Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Architecture Related Abstracts

72 The Control System Architecture of Space Environment Simulator

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

This article mainly introduces the control system architecture of space environment simulator, simultaneously also briefly introduce the automation control technology of industrial process and the measurement technology of vacuum and cold black environment. According to the volume of chamber, the space environment simulator is divided into three types of small, medium and large. According to the classification and application of space environment simulator, the control system is divided into the control system of small, medium, large space environment simulator and the centralized control system of multiple space environment simulators.

Keywords: Architecture, Control System, space environment simulator, automation control technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
71 Rural Landscape Design-Method Researching Based on the Population Diversification

Authors: Chen Qiuxiao, Wu Shuang, Zhou Ziyi

Abstract:

Population diversification is very common in villages located in the developed coastal areas of China. Based on the analyses of the characteristics of the traditional rural society and its landscape, also in consideration of the diversified landscape demand due to the population diversification of the village, with the dual ideas of heritage and innovation, the ideas and methods of rural landscape design were explored by taking Duxuao Village in Zhejiang Province of China as an example.

Keywords: Architecture, Landscape design, rural landscape, population diversification

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70 The Early Stages of the Standardisation of Finnish Building Sector

Authors: Anu Soikkeli

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Early 20th century functionalism aimed at generalising living and rationalising construction, thus laying the foundation for the standardisation of construction components and products. From the 1930s onwards, all measurement and quality instructions for building products, different types of building components, descriptions of working methods complying with advisable building practises, planning, measurement and calculation guidelines, terminology, etc. were called standards. Standardisation was regarded as a necessary prerequisite for the mass production of housing. This article examines the early stages of standardisation in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s, as reflected on the working history of an individual architect, Erkki Koiso-Kanttila (1914-2006). In 1950 Koiso-Kanttila was appointed the Head of Design of the Finnish Association of Architects’ Building Standards Committee, a position which he held until 1958. His main responsibilities were the development of the RT Building Information File and compiling of the files.

Keywords: Architecture, Reconstruction, Standardisation, post WWII period

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69 Origamic Forms: A New Realm in Improving Acoustical Environment

Authors: Mostafa Refat Ismail, Hazem Eldaly

Abstract:

The adaptation of architecture design to building function is getting highly needed in contemporary designs, especially with the great progression in design methods and tools. This, in turn, requires great flexibility in design strategies, as well as a wider spectrum of space settings to achieve the required environment that special activities imply. Acoustics is an essential factor influencing cognitive acts and behavior as well as, on the extreme end, the physical well-being inside a space. The complexity of this constrain is fueled up by the extended geometric dimensions of multipurpose halls, making acoustic adequateness a great concern that could not easily be achieved for each purpose. To achieve a performance oriented acoustic environment, various parametric shaped false ceilings based on origami folded notion are simulated. These parametric origami shapes are able to fold and unfold forming an interactive structure that changes the mutual acoustic environment according to the geometric shapes' position and its changing exposed surface areas. The mobility of the facets in the origami surface can stretch up the range from a complete plain surface to an unfolded element where a considerable amount of absorption is added to the space. The behavior of the parametric origami shapes are being modeled employing a ray tracing computer simulation package for various shapes topology. The conclusion shows a great variation in the acoustical performance due to the variation in folding faces of the origami surfaces, which cause different reflections and consequently large variations in decay curves.

Keywords: Acoustics, Architecture, parametric, origami

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68 Contingent Presences in Architecture: Vitruvian Theory as a Beginning

Authors: Zelal Çınar

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This paper claims that architecture is a contingent discipline, despite the fact that its contingency has long been denied through a retreat to Vitruvian writing. It is evident that contingency is rejected not only by architecture but also by modernity as a whole. Vitruvius attempted to cover the entire field of architecture in a systematic form in order to bring the whole body of this great discipline to a complete order. The legacy of his theory hitherto lasted not only that it is the only major work on the architecture of Classical Antiquity to have survived, but also that its conformity with the project of modernity. In the scope of the paper, it will be argued that contingency should be taken into account rather than avoided as a potential threat.

Keywords: Architecture, Modernity, Contingency, Vitruvius

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67 Beyond Possibilities: Re-Reading Republican Ankara

Authors: Zelal Çınar

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This paper aims to expose the effects of the ideological program of Turkish Republic on city planning, through the first plan of Ankara. As the new capital, Ankara was planned to be the ‘showcase’ of modern Turkey. It was to represent all new ideologies and the country’s cultural similarities with the west. At the same time it was to underline the national identity and independence of Turkish republic. To this end, a new plan for the capital was designed by German city planner Carl Christopher Lörcher. Diametrically opposed with the existing fabric of the city, this plan was built on the basis of papers and plans, on ideological aims. On the contrary, this paper argues that the city is a machine of possibilities, rather than a clear, materialized system.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Architecture, Ideology, modernization

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66 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Sara Zatir, Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa

Abstract:

It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: Construction, Earthquake, Architecture, Resistance, traditional

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65 Combining the Noble Values of Traditional Architecture on Modern Architecture

Authors: Dwi Retno Sri Ambarwati

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Recently, the traditional architecture were getting lost, replaced by modern architecture. The existence of many traditional houses often changing the function and change the values in an effort to adjust to the modern lifestyle, whereas the spiritual background of traditional architectural design is very specific and be the basis for consideration in the construction of the building, both in terms of determining the location of the building, the direction toward building, the spatial pattern and organization of space, zoning, hierarchical space, building form, ornamentation, the selection of building materials, and so on. The changes in function and form will transformed the spiritual values contained in it, because the architecture affects human behavior and reflects the culture. The traditional architecture views the architecture as a concept that has different tendencies in terms of orientation, shape, and attitude toward nature that tends to harmony with the social environment and local culture. The concept of the spirit of place made the architecture looks familiar, not arrogant and give a positive value to the surrounding environment. Every culture has a traditional architecture that full of spiritual values, although in the simplest form. Humans can learn about human values and local wisdom through the positive values that contained in traditional architecture, the desire to balance themselves with nature and the environment, not overbearing, strict adherence to the prevailing norms, openness in public life and intimacy family life that form a harmonious in life. The great and the wise value of traditional architecture should be revived in modern architecture that tends to ignore the spiritual values and more concerned with the functional and aesthetic pleasure, by combining the noble values of traditional architecture into modern architecture.

Keywords: Architecture, Traditional Architecture, local wisdom, combining noble values

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64 Efficient Backup Protection for Hybrid WDM/TDM GPON System

Authors: Elmahdi Mohammadine, Ahouzi Esmail, Najid Abdellah

Abstract:

This contribution aims to present a new protected hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using Wavelength Selective Switches and Optical Line Protection devices. The objective from using these technologies is to improve flexibility and enhance the protection of GPON networks.

Keywords: Architecture, Protection, Wavlenght Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON), Time Division Multiplexed PON (TDM-PON), Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS), Optical Line Protection (OLP)

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63 A Pervasive System Architecture for Smart Environments in Internet of Things Context

Authors: João Casal, Sérgio Lourenço, Patrick Santos, João Santos Luis Varandas, Tiago Alves, Carlos Romeiro

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Nowadays, technology makes it possible to, in one hand, communicate with various objects of the daily life through the Internet, and in the other, put these objects interacting with each other through this channel. Simultaneously, with the raise of smartphones as the most ubiquitous technology on persons lives, emerge new agents for these devices - Intelligent Personal Assistants. These agents have the goal of helping the user manage and organize his information as well as supporting the user in his/her day-to-day tasks. Moreover, other emergent concept is the Cloud Computing, which allows computation and storage to get out of the users devices, bringing benefits in terms of performance, security, interoperability and others. Connecting these three paradigms, in this work we propose an architecture for an intelligent system which provides an interface that assists the user on smart environments, informing, suggesting actions and allowing to manage the objects of his/her daily life.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Architecture, Cloud, intelligent personal assistant

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62 Small Town Big Urban Issues the Case of Kiryat Ono, Israel

Authors: Ruth Shapira

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Introduction: The rapid urbanization of the last century confronts planners, regulatory bodies, developers and most of all – the public with seemingly unsolved conflicts regarding values, capital, and wellbeing of the built and un-built urban space. This is reflected in the quality of the urban form and life which has known no significant progress in the last 2-3 decades despite the on-growing urban population. It is the objective of this paper to analyze some of these fundamental issues through the case study of a relatively small town in the center of Israel (Kiryat-Ono, 100,000 inhabitants), unfold the deep structure of qualities versus disruptors, present some cure that we have developed to bridge over and humbly suggest a practice that may be generic for similar cases. Basic Methodologies: The OBJECT, the town of Kiryat Ono, shall be experimented upon in a series of four action processes: De-composition, Re-composition, the Centering process and, finally, Controlled Structural Disintegration. Each stage will be based on facts, analysis of previous multidisciplinary interventions on various layers – and the inevitable reaction of the OBJECT, leading to the conclusion based on innovative theoretical and practical methods that we have developed and that we believe are proper for the open ended network, setting the rules for the contemporary urban society to cluster by. The Study: Kiryat Ono, was founded 70 years ago as an agricultural settlement and rapidly turned into an urban entity. In spite the massive intensification, the original DNA of the old small town was still deeply embedded, mostly in the quality of the public space and in the sense of clustered communities. In the past 20 years, the recent demand for housing has been addressed to on the national level with recent master plans and urban regeneration policies mostly encouraging individual economic initiatives. Unfortunately, due to the obsolete existing planning platform the present urban renewal is characterized by pressure of developers, a dramatic change in building scale and widespread disintegration of the existing urban and social tissue. Our office was commissioned to conceptualize two master plans for the two contradictory processes of Kiryat Ono’s future: intensification and conservation. Following a comprehensive investigation into the deep structures and qualities of the existing town, we developed a new vocabulary of conservation terms thus redefying the sense of PLACE. The main challenge was to create master plans that should offer a regulatory basis to the accelerated and sporadic development providing for the public good and preserving the characteristics of the PLACE consisting of a tool box of design guidelines that will have the ability to reorganize space along the time axis in a coherent way. In Conclusion: The system of rules that we have developed can generate endless possible patterns making sure that at each implementation fragment an event is created, and a better place is revealed. It takes time and perseverance but it seems to be the way to provide a healthy framework for the accelerated urbanization of our chaotic present.

Keywords: Housing, Architecture, Conservation, Urban Regeneration, intensification, urban qualities

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61 An E-Retailing System Architecture Based on Cloud Computing

Authors: Chanchai Supaartagorn

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E-retailing is the sale of goods online that takes place over the Internet. The Internet has shrunk the entire World. The world e-retailing is growing at an exponential rate in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. However, e-retailing costs require expensive investment, such as hardware, software, and security systems. Cloud computing technology is internet-based computing for the management and delivery of applications and services. Cloud-based e-retailing application models allow enterprises to lower their costs with their effective implementation of e-retailing activities. In this paper, we describe the concept of cloud computing and present the architecture of cloud computing, combining the features of e-retailing. In addition, we propose a strategy for implementing cloud computing with e-retailing. Finally, we explain the benefits from the architecture.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Architecture, internet-based, e-retailing

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60 Neighborhood of Dwelling with Historical Architectural Elements – Case Study: Khorasgan' Stream of Isfahan

Authors: M.J. Seddighi, A. Moradchelleh, M. Keyvan

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The ultimate goal in building a city is to provide pleasant, comfortable and nurturing environment as a context of public life. City environment establishes strong connection with people and their surrounding habitant, acting as relevance in social interactions between citizens itself. Urban environment and appropriate municipal facilities are the only way for proper communication between city and citizens and also citizens themselves. There is a need for complement elements between buildings and constructions to settling city life through which the move, comfort, reactions and anxiety will adjust and reflect the spirit to the city. In the surging development of society, urban’ spaces are encountered evolution, sometimes causing the symbols to fade and waste, and as a result, leading to destroy belongs among humans and their physical liquidate. Houses and living spaces exhibit materialistic reflection of life style. In other words, way of life makes the symbolic essence of living spaces. In addition, it is of sociocultural factor of lifestyle, consisting the concepts and culture, morality, worldview, and national character. Culture is responsible for some crucial meaningful needs which can be wide because they depend on various causes such as perception and interpretation of believes, philosophy of life, interaction with neighbors and protection against climate and enemies. The bilateral relationship between human and nature is the main factor that needs to be properly addressed. It is because of the fact that the approach which is taken against landscape and nature has a pertinent influence on creation and shaping the structure of a house. The first response of human in tackling the environment is to build a “shelter” and place as dwelling. This has been a crucial factor in all time periods. In the proposed study, dwelling in Khorasgan’ Stream, as an area located in one of the important historical city of Iran, has been studied. Khorasgan’ Stream is the basic constituent elements of the present architectural form of Isfahan. The influence of Islamic spiritual culture and neighborhood with the historical elements on the dwelling of the selected location, subsequently on other regions of the town are presented.

Keywords: Architecture, historical architectural elements, dwelling' neighborhood, Khorasgan’ Stream of Isfahan

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59 The Community Project in a Public Urban Space

Authors: Vendula Safarova

Abstract:

The author describes the architectural and social research through the project, Interventions Ostrava City 2013 (the idea came from Vallo + Sadovský architects), in which she participated as an organizer and as an architect. The project invited the public to actively participate, logging their "hits" or proposals (58), and resulted in three exhibitions in Ostrava, a catalog of the exhibition called Urban interventions Ostrava 2013 (published in 2014) and the implementation of two interventions (2014), with a third intervention still in preparation. The article dealt with the public's views and reactions of local authorities. The project also engaged Ostrava City council, who began to talk about the future of the city of Ostrava, taking part in public debates (organized by Fiducia), invited new associations, civil society - city for people (workers from Cooltour), as well as more established clubs such as the Beautification Committee for beautiful Ostrava (newsletter published since 2008). Currently, the City Interventions project has taken place in more than 10 cities, including Slovakia, where it originated, and in Bratislava in 2009. The aim of this article is to inform the public about the so-called Activism in architecture, which manifests itself in the form of community projects that are organized by volunteers (sometimes financially supported by local authorities). It is a unique way to survey public relations and representatives of state and local government for a public urban area.

Keywords: Architecture, community project, public urban space, society and planning

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58 Survey the Effects of Climate in Traditional and Modern Architecture of Iran

Authors: Hamidreza Joudaki, Yousefali Ziari

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Humans have regularly been interacting with their environment, and have a close relation with their environment. House as a shelter which protects us against hot and cold weather and the other climatic occurrences in the environment has a close relation with climate. Before human could have access to the fossil fuels, preparing the comfort for the house was done by adjusting the building according to the climate conditions, and the help of natural resources. However after the man could access the fossil fuel, this way was forgotten, and caused much use of energy for heating & cooling. This research is trying to find some methods for designing suitable building that create comfort fitting with the zone by studying the climate condition of Arak city and as a result to find a way to reduce the use of energy and improving the design. So for the aim of this research we have used the statistics and information such as temperature, rain, wind and the approximate moisture from a period of 40 years from synoptic station of Arak. After specifying the climate of Arak by the use of effective temperature, Ulgi, Guni, Mahani and Ovenz indicator, we investigated the climate comfort conditions and the harmonious architecture with the climate and then some suggestion was given according to the climate situation of each month of the year and quality of human comfort according to this indicators.

Keywords: Climate, Architecture, traditional and modern architecture, comfort indicator, Arak city

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57 Shovadan; A Historical Heritage in the Architecture of the South West of Iran (Case Study: Dezfoul City)

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

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Iranian architects had creative ways for constructing the buildings in each climate. Some of these architectural elements were made under the ground. Shovadan is one of these underground spaces in hot- humid regions in Dezfoul and Shoushtar city that had special functions and characteristics. In this paper some subjects such as the history of Shovadan, its elements and effective factors in the formation of Shovadan in Dezfool city are discussed.

Keywords: Architecture, dezfoul city, Shovadan, south west of Iran

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56 Comparative Spatial Analysis of a Re-Arranged Hospital Building

Authors: Burak Köken, Hatice D. Arslan, Bilgehan Y. Çakmak

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Analyzing the relation networks between the hospital buildings which have complex structure and distinctive spatial relationships is quite difficult. The hospital buildings which require specialty in spatial relationship solutions during design and self-innovation through the developing technology should survive and keep giving service even after the disasters such as earthquakes. In this study, a hospital building where the load-bearing system was strengthened because of the insufficient earthquake performance and the construction of an additional building was required to meet the increasing need for space was discussed and a comparative spatial evaluation of the hospital building was made with regard to its status before the change and after the change. For this reason, spatial organizations of the building before change and after the change were analyzed by means of Space Syntax method and the effects of the change on space organization parameters were searched by applying an analytical procedure. Using Depthmap UCL software, connectivity, visual mean depth, beta and visual integration analyses were conducted. Based on the data obtained after the analyses, it was seen that the relationships between spaces of the building increased after the change and the building has become more explicit and understandable for the occupants. Furthermore, it was determined according to findings of the analysis that the increase in depth causes difficulty in perceiving the spaces and the changes considering this problem generally ease spatial use.

Keywords: Architecture, Strengthening, space syntax, hospital building

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55 Academic Education and Internship towards Architecture Professional Practice

Authors: Sawsan Saridar masri, Hisham Arnaouty

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Architecture both defines and is defined by social, cultural, political and financial constraints: this is where the discipline and the profession of architecture meet. This mutual sway evolves wherever interferences in the built environment are thought-out and can be strengthened or weakened by the many ways in which the practice of architecture can be undertaken. The more familiar we are about the concerns and factors that control what can be made, the greater the opportunities to propose and make appropriate architectures. Apparently, the criteria in any qualification policy should permit flexibility of approach and will – for reasons including cultural choice, political issues, and son on – vary significantly from country to country. However the weighting of the various criteria have to ensure adequate standards both in educational system as in the professional training. This paper develops, deepens and questions about the regulatory entry routes to the professional practice of architecture in the Arab world. It is also intended to provide an informed basis about strategies for conventional and unconventional models of practice in preparation for the next stages of architect’s work experience and professional experience. With the objective of promoting the implementation of adequate built environment in the practice of architecture, a comprehensive analysis of various pathways of access to the profession are selected as case studies, encompassing examples from across the world. The review of such case studies allows the creation of a comprehensive picture in relation to the conditions for qualification of practitioners of the built environment at the level of the Middle Eastern countries and the Arab World. Such investigation considers the following aspects: professional title and domain of practice, accreditation of courses, internship and professional training, professional examination and continuing professional development.

Keywords: Mobility, Architecture, Professional Practice, internship

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54 The Developments Trend of Islamic Inscriptions in the Building Portals of Dezfoul City

Authors: Mahnoush Mahmoudi, Ali Chaeedeh

Abstract:

In the architecture of Iranian traditional houses, the ornamentations available in the inscriptions of houses entrance portal express the identity of architects and personality of houses owners and are rooted in their religious and national beliefs and faiths. The main hypothesis of this research is changing the physique and application of religious contents in compliance with the thoughts and beliefs of people in Dezfoul historical city in the epigraphs of houses entrance portals. The objective of this study is reviewing the development trend of texts, concepts and physique of inscriptions as well as analyzing the factors effective on the quality and diversity of application of inscriptions. The present research is an applied study and descriptive-analytical method has been applied, and the data was collected by library and survey studies. The population of this research includes historical houses, houses damaged in war (Iran & Iraq) and renovated and new tissue and new-built houses of Dezfoul, from Qajar era so far. Random sampling method has been applied in this study and dispersal area includes the city. Data analysis method in this study is qualitative and quantitative. The results of this study indicate that today the inscriptions available in the entrance portal of houses in Dezfoul comparing to inscriptions in Qajar1 and Pahlavi2 era is very simple and has lower aesthetic value. One of the causes for such superficial and contextual gap between inscriptions seems to be the war and renovations during and after destruction.

Keywords: Architecture, Islamic Architecture, Reconstruction, epigraph, inscription, entrance portal, Dezfoul

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53 An Implementation of Multi-Media Applications in Teaching Structural Design to Architectural Students

Authors: Wafa Labib

Abstract:

Teaching methods include lectures, workshops and tutorials for the presentation and discussion of ideas have become out of date; were developed outside the discipline of architecture from the college of engineering and do not satisfy the architectural students’ needs and causes them many difficulties in integrating structure into their design. In an attempt to improve structure teaching methods, this paper focused upon proposing a supportive teaching/learning tool using multi-media applications which seeks to better meet the architecture student’s needs and capabilities and improve the understanding and application of basic and intermediate structural engineering and technology principles. Before introducing the use of multi-media as a supportive teaching tool, a questionnaire was distributed to third year students of a structural design course who were selected as a sample to be surveyed forming a sample of 90 cases. The primary aim of the questionnaire was to identify the students’ learning style and to investigate whether the selected method of teaching could make the teaching and learning process more efficient. Students’ reaction on the use of this method was measured using three key elements indicating that this method is an appropriate teaching method for the nature of the students and the course as well.

Keywords: Architecture, learning style, teaching method, multi-media

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52 Environmental Impacts on the British Era Structures of Faisalabad-a Detailed Study of the Clock Tower of Faisalabad

Authors: Bazla Manzoor, Aqsa Yasin

Abstract:

Pakistan is the country which is progressing by leaps and bounds through agricultural and industrial growth. The main area, which presents the largest income rate through industrial activities, is Faisalabad from the Province of Punjab. Faisalabad’s main occupations include agriculture and industry. As these sectors i.e. agriculture and industry is developing day by day, they are earning much income for the country and generating thousands of job vacancies. On one hand the city, i.e. Faisalabad is on the way of development through industrial growth, while on the other hand this industrial growth is producing a bad impact on the environment. In return, that damaged environment is affecting badly on the people and built environment. This research is chiefly based on one of the above-mentioned factors i.e. adverse environmental impacts on the built structures. Faisalabad is an old city, therefore; it is having many old structures especially from British Era. Many of those structures are still surviving and are functioning as the government, private and public buildings. However, these structures are getting in a poor condition with the passage of time due to bad maintenance and adverse environmental impacts. Bad maintenance is a factor, which can be controlled by financial assistance and management. The factor needs to be seriously considered is the other one i.e. adverse environmental impacts on British Era structures of the city because this factor requires controlled and refined human activities and actions. For this reason, a research was required to conserve the British Era structures of Faisalabad so that these structures can function well. The other reason to conserve them is that these structures are historically important and are the heritage of the city. For doing this research, literature has been reviewed which was present in the libraries of the city. Department of Environment, Town Municipal Administration, Faisalabad Development Authority and Lyallpur Heritage Foundation were visited to collect the existing data available. Various British Era structures were also visited to note down the environmental impacts on them. From all the structures “Clock Tower,” was deeply studied as it is one of the oldest and most important heritage structures of the city because the earlier settlements of the city were planned based on its location by The British Government. The architectural and environmental analyses were done for The Clock Tower. This research study found the deterioration factors of the tower according to which suggestions have been made.

Keywords: Architecture, Environment, heritage, lyallpur

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51 Reconstruction and Renewal of Traditional Houses and its Impact on Tourism Development in Rasht

Authors: Parvaneh Ziviyar, Simin Armaghan

Abstract:

Traditional house in Rasht contains monuments and heritage of ancestors who once lived in these houses. These houses represent the customs, culture and lifestyle of the people of Rasht and bridge the gap between modern people and their past that is being forgotten. Maintenance of the buildings and architectural heritage together with their unique architecture and climatic related construction has an important role in tourism attraction and sustainable development. The purpose of this study was to develop a new definition of vacation shacks that is different with the definition of Cultural Heritage Organization. The place to stay and visit that is rebuilt or renovated based on traditional architectural style of Rasht and yet provides modern amenities so that it would not undermine indigenous traditional sense of the house. Data collection for this study is based on review of literature and field study. Results and the statistics of this study will prove that the research hypothesis is supported and there is a correlation between traditional houses of Rasht, as tourism–accommodation place and tourist attraction. It also indicates the capability and potential of these ancient monuments in the introduction of the culture of this land, and calling people and many tourists come to visit and stay in such places.

Keywords: Architecture, Tourism, traditional houses, vacation shacks

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50 IACOP - Route Optimization in Wireless Networks Using Improved Ant Colony Optimization Protocol

Authors: S. Vasundra, D. Venkatesh

Abstract:

Wireless networks have gone through an extraordinary growth in the past few years, and will keep on playing a crucial role in future data communication. The present wireless networks aim to make communication possible anywhere and anytime. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Since an ad hoc network may consist of a large number of mobile hosts, this imposes a significant challenge on the design of an effective and efficient routing protocol that can work well in an environment with frequent topological changes. This paper proposes improved ant colony optimization (IACO) technique. It also maintains load balancing in wireless networks. The simulation results show that the proposed IACO performs better than existing routing techniques.

Keywords: Wireless Networks, Architecture, Ant colony optimization, Load Balancing

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49 Tourism Potential Investment Opportunities in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Khalil Ahmad Khosa

Abstract:

Pakistan is such a diverse region, it is the center of various religions and settlements long before the creation of the nation that exists today. The country's attraction range from the ruin of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7000 m, which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially K2.[4] The north part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, ancient architecture and the Hunza and Chitral valley, home to small pre-Islamic Animist Kalash people community. The romance of the historic Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is timeless and legendary, Punjab province has the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital, with many examples of Mughal architecture such as Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan. However, till this date, the government has not be able to take the tourism market seriously within Pakistan. Pakistan is home to a diverse number of tourist attractions which have not been funded or protected due to the government giving the tourism market a low priority.

Keywords: Architecture, Tourism, Pakistan, turist

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48 Investigating Effect of Geometrical Proportions in Islamic Architecture and Music

Authors: Amir Hossein Allahdadi

Abstract:

The mystical and intuitive look of Islamic artists inspired by the Koranic and mystical principles and also based on the geometry and mathematics has left unique works whose range extends across the borders of Islam. The relationship between Islamic art and music in the traditional art is of one of the concepts that can be traced back to the other arts by detection of its components. One of the links is the art of painting whose subtleties that can be applicable to both architecture and music. So, architecture and music links can be traced in other arts with a traditional foundation in order to evaluate the equivalents of traditional arts. What is the relationship between physical space of architecture and nonphysical space of music? What is musical architecture? What is the music that tends to architecture? These questions are very small samples of the questions that arise in this category, and these questions and concerns remain as long as the music is played and the architecture is made. Efforts have been made in this area, references compiled and plans drawn. As an example, we can refer to views of ‘Mansour Falamaki’ in the book of architecture and music, as well as the book transition from mud to heart by ‘Hesamodin Seraj’. The method is such that a certain melody is given to an architect and it is tried to design a specified architecture using a certain theme. This study is not to follow the architecture of a particular type of music and the formation of a volume based on a sound. In this opportunity, it is tried to briefly review the relationship between music and architecture in the Iranian original and traditional arts, using the basic definitions of arts. The musician plays, the architect designs, the actor forms his desired space and painter displays his multi-dimensional world in the form of two-dimensions. The expression language is different, but all of them can be gathered in a form, a form which has no clear boundaries. In fact, in any original art, the artist applies his art as a tool to express his insights which are nothing but achieving the world beyond this place and time.

Keywords: Music, Architecture, geometric proportions, mathematical proportions

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47 Teaching Timber: The Role of the Architectural Student and Studio Course within an Interdisciplinary Research Project

Authors: Catherine Sunter, Marius Nygaard, Lars Hamran, Børre Skodvin, Ute Groba

Abstract:

Globally, the construction and operation of buildings contribute up to 30% of annual green house gas emissions. In addition, the building sector is responsible for approximately a third of global waste. In this context, the utilization of renewable resources in buildings, especially materials that store carbon, will play a significant role in the growing city. These are two reasons for introducing wood as a building material with a growing relevance. A third is the potential economic value in countries with a forest industry that is not currently used to capacity. In 2013, a four-year interdisciplinary research project titled “Wood Be Better” was created, with the principle goal to produce and publicise knowledge that would facilitate increased use of wood in buildings in urban areas. The research team consisted of architects, engineers, wood technologists and mycologists, both from research institutions and industrial organisations. Five structured work packages were included in the initial research proposal. Work package 2 was titled “Design-based research” and proposed using architecture master courses as laboratories for systematic architectural exploration. The aim was twofold: to provide students with an interdisciplinary team of experts from consultancies and producers, as well as teachers and researchers, that could offer the latest information on wood technologies; whilst at the same time having the studio course test the effects of the use of wood on the functional, technical and tectonic quality within different architectural projects on an urban scale, providing results that could be fed back into the research material. The aim of this article is to examine the successes and failures of this pedagogical approach in an architecture school, as well as the opportunities for greater integration between academic research projects, industry experts and studio courses in the future. This will be done through a set of qualitative interviews with researchers, teaching staff and students of the studio courses held each semester since spring 2013. These will investigate the value of the various experts of the course; the different themes of each course; the response to the urban scale, architectural form and construction detail; the effect of working with the goals of a research project; and the value of the studio projects to the research. In addition, six sample projects will be presented as case studies. These will show how the projects related to the research and could be collected and further analysed, innovative solutions that were developed during the course, different architectural expressions that were enabled by timber, and how projects were used as an interdisciplinary testing ground for integrated architectural and engineering solutions between the participating institutions. The conclusion will reflect on the original intentions of the studio courses, the opportunities and challenges faced by students, researchers and teachers, the educational implications, and on the transparent and inclusive discourse between the architectural researcher, the architecture student and the interdisciplinary experts.

Keywords: Architecture, Interdisciplinary, Research, Wood, students, studio

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46 3D-Shape-Perception Studied Exemplarily with Tetrahedron and Icosahedron as Prototypes of the Polarities Sharp versus Round

Authors: Iris Sauerbrei, Jörg Trojan, Erich Lehner

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Introduction and significance of the study: This study examines if three-dimensional shapes elicit distinct patterns of perceptions. If so, it is relevant for all fields of design, especially for the design of the built environment. Description of basic methodologies: The five platonic solids are the geometrical base for all other three-dimensional shapes, among which tetrahedron and icosahedron provide the clearest representation of the qualities sharp and round. The component pair of attributes ‘sharp versus round’ has already been examined in various surveys in a psychology of perception and in neuroscience by means of graphics, images of products of daily use, as well as by photographs and walk-through-videos of landscapes and architecture. To verify a transfer of outcomes of the existing surveys to the perception of three-dimensional shapes, walk-in models (total height 2.2m) of tetrahedron and icosahedron were set up in a public park in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Preferences of park visitors were tested by questionnaire; also they were asked to write down associations in a free text. In summer 2015, the tetrahedron was assembled eight times, the icosahedron seven times. In total 288 participants took part in the study; 116 rated the tetrahedron, 172 rated the icosahedron. Findings: Preliminary analyses of the collected data using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests show that the perceptions of the two solids differ in respect to several attributes and that each of the tested model show significance for specific attributes. Conclusion: These findings confirm the assumptions and provide first evidence that the perception of three-dimensional shapes are associated to characteristic attributes and to which. In order to enable conscious choices for spatial arrangements in design processes for the built environment, future studies should examine attributes for the other three basic bodies - Octahedron, Cube, and Dodecahedron. Additionally, similarities and differences between the perceptions of two- and three-dimensional shapes as well as shapes that are more complex need further research.

Keywords: Architecture, geometrical features, space perception, walk-in models

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45 Nimbus Radiance Gate Project: Media Architecture in Sacred Space

Authors: Jorge Duarte de Sá

Abstract:

The project presented in this investigation is part of the multidisciplinary field of Architecture and explores an experience in media architecture, integrated in Arts, Science and Technology. The objective of this work is to create a visual experience comprehending Architecture, Media and Art. It is intended to specifically explore the sacred spaces that are losing social, cultural or religious dynamics and insert new Media technologies to create a new generate momentum, testing tools, techniques and methods of implementation. Given an architectural project methodology, it seems essential that 'the location' should be the starting point for the development of this technological apparatus: the church of Santa Clara in Santarém, Portugal emerged as an experimental space for apparatus, presenting itself as both temple and museum. We also aim to address the concept of rehabilitation through media technologies, directed at interventions that may have an impact on energizing spaces. The idea is emphasized on the rehabilitation of spaces that, one way or another, may gain new dynamics after a media intervention. Thus, we intend to affect the play with a sensitive and spiritual character which endemically, sacred spaces have, by exploring a sensitive aspect of the subject and drawing up new ideas for meditation and spiritual reflection. The work is designed primarily as a visual experience that encompasses the space, the object and the subject. It is a media project supported by a dual structure with two transparent screens operating in a holographic screen which will be projecting two images that complement the translucent overlay film, thus making the merger of two projections. The digitally created content reacts to the presence of observers through infrared cameras, placed strategically. The object revives the memory of the altarpiece as an architectural surface, promoting the expansion of messages through the media technologies.

Keywords: Media, Architecture, Technology, sacred

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44 Media in Architecture-Intervention and Visual Experience in Religious Space

Authors: Jorge Duarte de Sá

Abstract:

The appearance of the new media technologies has opened new fields of intervention in architecture creating a new dynamic communication in the relationship between public and space, where are present technological devices that enable a new sensory experience, aesthetic and even spiritual. This connection makes relevant the idea of rehabilitate architectonic spaces with new media technologies such as sacred spaces. This research aims to create a media project integrated in sacred spaces that combine Architecture, Art and New Technologies, exploring new perspectives and different dynamics in space.

Keywords: Media, Architecture, contemplation, projections, religious spaces

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43 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: Architecture, Philosophy, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze, Toyo Ito

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