Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Architectural Design Related Abstracts

11 REDUCER: An Architectural Design Pattern for Reducing Large and Noisy Data Sets

Authors: Apkar Salatian


To relieve the burden of reasoning on a point to point basis, in many domains there is a need to reduce large and noisy data sets into trends for qualitative reasoning. In this paper we propose and describe a new architectural design pattern called REDUCER for reducing large and noisy data sets that can be tailored for particular situations. REDUCER consists of 2 consecutive processes: Filter which takes the original data and removes outliers, inconsistencies or noise; and Compression which takes the filtered data and derives trends in the data. In this seminal article, we also show how REDUCER has successfully been applied to 3 different case studies.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Compression, Filtering, design pattern

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10 Insulation, Sustainable Construction, and Architectural Design to Reduce Energy Consumption in Sustainable Buildings

Authors: Gholamreza Namavar, Ali Bayati


Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities show one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considered about the consumption of fossil fuels and also reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities that play a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming and damage ozone layer. In construction industry we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials and the adaption with environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in long term. Accordingly, in this article we investigates the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Sustainable Construction, insulation, reducing energy consumption

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9 The Performance Evaluation of the Modular Design of Hybrid Wall with Surface Heating and Cooling System

Authors: Selcen Nur Eri̇kci̇ Çeli̇k, Burcu İbaş Parlakyildiz, Gülay Zorer Gedi̇k


Reducing the use of mechanical heating and cooling systems in buildings, which accounts for approximately 30-40% of total energy consumption in the world has a major impact in terms of energy conservation. Formations of buildings that have sustainable and low energy utilization, structural elements with mechanical systems should be evaluated with a holistic approach. In point of reduction of building energy consumption ratio, wall elements that are vertical building elements and have an area broadly (m2) have proposed as a regulation with a different system. In the study, designing surface heating and cooling energy with a hybrid type of modular wall system and the integration of building elements will be evaluated. The design of wall element; - Identification of certain standards in terms of architectural design and size, -Elaboration according to the area where the wall elements (interior walls, exterior walls) -Solution of the joints, -Obtaining the surface in terms of building compatible with both conceptual structural put emphasis on upper stages, these elements will be formed. The durability of the product to the various forces, stability and resistance are so much substantial that are used the establishment of ready-wall element section and the planning of structural design. All created ready-wall alternatives will be paid attention at some parameters; such as adapting to performance-cost by optimum level and size that can be easily processed and reached. The restrictions such as the size of the zoning regulations, building function, structural system, wheelbase that are imposed by building laws, should be evaluated. The building aims to intend to function according to a certain standardization system and construction of wall elements will be used. The scope of performance criteria determined on the wall elements, utilization (operation, maintenance) and renovation phase, alternative material options will be evaluated with interim materials located in the contents. Design, implementation and technical combination of modular wall elements in the use phase and installation details together with the integration of energy saving, heat-saving and useful effects on the environmental aspects will be discussed in detail. As a result, the ready-wall product with surface heating and cooling modules will be created and defined as hybrid wall and will be compared with the conventional system in terms of thermal comfort. After preliminary architectural evaluations, certain decisions for all architectural design processes (pre and post design) such as the implementation and performance in use, maintenance, renewal will be evaluated in the results.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Architectural Design, Hybrid, Thermal comfort, modular ready-wall element

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8 String as a Design Element: The Work of Students for International Architecture Biennale, Antalya and Lohberg Coal Mine, Germany

Authors: Ayşe Duygu Kaçar


Industrial regions and buildings that have stopped their primary functions are in the interest of the discipline of architecture in the last decades. The renewal of these spaces of production for different functions is a common aspect for contemporary world countries. Totally different functions can be added to the existing as well, which can help improving the social, cultural and aesthetic character of these beings and sustaining their uniqueness. Therefore, these sites linking the past and future can be used as museums, exhibition centers, art ateliers, city parks, recreational centers, botanic gardens, sculpture parks, theatres, etc. in order to continue their place in the collective memory of the cities. The present paper depicts a way of shedding light on the Cotton Textile Industry (İplik ve Dokuma Fabrikası A.Ş), a local industrial site in Antalya, the most popular tourism center of Turkey, as a part of International Architecture Biennale, 2011 and on Lohberg coal mine, a local industrial site in the Ruhr region of Germany. As a transparent, fragile, temporary and economical material, the string was used as a design element in both experiential architecture works with architecture students and the outcomes will be discussed and presented through the theme 'rejecting / reversing architecture'.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Identity, Industrial sites, the Cotton Textile Industry Antalya, Lohberg coal mine

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7 Sustainable and Aesthetic Features of Traditional Architectures in Central Part of Iran

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar


Iran is one of the oldest countries with traditional culture in the world. All over the history Iranians had traditional architectural designs, which were at the same time sustainable, ecological, functional and environmental consistent. These human scale architectures were built for maximum use, comfort, climate adaptation with available resources and techniques. Climate variability of the country caused developing of variety design methods. More of these methods such as windcatchers in Yazd City or Panam (Insulation) were scientific solutions at the same time. Renewable energy resources were used in these methods that featured in them. While climate and ecological issues were dominant parts of these traditional designs, aesthetic and beauty issues were not ignored. Conformity with the community’s culture caused more compact designs that the visual aesthetics of them can be seen inside of them. Different organizations of space were used for these visual aesthetic issues inside the houses as well as historical urban designs. For example dry and hot climates in central parts of the country designed with centralized organization. Most central parts of these designs functioned as a courtyard for temperate the air in the summer. This paper will give summary descriptive information about traditional Iranian architectural style by figures all around the country with different climate conditions, while focus of the paper is traditional architectural design of the central part of the country, with dry and hot climate condition. This information may be useful for contemporary architectural designs, which are designed without noticing to the vernacular condition and caused cities look like each other.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Sustainability, Iran, traditional design

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6 Ensuring Safety in Fire Evacuation by Facilitating Way-Finding in Complex Buildings

Authors: Atefeh Omidkhah, Mohammadreza Bemanian


The issue of way-finding earmarks a wide range of literature in architecture and despite the 50 year background of way-finding studies, it still lacks a comprehensive theory for indoor settings. Way-finding has a notable role in emergency evacuation as well. People in the panic situation of a fire emergency need to find the safe egress route correctly and in as minimum time as possible. In this regard the parameters of an appropriate way-finding are mentioned in the evacuation related researches albeit scattered. This study reviews the fire safety related literature to extract a way-finding related framework for architectural purposes of the design of a safe evacuation route. In this regard a research trend review in addition with applied methodological approaches review is conducted. Then by analyzing eight original researches related to way-finding parameters in fire evacuation, main parameters that affect way-finding in emergency situation of a fire incident are extracted and a framework was developed based on them. Results show that the issues related to exit route and emergency evacuation can be chased in task oriented studies of way-finding. This research trend aims to access a high-level framework and in the best condition a theory that has an explanatory capability to define differences in way-finding in indoor/outdoor settings, complex/simple buildings and different building types or transitional spaces. The methodological advances demonstrate the evacuation way-finding researches in line with three approaches that the latter one is the most up-to-date and precise method to research this subject: real actors and hypothetical stimuli as in evacuation experiments, hypothetical actors and stimuli as in agent-based simulations and real actors and semi-real stimuli as in virtual reality environment by adding multi-sensory simulation. Findings on data-mining of 8 sample of original researches in way-finding in evacuation indicate that emergency way-finding design of a building should consider two level of space cognition problems in the time of emergency and performance consequences of them in the built environment. So four major classes of problems in way-finding which are visual information deficiency, confusing layout configuration, improper navigating signage and demographic issues had been defined and discussed as the main parameters that should be provided with solutions in design and interior of a building. In the design phase of complex buildings, which face more reported problem in way-finding, it is important to consider the interior components regarding to the building type of occupancy and behavior of its occupants and determine components that tend to become landmarks and set the architectural features of egress route in line with the directions that they navigate people. Research on topological cognition of environmental and its effect on way-finding task in emergency evacuation is proposed for future.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Fire Safety, Evacuation, way-finding, egress route

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5 Sustainable Renovation of Cultural Buildings Case Study: Red Bay National Historic Site, Canada

Authors: Richard Briginshaw, Hana Alaojeli, Javaria Ahmad, Hamza Gaffar, Nourtan Murad


Sustainable renovations to cultural buildings and sites require a high level of competency in the sometimes conflicting areas of social/historical demands, environmental concerns, and the programmatic and technical requirements of the project. A detailed analysis of the existing site, building and client program are critical to reveal both challenges and opportunities. This forms the starting point for the design process – empirical explorations that search for a balanced and inspired architectural solution to the project. The Red Bay National Historic Site on the Labrador Coast of eastern Canada is a challenging project to explore and resolve these ideas. Originally the site of a 16ᵗʰ century whaling station occupied by Basque sailors from France and Spain, visitors now experience this history at the interpretive center, along with the unique geography, climate, local culture and vernacular architecture of the area. Working with our client, Parks Canada, the project called for significant alterations and expansion to the existing facility due to an increase in the number of annual visitors. Sustainable aspects of the design are focused on sensitive site development, passive energy strategies such as building orientation and building envelope efficiency, active renewable energy systems, carefully considered material selections, water efficiency, and interiors that respond to human comfort and a unique visitor experience.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Sustainability, Green Building, renovations and expansion, cultural project

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4 The Impact of Housing Design on the Health and Well-Being of Populations: A Case-Study of Middle-Class Families in the Metropolitan Region of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti

Authors: A. L. Verret, N. Prince, Y. Jerome, A. Bras


The effects of housing design on the health and well-being of populations are quite intangible. In fact, healthy housing parameters are generally difficult to establish scientifically. It is often unclear the direction of a cause-and-effect relationship between health variables and housing. However, the lack of clear and definite measurements does not entail the absence of relationship between housing, health, and well-being. Research has thus been conducted. It has mostly aimed the physical rather than the psychological or social well-being of a population, given the difficulties to establish cause-effect relationships because of the subjectivity of the psychological symptoms and of the challenge in determining the influence of other factors. That said, a strong relationship has been exposed between light and physiology. Both the nervous and endocrine systems, amongst others, are affected by different wavelengths of natural light within a building. Daylight in the workplace is indeed associated to decreased absenteeism, errors and product defects, fatigue, eyestrain, increased productivity and positive attitude. Similar associations can also be made to residential housing. Lower levels of sunlight within the home have been proven to result in impaired cognition in depressed participants of a cross-sectional case study. Moreover, minimum space (area and volume) has been linked to healthy housing and quality of life, resulting in norms and regulations for such parameters for home constructions. As a matter of fact, it is estimated that people spend the two-thirds of their lives within the home and its immediate environment. Therefore, it is possible to deduct that the health and well-being of the occupants are potentially at risk in an unhealthy housing situation. While the impact of architecture on health and well-being is acknowledged and considered somewhat crucial in various countries of the north and the south, this issue is barely raised in Haiti. In fact, little importance is given to architecture for many reasons (lack of information, lack of means, societal reflex, poverty…). However, the middle-class is known for its residential strategies and trajectories in search of better-quality homes and environments. For this reason, it would be pertinent to use this group and its strategies and trajectories to isolate the impact of housing design on the overall health and well-being. This research aims to analyze the impact of housing architecture on the health and well-being of middle-class families in the metropolitan region of Port-au-Prince. It is a case study which uses semi-structured interviews and observations as research methods. Although at an early stage, this research anticipates that homes affect their occupants both psychologically and physiologically, and consequently, public policies and the population should take into account the architectural design in the planning and construction of housing and, furthermore, cities.

Keywords: Architectural Design, health and well-being, middle-class housing, Port-au-Prince, Haiti

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3 Research on Natural Lighting Design of Atriums Based on Energy-Saving Aim

Authors: Fan Yu


An atrium is a place for natural climate exchanging of indoor and outdoor space of buildings, which plays an active role in the overall energy conservation, climate control and environmental purification of buildings. Its greatest contribution is serving as a natural light collector and distributor to solve the problem of natural lighting in large and deep spaces. However, in real situations, the atrium space often results in energy consumption due to improper design in considering its big size and large amount use of glass. Based on the purpose of energy conservation of buildings, this paper emphasizes the significance of natural lighting of atriums. Through literature research, case analysis and other methods, four factors, namely: the light transmittance through the top of the atrium, the geometric proportion of the atrium space, the size and position of windows and the material of the surface of walls in the atrium, were studied, and the influence of different architectural compositions on the natural light distribution of the atrium is discussed. Relying on the analysis of relevant cases, it is proposed that when designing the natural lighting of the atrium, the height and width of the atrium should be paid attention to, the atrium walls are required being rough surfaces and the atrium top-level windows need to be minimized in order to introduce more natural light into the buildings and achieve the purpose of energy conservation.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Energy Conservation, Natural Lighting, atrium

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2 Research on Architectural Steel Structure Design Based on BIM

Authors: Tianyu Gao


Digital architectures use computer-aided design, programming, simulation, and imaging to create virtual forms and physical structures. Today's customers want to know more about their buildings. They want an automatic thermostat to learn their behavior and contact them, such as the doors and windows they want to open with a mobile app. Therefore, the architectural display form is more closely related to the customer's experience. Based on the purpose of building informationization, this paper studies the steel structure design based on BIM. Taking the Zigan office building in Hangzhou as an example, it is divided into four parts, namely, the digital design modulus of the steel structure, the node analysis of the steel structure, the digital production and construction of the steel structure. Through the application of BIM software, the architectural design can be synergized, and the building components can be informationized. Not only can the architectural design be feedback in the early stage, but also the stability of the construction can be guaranteed. In this way, the monitoring of the entire life cycle of the building and the meeting of customer needs can be realized.

Keywords: Architectural Design, bim, Steel Structure, digital architectures

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1 Overview of Research Contexts about XR Technologies in Architectural Practice

Authors: Adeline Stals


The transformation of architectural design practices has been underway for almost forty years due to the development and democratization of computer technology. New and more efficient tools are constantly being proposed to architects, amplifying a technological wave that sometimes stimulates them, sometimes overwhelms them, depending essentially on their digital culture and the context (socio-economic, structural, organizational) in which they work on a daily basis. Our focus is on VR, AR, and MR technologies dedicated to architecture. The commercialization of affordable headsets like the Oculus Rift, the HTC Vive or more low-tech like the Google CardBoard, makes it more accessible to benefit from these technologies. In that regard, researchers report the growing interest of these tools for architects, given the new perspectives they open up in terms of workflow, representation, collaboration, and client’s involvement. However, studies rarely mention the consequences of the sample studied on results. Our research provides an overview of VR, AR, and MR researches among a corpus of papers selected from conferences and journals. A closer look at the sample of these research projects highlights the necessity to take into consideration the context of studies in order to develop tools truly dedicated to the real practices of specific architect profiles. This literature review formalizes milestones for future challenges to address. The methodology applied is based on a systematic review of two sources of publications. The first one is the Cumincad database, which regroups publications from conferences exclusively about digital in architecture. Additionally, the second part of the corpus is based on journal publications. Journals have been selected considering their ranking on Scimago. Among the journals in the predefined category ‘architecture’ and in Quartile 1 for 2018 (last update when consulted), we have retained the ones related to the architectural design process: Design Studies, CoDesign, Architectural Science Review, Frontiers of Architectural Research and Archnet-IJAR. Beside those journals, IJAC, not classified in the ‘architecture’ category, is selected by the author for its adequacy with architecture and computing. For all requests, the search terms were ‘virtual reality’, ‘augmented reality’, and ‘mixed reality’ in title and/or keywords for papers published between 2015 and 2019 (included). This frame time is defined considering the fast evolution of these technologies in the past few years. Accordingly, the systematic review covers 202 publications. The literature review on studies about XR technologies establishes the state of the art of the current situation. It highlights that studies are mostly based on experimental contexts with controlled conditions (pedagogical, e.g.) or on practices established in large architectural offices of international renown. However, few studies focus on the strategies and practices developed by offices of smaller size, which represent the largest part of the market. Indeed, a European survey studying the architectural profession in Europe in 2018 reveals that 99% of offices are composed of less than ten people, and 71% of only one person. The study also showed that the number of medium-sized offices is continuously decreasing in favour of smaller structures. In doing so, a frontier seems to remain between the worlds of research and practice, especially for the majority of small architectural practices having a modest use of technology. This paper constitutes a reference for the next step of the research and for further worldwide researches by facilitating their contextualization.

Keywords: Architectural Design, literature review, SME, XR technologies

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