carp meal was subsequently tested as a methionine source in feeds formulated for broilers, and production performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was assessed in comparison with broilers fed standard commercial diets supplemented with synthetic methionine. In this study, broiler chickens were fed either a control diet with synthetic methionine or a treatment diet with extruded AC meal (8 replicates/treatment; n=30 birds/replicate) from day 1 to 42 days of age. At the end of the trial, data for body weights, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Fisher LSD test for multiple comparisons. Results revealed that birds on AC diet had body weight gains and feed intake comparable to diets containing synthetic methionine (P > 0.05). Results from the study suggest that invasive AC-derived fish meal could potentially be an effective and inexpensive source of sustainable natural methionine for organic poultry farmers.

Keywords: Organic, Poultry, methionine, Asian carp

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