Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

aromatic hydrocarbons Related Abstracts

3 Bioremediation as a Treatment of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Authors: Hen Friman, Alex Schechter, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rivka Cahan

Abstract:

The treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater resulting from oil spills and chemical manufactories is becoming a key concern in many modern countries. Benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BETX) contaminate groundwater as well as soil. These compounds have an acute effect on human health and are known to be carcinogenic. Conventional removal of these toxic materials involves separation and burning of the wastes, however, the cost of chemical treatment is very high and energy consuming. Bioremediation methods for removal of toxic organic compounds constitute an attractive alternative to the conventional chemical or physical techniques. Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants Toluene is biodegradable both aerobically and anaerobically, it can be growth inhibitory to microorganisms at elevated concentrations, even to those species that can use it as a substrate. In this research culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown in bath bio-reactor (BBR) with toluene 100 mg/l as a single carbon source under constant voltage of 125 mV, 250 mV and 500 mV. The culture grown in BBR reached to 0.8 OD660nm while the control culture that grown without external voltage reached only to 0.6 OD660nm. The residual toluene concentration after 147 h, in the BBR operated under external voltage (125 mV) was 22 % on average, while in the control BBR it was 81 % on average.

Keywords: Bioremediation, toluene, pseudomonas putida, aromatic hydrocarbons, BETX

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2 Geochemical Characteristics of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Crude Oils from the Chepaizi Area, Junggar Basin, China

Authors: Luofu Liu, Fei Xiao Jr., Fei Xiao

Abstract:

Through the analysis technology of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition and distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Chepaizi area of the Junggar Basin were analyzed in detail. Based on that, the biological input, maturity of crude oils and sedimentary environment of the corresponding source rocks were determined and the origin types of crude oils were divided. The results show that there are three types of crude oils in the study area including Type I, Type II and Type III oils. The crude oils from the 1st member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type I oils; the crude oils from the 2nd member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type II oils; the crude oils from the Cretaceous Qingshuihe and Jurassic Badaowan Formations are the Type III oils. For the Type I oils, they show a single model in the late retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of triaromatic steroid series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is low. Maturity parameters related to alkyl naphthalene, methylphenanthrene and alkyl dibenzothiophene all indicate low maturity for the Type I oils. For the Type II oils, they have also a single model in the early retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of naphthalene and phenanthrene series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is medium. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon representing the terrestrial organic matter is high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate high maturity for the Type II oils. For the Type III oils, they have a bi-model in the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The contents of naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, and dibenzofuran series are high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate medium maturity for the Type III oils. The correlation results of triaromatic steroid series fingerprint show that the Type I and Type III oils have similar source and are both from the Permian Wuerhe source rocks. Because of the strong biodegradation and mixing from other source, the Type I oils are very different from the Type III oils in aromatic hydrocarbon characteristics. The Type II oils have the typical characteristics of terrestrial organic matter input under oxidative environment, and are the coal oil mainly generated by the mature Jurassic coal measure source rocks. However, the overprinting effect from the low maturity Cretaceous source rocks changed the original distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons to some degree.

Keywords: Geochemistry, aromatic hydrocarbons, oil source, crude oils, chepaizi area, Junggar Basin

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1 The Effects of Heavy Metal and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution on Bees

Authors: Katarzyna Zięba, Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi, Paweł Miśkowiec, Agnieszka Moos-Matysik

Abstract:

Bees are effective pollinators of plants using by humans. However, there is a concern about the fate different species due to their recently decline. Pollution of the environment is described in the literature as one of the causes of this phenomenon. Due to human activities, heavy metals and aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in bee organisms in high concentrations. The presented study aims to provide information on how pollution affects bee quality, taking into account, also the biological differences between various groups of bees. Understanding the consequences of environmental pollution on bees can help to create and promote bee friendly habitats and actions. The analyses were carried out using two contamination gradients with 5 sites on each. The first, mainly heavy metal polluted gradient is stretching approx. 30km from the Bukowno Zinc smelter near Olkusz in the Lesser Poland Voivodship, to the north. The second cuts through the agglomeration of Kraków up to the southern borders of the Ojców National Park. The gradient near Olkusz is a well-described pollution gradient contaminated mainly by zinc, lead, and cadmium. The second gradient cut through the agglomeration of Kraków and end below the Ojców National Park. On each gradient, two bee species were installed: red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). Red mason bee is a polylectic, solitary bee species, widely distributed in Poland. Honey bees are a highly social species of bees, with clearly defined casts and roles in the colony. Before installing the bees in the field, samples of imagos of red mason bees and samples of pollen and imagos from each honey bee colony were analysed for zinc, lead cadmium, polycyclic and monocyclic hydrocarbons levels. After collecting the bees from the field, samples of bees and pollen samples for each site were prepared for heavy metal, monocyclic hydrocarbon, and polycyclic hydrocarbon analysis. Analyses of aromatic hydrocarbons were performed with gas chromatography coupled with a headspace sampler (HP 7694E) and mass spectrometer (MS) as detector. Monocyclic compounds were injected into column with headspace sampler while polycyclic ones with manual injector (after solid-liquid extraction with hexane). The heavy metal content (zinc, lead and cadmium) was assessed with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS AAnalyst 300 Perkin Elmer spectrometer) according to the methods for honey and bee products described in the literature. Pollution levels found in bee bodies and imago body masses in both species, and proportion of sex in case of red mason bees were correlated with pollution levels found in pollen for each site and colony or trap nest. An attempt to pinpoint the most important form of contamination regarding bee health was also be undertaken based on the achieved results.

Keywords: Pollution, Heavy Metals, bees, aromatic hydrocarbons

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