Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

ASEAN Related Abstracts

28 The Readiness of English Communication Skills for Travel Agents to Enter the ASEAN Economic Community

Authors: Bavornluck Kuosuwan

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the level of readiness of English communication skills for travel agents in the Silom road area of Bangkok in order to enter the ASEAN economic community in the year 2015. The multi-stage sampling method was utilized with 474 respondents from 79 travel agencies. An English Questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics included percentage, average, standard deviation and Pearson’s r coefficient. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents were not well prepared in terms of ASEAN knowledge including laws and regulations. The majority of respondents had not been well informed about the changes that will come with the coming of ASEAN economic community. Moreover, the level of English communication for most travel agents was between the poor and intermediate level and therefore improvement is needed, especially the speaking and listening skill. In other words, the majority of respondents needed more training in terms of communications skills. The correlation between the working environment and attitude of the staff was very positive. Moreover, the correlation between the background of staff and attitude of staff was also very positive and most of demographic factors had a positive correlation with attitude of staff, except gender.

Keywords: Media Engineering, Communication Skills, ASEAN, travel agents

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27 Enhancing a Competitive Advantage for Thailand’s IT Entrepreneurs

Authors: T. Niracharapa, W. Angkana

Abstract:

Since information and communication technology (ICT) plays a critical role in enhancing national competitiveness, it is a driving force for social and economic growth and prosperity. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) will integrate this into ASEAN countries as a new mechanism and a measure that will improve economic performance as a global economy. Government policies may support or impede such harmonization. This study was to investigate, analyze the status of Thai IT entrepreneurs and define key strategies to enhance their competitive advantage. Data were collected based on in-depth interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, seminars and fieldwork on information technology excluding communication. SWOT was used as a tool to analyze the study. The results of this study can be used to enable the government to guide policy, measures and strategies for creating a competitive advantage for Thailand’s IT entrepreneurs in the global market.

Keywords: competitive advantage, ASEAN, AEC, IT entrepreneurs

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26 Capital Mobility in Savings and Investment across China and the ASEAN-5: Evidence from Recursive Cointegration

Authors: Mei-Se Chien, Chien-Chiang Lee, Chang Lee Shu-Jung, Hui-Ting Hu

Abstract:

This paper applies recursive cointegration analysis to examine the dynamic changes in Feldstein-Horioka saving-investment (S-I) coefficients across China and the ASEAN-5 countries over time. To the extent that the S-I coefficients measure international capital mobility, the main empirical results are as follows. The recursive trace statistics show that the investment- savings nexus varies in these six countries. There is no cointegration between investment and savings in three countries (China, Malaysia, and Singapore), which means that the mobility of the capital markets in the three is high and that domestic investment in them will be financed by the global pool of capital. As to the other three countries (Indonesia, Thailand, and Philippines), there is cointegration between investment and savings for part of the sample period in the three, including before 2002 for Thailand, before 2001 for Indonesia, and before 2002 for Philippines. This shows these three countries achieved highly mobile and open capital markets later.

Keywords: Investment, China, ASEAN, savings, recursive cointegration test

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25 Human Resource Development Strategy in Automotive Industry (Eco-Car) for ASEAN Hub

Authors: Phichak Phutrakhul

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to study concepts and strategies of human resource development in the automotive manufacturers and to articulate the proposals against the government about the human resource development for automotive industry. In the present study, qualitative study was an in-depth interview in which the qualitative data were collected from the executive or the executive of human resource division from five automotive companies - Toyota Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Nissan Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Motors (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Honda Automobile (Thailand) Co., Ltd., and Suzuki Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Qualitative data analysis was performed by using inter-coder agreement technique. The research findings were as follows: The external factors included the current conditions of the automotive industry, government’s policy related to the automotive industry, technology, labor market and human resource development systems of the country. The internal factors included management, productive management, organizational strategies, leadership, organizational culture and philosophy of human resource development. These factors were affected to the different concept of human resources development -the traditional human resource development and the strategies of human resource development. The organization focuses on human resources as intellectual capital and uses the strategies of human resource development in all development processes. The strategies of human resource development will enhance the ability of human resources in the organization and the country.

Keywords: Automotive industry, ASEAN, human resource development strategy, eco-cars

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24 Labour Standards and Bilateral Migration Flows in ASEAN

Authors: Rusmawati Said, N. Kar Yee, Asmaddy Haris

Abstract:

This study employs a panel data set of ASEAN member states, 17 European Union (EU) countries, 7 American countries and 11 other Asia Pacific countries (China Mainland and Hong Kong SAR are treated as two separated countries) to investigate the role of labour standards in explaining the pattern of bilateral migration flows in ASEAN. Using pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) this study found mixed results. The result varies on how indicators were used to measure the level of labour standards in the empirical analysis. In one side, better labour standards (represented by number of strikes and weekly average working hours) promote bilateral migration among the selected countries. On the other side, increase in cases of occupational injuries lead to an increase in bilateral migration, reflecting that worsen in working conditions do not influence the workers’ decision from moving. The finding from this study become important to policy maker as the issues of massive low skilled workers have a significant impact to the role of labour standard in shaping the migration flows.

Keywords: Migration, ASEAN, economics and financial engineering, labour standard

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23 Readiness Analysis of Indonesian Accountants

Authors: Lisa Listiana

Abstract:

ASEAN leader agreed to accelerate ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) implementation by 2015. The AEC Blueprint has set up obligations for its members to follow which include the establishment of (a) free trade in goods, according to ASEAN Free Trade Area: AFTA, (b) free trade in services, according to ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services: AFAS, (c) free trade in investment, according to ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement: ACIA, (d) free capital flow, and (e) free flow of skilled labors. Consequently, these obligations bring both challenges and opportunities for its members. As accountant is included in the coverage of 8 skilled labors, the readiness of accounting profession to embrace AEC 2015 is pivotal. If Indonesian accountants do not accelerate their learning effort, the knowledge gap between Indonesian accountants and their international colleagues will only be worsened. This paper aims to analyze the current progress of AEC preparation and its challenges and opportunities for Indonesian accountants, and also to propose recommendation as necessary.

Keywords: readiness, ASEAN, AEC, Indonesian accountants

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22 Does Level of Countries Corruption Affect Firms Working Capital Management?

Authors: Ebrahim Mansoori, Datin Joriah Muhammad

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Recent studies in finance have focused on the effect of external variables on working capital management. This study investigates the effect of corruption indexes on firms' working capital management. A large data set that covers data from 2005 to 2013 from five ASEAN countries, namely, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and the Philippines, was selected to investigate how the level of corruption in these countries affect working capital management. The results of panel data analysis include fixed effect estimations showed that a high level of countries' corruption indexes encourages managers to shorten the CCC length. Meanwhile, the managers reduce the level of investment in cash and cash equivalents when the levels of corruption indexes increase. Therefore, increasing the level of countries' corruption indexes encourages managers to select conservative working capital strategies by reducing the level of NLB.

Keywords: Working Capital Management, ASEAN, panel data analysis, corruption indexes

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21 The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Dynamics of Resistance to Sovereignty Violation: The Case of East Timor (1975-1999)

Authors: Laura Southgate

Abstract:

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as well as much of the scholarship on the organisation, celebrates its ability to uphold the principle of regional autonomy, understood as upholding the norm of non-intervention by external powers in regional affairs. Yet, in practice, this has been repeatedly violated. This dichotomy between rhetoric and practice suggests an interesting avenue for further study. The East Timor crisis (1975-1999) has been selected as a case-study to test the dynamics of ASEAN state resistance to sovereignty violation in two distinct timeframes: Indonesia’s initial invasion of the territory in 1975, and the ensuing humanitarian crisis in 1999 which resulted in a UN-mandated, Australian-led peacekeeping intervention force. These time-periods demonstrate variation on the dependent variable. It is necessary to observe covariation in order to derive observations in support of a causal theory. To establish covariation, my independent variable is therefore a continuous variable characterised by variation in convergence of interest. Change of this variable should change the value of the dependent variable, thus establishing causal direction. This paper investigates the history of ASEAN’s relationship to the norm of non-intervention. It offers an alternative understanding of ASEAN’s history, written in terms of the relationship between a key ASEAN state, which I call a ‘vanguard state’, and selected external powers. This paper will consider when ASEAN resistance to sovereignty violation has succeeded, and when it has failed. It will contend that variation in outcomes associated with vanguard state resistance to sovereignty violation can be best explained by levels of interest convergence between the ASEAN vanguard state and designated external actors. Evidence will be provided to support the hypothesis that in 1999, ASEAN’s failure to resist violations to the sovereignty of Indonesia was a consequence of low interest convergence between Indonesia and the external powers. Conversely, in 1975, ASEAN’s ability to resist violations to the sovereignty of Indonesia was a consequence of high interest convergence between Indonesia and the external powers. As the vanguard state, Indonesia was able to apply pressure on the ASEAN states and obtain unanimous support for Indonesia’s East Timor policy in 1975 and 1999. However, the key factor explaining the variance in outcomes in both time periods resides in the critical role played by external actors. This view represents a serious challenge to much of the existing scholarship that emphasises ASEAN’s ability to defend regional autonomy. As these cases attempt to show, ASEAN autonomy is much more contingent than portrayed in the existing literature.

Keywords: Intervention, Sovereignty, ASEAN, east timor

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20 Convergence or Divergence of Economic Growth within the ASEAN Community: Challenges for the AEC

Authors: Philippe Gugler

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This contribution reflects some important questions regarding inter alia the economic development occurring in the light of the ASEAN’s goal of creating the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. We observe a continuing economic growth of GDP per capita over recent years despite the negative effects of the world economic crisis. IMF forecasts indicate that this trend will continue. The paper focuses on the analysis and comparison of economic growth trends of ASEAN countries.

Keywords: Convergence, Integration, Globalization, Economic growth, ASEAN, divergence

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19 IN-SEAN: The Pace of Economic Cooperation between India and ASEAN

Authors: Eumsin Payan

Abstract:

The article desires the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to take interest in the policies and give importance to India over other powerful countries in the World, including powerful countries in Asia, comprising of: People’s Republic of China (PRC), Russia, and India countries with the ability to drive the Asian continent, specifically, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). (Japan was incapable of stepping up to become the leader of ASEAN due to the fact that Japan has created “wounds” from military history with too many countries in Asia, including wounds from the Greater East Asia War, combining with economic problems Japan is currently facing and also several natural disasters, therefore Japan is not considered a good option of our era.) China appears to be an option that stands out, which could be seen through countless published articles in the general public. However, this article desires to propose India as an option to develop and drive the relationship between ASEAN countries in the future development of Computer Science Technology and allow India to be the leader in driving the Asian Economy in place of China and the United States. As for Russia, its location is distant and apart from South East Asia. Moreover, Russia does not give as much importance to ASEAN. In this light, the author perceives that India already has the “Look East” policy. Therefore, it would be simple for ASEAN to look back at India by simply starting cooperation through policies related to collaboration in the areas of computer science. In effect, this will continuously adjust and improve the relationship towards cooperation in the areas of economics, society, and culture. Referring to the above, the author suggests a word that could be used to call the relationship between India and ASEAN, INSEAN or IN-SEAN. Hereinafter, the author hopes that Thailand, in the position of one in the five founders of ASEAN, could become the leader or be the entity that pushes forward the ASEAN policies that will increase the importance of looking towards India. India is an emerging giant that has the ability to step up in Asia. With the proficient use of English, India is able to pass on the knowledge and drive the ASEAN’s Economic relationship better than China or Russia, as faced with higher language barriers. Moreover, India has cultivated democratic civilization from the colonization of the British Empire, similar to other nations of Southeast Asia, which are familiar with various heritage cultures that the British has brought them. The most important aspect in the author’s perspective is the fact that India is not aggressive and that they have courtesy. Through developing policies of the East through the “Look East” policy, it enabled India to establish a more smooth relationship with Asian countries comparing to China. China has imposed harsh policies towards democracy to the land above the South China Sea, which directly affect the ASEAN countries. From the above reasons, India, therefore, is an appropriate option in the establishment of a closer relationship with ASEAN, as the author has proposed relationship as INSEAN or IN-SEAN.

Keywords: India, ASEAN, IN-SEAN, INSEAN, look west policy, look east policy

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18 Productive Efficiency in Asean Banking

Authors: Suhartono Suhartono

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Issue of cost efficiency is then becoming pivotal point because public expect cost of banking operation reducing and benefited of consumers. This study examines the determinants of cost efficiency of banks operating in 8 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This study uses economics theory approach to examine the existence of economies of scale in the ASEAN Banking market especially on its impact on cost efficiency. We apply concept of average cost (AC) as a proxy for the cost efficiency. We find that economies of scale is existing in the banking market indicating scale and scope economies should be considered in the industrial policy. The stronger capital position is also positive to efficiency means stronger capitalized banks are more efficient. Bank that remunerates better tend to be more efficient as result economic capital effect.

Keywords: Economies of scale, ASEAN, cost efficiency, issue of cost

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17 Competitiveness and Value Creation of Tourism Sector: In the Case of 10 ASEAN Economies

Authors: Apirada Chinprateep

Abstract:

The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) shall be the goal of regional economic integration by 2015. Tourism is an activity that is growing important, especially as a source of foreign currency, employment creation and distribution of income bringing to the region. The preparation of members of the countries group, given the complexity of the issues entail to the concept of sustainable tourism, this paper tries to assess tourism sustainability, based on a number of quantitative indicators for all the ten economies, first, Thailand, compared with other nine countries, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Cambodia, and Brunei. The proposed methodological framework will provide a number of benchmarks of tourism activities in these countries assessed. They include identification of the dimensions, for example, economic, socio-ecologic, infrastructure and indicators, method of scaling, chart representation and evaluation on Asian countries. This specification shows us that a similar level of tourism activity might introduce different sort of implementation in the tourism activity and might have different consequences for the socio-ecological environment and sustainability. The heterogeneity of developing countries exposed briefly here would be useful to detect and prepare for coping with the main problem of each country in their tourism activities, as well as competitiveness and value creation of tourism for ASEAN economic community, and will compare with other parts of the world and the world benchmark.

Keywords: Sustainable, Tourism, Competitiveness, ASEAN, AEC

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16 Development of Border Trade of Thailand-Myanmar: Case Study of Ranong Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

This research has objective to study and analysis, expending linkage of trading border of Thai-Myanmar and the way of development trading of Thai-Myanmar border. There are advantage of competition in ASEAN Community on collection data and observation, in-depth interview, group conversation and exchange opinion of public agency, entrepreneur and people. Result of study found that main development of border trade is 1) Cross-border service should be development infrastructure of land telecommunication, sea has support economics of cross-border trade, 2) International consumption service should be expand service with Myanmar and India for linkage with entrepreneur and trading from international to Thailand, 3) Establish business for provide service has development cooperation of logistics via Andaman of Thailand, and 4) Mobility personnel, exchange personnel including labor for development potential of border trade has competition advantage.

Keywords: Development, Service, ASEAN, border trade

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15 Corporate Governance and Disclosure Practices of Listed Companies in the ASEAN: A Conceptual Overview

Authors: Chen Shuwen, Nunthapin Chantachaimongkol

Abstract:

Since the world has moved into a transitional period, known as globalization; the business environment is now more complicated than ever before. Corporate information has become a matter of great importance for stakeholders, in order to understand the current situation. As a result of this, the concept of corporate governance has been broadly introduced to manage and control the affairs of corporations while businesses are required to disclose both financial and non-financial information to public via various communication channels such as the annual report, the financial report, the company’s website, etc. However, currently there are several other issues related to asymmetric information such as moral hazard or adverse selection that still occur intensively in workplaces. To prevent such problems in the business, it is required to have an understanding of what factors strengthen their transparency, accountability, fairness, and responsibility. Under aforementioned arguments, this paper aims to propose a conceptual framework that enables an investigation on how corporate governance mechanism influences disclosure efficiency of listed companies in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) and the factors that should be considered for further development of good behaviors, particularly in regards to voluntary disclosure practices. To achieve its purpose, extensive reviews of literature are applied as a research methodology. It is divided into three main steps. Firstly, the theories involved with both corporate governance and disclosure practices such as agency theory, contract theory, signaling theory, moral hazard theory, and information asymmetry theory are examined to provide theoretical backgrounds. Secondly, the relevant literatures based on multi- perspectives of corporate governance, its attributions and their roles on business processes, the influences of corporate governance mechanisms on business performance, and the factors determining corporate governance characteristics as well as capability are reviewed to outline the parameters that should be included in the proposed model. Thirdly, the well-known regulatory document OECD principles and previous empirical studies on the corporate disclosure procedures are evaluated to identify the similarities and differentiations with the disclosure patterns in the ASEAN. Following the processes and consequences of the literature review, abundant factors and variables are found. Further to the methodology, additional critical factors that also have an impact on the disclosure behaviors are addressed in two groups. In the first group, the factors which are linked to the national characteristics - the quality of national code, legal origin, culture, the level of economic development, and so forth. Whereas in the second group, the discoveries which refer to the firm’s characteristics - ownership concentration, ownership’s rights, controlling group, and so on. However, because of research limitations, only some literature are chosen and summarized to form part of the conceptual framework that explores the relationship between corporate governance and the disclosure practices of listed companies in ASEAN.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, ASEAN, disclosure practice, listed company

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14 iSEA: A Mobile Based Learning Application for History and Culture Knowledge Enhancement for the ASEAN Region

Authors: Maria Visitacion N. Gumabay, Byron Joseph A. Hallar, Annjeannette Alain D. Galang

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This study was intended to provide a more efficient and convenient way for mobile users to enhance their knowledge about ASEAN countries. The researchers evaluated the utility of the developed crossword puzzle application and assessed the general usability of its user interface for its intended purpose and audience of users. The descriptive qualitative research method for the research design and the Mobile-D methodology was employed for the development of the software application output. With a generally favorable reception from its users, the researchers concluded that the iSEA Mobile Based Learning Application can be considered ready for general deployment and use. It was also concluded that additional studies can also be done to make a more complete assessment of the knowledge gained by its users before and after using the application.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, eLearning, ASEAN, crossword, iSEA

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13 Suicidal Ideation and Associated Factors among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2014

Authors: Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid

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Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States. Methods: The analysis included 30284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN that participated in the cross-sectional Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. Results: The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 12.3%, significantly higher in girls (15.1%) than boys (9.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries with the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was in the Philippines (17.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) and the lowest in Myanmar (1.1%) and Indonesia (4.2%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender, older age (14 or 15 years), living in a low income or lower middle income country, having no friends, loneliness, bullying victimization, having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, lack of parental or guardian support, tobacco use and having a history of ever got drunk were associated with suicidal ideatiion. Conclusion: Different rates of suicidal ideation were observed in ASEAN member states. Several risk factors for suicidal ideation were identified which can help guide preventive efforts.

Keywords: suicidal behaviour, ASEAN, correlates, adolesents

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12 Expanding Chance of Palm Oil Market into ASEAN Community: Case Study of Choomporn Palm Oil Cooperative

Authors: Pichamon Chansuchai

Abstract:

This paper studied the expanding market opportunity palm oil ASEAN community: case study of Choomporn Palm Oil Cooperative as qualitative research. The purpose is to study and analyze expanding and linking the liberalization of trade in palm oil products under the terms of cooperation and ASEAN countries. Collection data were collected using participatory observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, government officials, palm oil cooperative, entrepreneurs and farmers to exchange opinions. The study found that of major competitors is Indonesia and Malaysia which as ASEAM members countries has the potential to produce over Thailand. Thailand government must have a policy to increase the competitiveness of the palm oil Thailand. Using grants from the Free Trade Area fund should add value to agricultural products, palm oil and the development of standard products to meet the needs of the member countries. And creating a learning center of the palm oil sector can transfer knowledge, development of palm species, solution process from planting to harvest care privatization process. And the development of palm oil in order to expand market opportunities for Thailand's palm oil has the potential to be competitive in the neighboring countries and the region.

Keywords: Market, Cooperative, ASEAN, palm oil

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11 ASEAN Academics’ Perspective of Collaboration among ASEAN Universities

Authors: Hazri Jamil, Munir Shuib, Farhah Muhammad

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In line with the 27th ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Summit 2015 principles in Kuala Lumpur on higher education, synergised collaboration is aimed to promote resilience and vibrancy between institutions and academia. Hence, this paper aims to discuss matters concerning collaboration among ASEAN Universities derived from the perspectives of academics from the universities in ASEAN countries. The data were collected from 234 respondents of nine universities in ASEAN using questionnaires and online survey analyzed using purposive sampling. The findings revealed that more than half of the respondents in this survey were optimistic that the ASEAN universities have a great potential in collaboration among academics in ASEAN countries. The findings also indicated that collaboration among ASEAN universities will have a positive impact on the ASEAN economy and society. Finally, to enhance collaboration among the universities in ASEAN, educational improvement and exchanges as well as environmental issues are among the noteworthy aspects which need to be taken into account.

Keywords: Higher Education, Universities, Collaboration, Academics, ASEAN

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10 Analyzing a Human Rights Approach to Poverty and Development Goals in the ASEAN Region

Authors: Nithya Devi

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Poverty, hunger and water scarcity are threats to human rights and are assaults on human dignity. The very existence of man is questioned when his basic rights are violated. Addressing this social phenomenon should be a key objective of any human rights discourse. The origins of these problems have various root causes. For Asia, colonisation was an essential factor that caused great inequalities in the distribution of wealth. In the post-colonial era, the colonised states were developing nations grappling with these issues. Today, some of the developing states have progressed to developed nations. However, others remain as economically vulnerable countries. Within states, the widening income gap poses further threat to human rights. Hence ASEAN states have prioritised socio-economic rights, particularly basic needs, in the human rights discourse in this region. To date, poverty and development goals are given primary importance. This paper seeks to show how a human rights approach has dealt with poverty and development goals in this region and evaluates its effectiveness in addressing these concerns.

Keywords: Development, Human Rights, Poverty, ASEAN

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9 The Urgency of ASEAN Human Rights Court Establishment to Protect Human Rights in Southeast Asia

Authors: Tareq M. Aziz Elven

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The issue of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia has become the serious problem and attract the attention of international community. Principally, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has mentioned the Human Rights as one of the focus and be a part of the ASEAN Charter in 2008. It was followed by the establishment of ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). AICHR is the commission of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia which has a duty, function, and an authority to conduct dissemination and protection of Human Rights. In the end of 2016, however, the function of protection mandated to AICHR have not achieved yet. It can be proved by several cases of Human Rights violation which still exist and have not settled yet. One of case which attracts the public attention recently is human rights violation towards Rohingya in Myanmar. Using the juridical-normative method, the research aims to examine the urgency of Human Rights court establishment in Southeast Asia region which able to issue the decision that binds the ASEAN members or the violating parties. The data shows that ASEAN needs to establish a regional court which intended to settle the Human Rights violations in ASEAN region. Furthermore, the research also highlights three strong factors should be settled by ASEAN for establishing human rights court i.e. the significant distinction of democracy and human rights development among the members, the strong implementation of non-intervention principle, and the financial matter to sustain the court.

Keywords: Human Rights, ASEAN, AICHR, human rights court

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8 Understanding the Caliphate and Jihad to Prevent Radicalization That Lead to Terrorism: The Role of Social Community in Southeast Asia

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

Abstract:

In the summer of 2014, the leaders of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria proclaimed the founding of religious-political system known as the caliphate which titled Islamic State (IS). As Caliph, Abu Bakr Baghdadi advocated Jihad from the Ummah (the Muslim community) to defend the Islamic state from unbelievers. This call for Jihad by IS had encouraged some radical organization in Southeast Asia pledge allegiance to IS and established bases for IS operation in Southeast Asia. This development had increased security concern for possible terrorism action in Southeast Asia, which currently not very active due to counterterrorism efforts from ASEAN member states and its cooperation with the world. This paper firstly tries to draw understanding from Ulema (Muslim cleric) about the conception of caliphate and Jihad based on Quran and Hadith. Secondly, this paper will elaborate counterterrorism efforts from ASEAN countries to prevent radicalization and terrorism act in addressing the call for jihad to establish IS in Southeast Asia. The third, this paper will recommend the role of the social community, especially Ulema, in Southeast Asia to prevent the misunderstanding of Jihad which usually used by terrorist to justify their action. Hopefully, this social community role will decrease the radicalization of Muslim community in Southeast Asia alongside with the counterterrorism efforts to create secure and stable ASEAN community based on shared norm and values.

Keywords: Caliphate, Counterterrorism, Jihad, ASEAN, social community

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7 US-ASEAN Counter Terrorism Cooperation: Maintaining International Security and Avoiding Muslim Stereotypes

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

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The US Global War on Terror has had effect on Southeast Asia as Second Front of Global War on Terror. Since 2001, ASEAN had adopted legal framework to counter the terrorist threat through numerous approach which accommodate various counterterrorism policy of the ten member states. ASEAN have also enhanced multilateral cooperation with US and its allies in Asia Pacific region in addressing terrorist threat, terrorist funding, cyber terrorism and other forms of terrorism. This cooperation is essential to maintain international security and stability and also assure economic development. This work focuses on the US-ASEAN counterterrorism cooperation due to they identified terrorism as a mutual enemy that posed to human security, infrastructure security, and national security. Having in mind that international terrorism usually connected with Muslim community, this paper will also elaborate the concept of Jihad and Islam revivalism in politics to avoid negative image of Islam and Muslim. This paper argues that as region with large Muslim community, Southeast Asia still need to tighten counter terrorism cooperation and also lessening Muslim stereotypes with terrorism through educating public understanding and inter-faith and intra-faith dialogue to create a better world.

Keywords: Counter terrorism, ASEAN, U.S, Muslim stereotypes

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6 Dynamics of Norms and Identities Facilitate Countries to Resolve Their Conflicts: A Case Study of ASEAN

Authors: Chander Shekhar Kohli

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In the field of international relations, countries have been experiencing distinct nature of conflicts. But, in the case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for a long time, the members have witnessed conflicts, small and large. These conflicts, as a result, have given catastrophic outcomes, such as killings and destroying properties. For the resolution of such conflicts, nonetheless, efforts likewise have been made, simultaneously, in terms of establishing peace and security. In this background, the ASEAN presents a significant example as before it had faced several wars, like Vietnam War, Cambodia conflicts, and so on. This research paper, therefore, strives to examine the ASEAN as a case with the help of both primary and secondary sources. It likewise will be dealt with how changing norms and identity building facilitate the ASEAN countries to deal with their conflicts both internal and external. This paper also will discuss how internal developments within countries affect conflict resolution process as each member of ASEAN is guided by its national interest. It is then argued that conflict resolution in the ASEAN is moving from its existing power-based solution to norms and identity-based solution as member countries have become more dependent on other countries. The research, therefore, is concluded by saying that the conflicts could only be resolved through building norms and common identities, which of course are recognized crucial mechanisms among the ASEAN countries with some exceptions.

Keywords: Peace and Security, Conflict Resolution, ASEAN, norms and identities

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5 An Institutional Mapping and Stakeholder Analysis of ASEAN’s Preparedness for Nuclear Power Disaster

Authors: Nur Azha Putra Abdul Azim, Denise Cheong, S. Nivedita

Abstract:

Currently, there are no nuclear power reactors among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states (AMS) but there are seven operational nuclear research reactors, and Indonesia is about to construct the region’s first experimental power reactor by the end of the decade. If successful, the experimental power reactor will lay the foundation for the country’s and region’s first nuclear power plant. Despite projecting confidence during the period of nuclear power renaissance in the region in the last decade, none of the AMS has committed to a political decision on the use of nuclear energy and this is largely due to the Fukushima nuclear power accident in 2011. Of the ten AMS, Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia have demonstrated the most progress in developing nuclear energy based on the nuclear power infrastructure development assessments made by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Of these three states, Vietnam came closest to building its first nuclear power plant but decided to delay construction further due to safety and security concerns. Meanwhile, Vietnam along with Indonesia and Malaysia continue with their nuclear power infrastructure development and the remaining SEA states, with the exception of Brunei and Singapore, continue to build their expertise and capacity for nuclear power energy. At the current rate of progress, Indonesia is expected to make a national decision on the use of nuclear power by 2023 while Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand have included the use of nuclear power in their mid to long-term power development plans. Vietnam remains open to nuclear power but has not placed a timeline. The medium to short-term power development projection in the region suggests that the use of nuclear energy in the region is a matter of 'when' rather than 'if'. In lieu of the prospects for nuclear energy in Southeast Asia (SEA), this presentation will review the literature on ASEAN radiological emergency and preparedness response (EPR) plans and examine ASEAN’s disaster management and emergency framework. Through a combination of institutional mapping and stakeholder analysis methods, which we examine in the context of the international EPR, and nuclear safety and security regimes, we will identify the issues and challenges in developing a regional radiological EPR framework in the SEA. We will conclude with the observation that ASEAN faces serious structural, institutional and governance challenges due to the AMS inherent political structures and history of interstate conflicts, and propose that ASEAN should either enlarge the existing scope of its disaster management and response framework or that its radiological EPR framework should exist as a separate entity.

Keywords: Nuclear Power, Nuclear Accident, ASEAN, Southeast Asia

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4 Opportunities and Optimization of the Our Eyes Initiative as the Strategy for Counter-Terrorism in ASEAN

Authors: Chastiti Mediafira Wulolo, Tri Legionosuko, Suhirwan, Yusuf

Abstract:

Terrorism and radicalization have become a common threat to every nation in this world. As a part of the asymmetric warfare threat, terrorism and radicalization need a complex strategy as the problem solver. One such way is by collaborating with the international community. The Our Eyes Initiative (OEI), for example, is a cooperation pact in the field of intelligence information exchanges related to terrorism and radicalization initiated by the Indonesian Ministry of Defence. The pact has been signed by Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Thailand, and Singapore. This cooperation mostly engages military acts as a central role, but it still requires the involvement of various parties such as the police, intelligence agencies and other government institutions. This paper will use a qualitative content analysis method to address the opportunity and enhance the optimization of OEI. As the result, it will explain how OEI takes the opportunities as the strategy for counter-terrorism by building it up as the regional cooperation, building the legitimacy of government and creating the legal framework of the information sharing system.

Keywords: Strategy, Terrorism, cooperation, Counter-Terrorism, ASEAN, our eyes initiative

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3 Optimization of Our Eyes Cooperation as the Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Association of South East Asian Nations

Authors: Chastiti Mediafira Wulolo

Abstract:

Our Eyes is a cooperation pact in the field of intelligence information exchanges initiated by the Indonesian Ministry of Defense, which has been signed by Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Thailand, and Singapore. This cooperation mostly engages the military acts as a central role, but this pact still requires the involvement of various parties such as police and other linear institution. This paper will use a qualitative content analysis method by doing some deep analyzing the pattern of cooperation itself. As the implementation of translantic counter-terrorism cooperation, this research will address how the role of Our Eyes can be optimized as a form of government’s response towards the contemporary threat in the Dynamics of Strategic Environmental Security in the Asia Pacific Region. Optimizing the role of this cooperation will also acquire from the previous counter-terrorism cooperation in ASEAN region, so it expects that Our Eyes collaboration can be the most effective cooperation in overcoming terrorism issues in ASEAN, eventually in Asia Pacific.

Keywords: Counter-Terrorism, ASEAN, our eyes, Defense Ministry of Indonesia

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2 Current Situation of Maritime Transport and Logistics in Myanmar

Authors: S. N. S. Thein, H. L. Yang, Z. B. Liu

Abstract:

There are many modes of transport. Among them, maritime transport is a major transportation mode of international trade. In the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), water transportation served as one of the most important modes of transport for country's exports and imports. Getting the accurate information and data-gathering activity are the most important aspects for any study field. Therefore, in this research, a historical review of the development of ports in Myanmar and how they have changed had been carried out. All the relevant literature and documents have also been reviewed, studied, and organized. The sources of collected data are from reports, journals, internet, as well as from the publications of authorized organizations and international associations. To get better understanding about real situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar; current condition of existing ports, expansion and on-going projects, and future port development plans are described successively. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to build up a comprehensive picture of maritime transport and logistics, in addition to border trade within ASEAN and Myanmar. It will help for academic researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders for national planning as well as for the local and foreign investors to recognize current situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar.

Keywords: Logistics, Maritime Transport, ASEAN, border trade, ports of Myanmar

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1 Comparative Regionalism: The Case of Financial Integration in Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Authors: Sharon Kun-Amornpong

Abstract:

In this paper, ASEAN financial integration will be discussed from the perspective of the rule of law. The methodology of the paper is comparative regionalism. It will compare the role of the rule of law in ASEAN financial integration with that of the European Union with particular focuses on, for example, institutions and values. The paper argues that in the realm of financial integration, the rule of law is one of the most important factors that could help strengthen and promote financial integration in ASEAN. This is despite the fact that the ‘ASEAN Way’ emphasises non-interference and utilises a consensus-based cooperation rather than formal institutions. Nevertheless, the rule of law for ASEAN financial integration should be situated in its own historical, cultural, and political contexts. In addition, in the case of ASEAN, the rule of law cannot take root if it does not come from the demand of the people in this region. For instance, a reform or creation of legal institutions should not be imposed by international financial institutions. The paper will conclude that law has a normative force. It could shape expectation of market participants and promote deeper financial integration if norms that the law generates have become a significant norm in the society or industry.

Keywords: The Rule of Law, Financial Integration, ASEAN, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, comparative regionalism

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