Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Archaeology Related Abstracts

12 Whether Chaos Theory Could Reconstruct the Ancient Societies

Authors: Zahra Kouzehgari

Abstract:

Since the early emergence of chaos theory in the 1970s in mathematics and physical science, it has increasingly been developed and adapted in social sciences as well. The non-linear and dynamic characteristics of the theory make it a useful conceptual framework to interpret the complex social systems behavior. Regarding chaotic approach principals, sensitivity to initial conditions, dynamic adoption, strange attractors and unpredictability this paper aims to examine whether chaos approach could interpret the ancient social changes. To do this, at first, a brief history of the chaos theory, its development and application in social science as well as the principals making the theory, then its application in archaeological since has been reviewed. The study demonstrates that although based on existing archaeological records reconstruct the whole social system of the human past, the non-linear approaches in studying social complex systems would be of a great help in finding general order of the ancient societies and would enable us to shed light on some of the social phenomena in the human history or to make sense of them.

Keywords: Archaeology, Chaos Theory, non-linear approach, ancient social systems

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11 The Need for Interdisciplinary Approach in Studying Archaeology: An Evolving Cultural Science

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

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Archaeology being the study of mans past using the materials he left behind has been argued to be classified under sciences while some scholars are of the opinion that it does not deserve the status of being referred to as ‘science’. However divergent the opinions of scholars may be on the classification of Archaeology as a science or in the humanities, the discipline has no doubt, greatly aided in shaping the history of man’s past. Through the different stages that the discipline has transgressed, it has encountered some challenges. This paper therefore, attempts to highlight the need for the inclusion of branches of other disciplines when using Archaeology in reconstructing man’s history. The objective of course, is to add to the existing body of knowledge but specifically to expose the incomparable importance of archaeology as a discipline and to place it on such a high scale that it will not be regulated to the background as is done in some Nigerian Universities. The paper attempts a clarification of some conceptual terms and discusses the developmental stages of archaeology. It further describes the present state of the discipline and concludes with the disciplines that need to be imbibed in the use of Archaeology which is an evolving cultural science to obtain the aforementioned interdisciplinary approach.

Keywords: Archaeology, Evolution, Interdisciplinary, Cultural, Science

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10 Evaluation of Fusion Sonar and Stereo Camera System for 3D Reconstruction of Underwater Archaeological Object

Authors: Yadpiroon Onmek, Jean Triboulet, Sebastien Druon, Bruno Jouvencel

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The objective of this paper is to develop the 3D underwater reconstruction of archaeology object, which is based on the fusion between a sonar system and stereo camera system. The underwater images are obtained from a calibrated camera system. The multiples image pairs are input, and we first solve the problem of image processing by applying the well-known filter, therefore to improve the quality of underwater images. The features of interest between image pairs are selected by well-known methods: a FAST detector and FLANN descriptor. Subsequently, the RANSAC method is applied to reject outlier points. The putative inliers are matched by triangulation to produce the local sparse point clouds in 3D space, using a pinhole camera model and Euclidean distance estimation. The SFM technique is used to carry out the global sparse point clouds. Finally, the ICP method is used to fusion the sonar information with the stereo model. The final 3D models have a précised by measurement comparing with the real object.

Keywords: Archaeology, Fusion, Underwater, stereo system, sonar system

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9 Insights into Archaeological Human Sample Microbiome Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

Authors: Alisa Kazarina, Guntis Gerhards, Elina Petersone-Gordina, Ilva Pole, Viktorija Igumnova, Janis Kimsis, Valentina Capligina, Renate Ranka

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Human body is inhabited by a vast number of microorganisms, collectively known as the human microbiome, and there is a tremendous interest in evolutionary changes in human microbial ecology, diversity and function. The field of paleomicrobiology, study of ancient human microbiome, is powered by modern techniques of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), which allows extracting microbial genomic data directly from archaeological sample of interest. One of the major techniques is 16S rRNA gene sequencing, by which certain 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions are being amplified and sequenced. However, some limitations of this method exist including the taxonomic precision and efficacy of different regions used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic sensitivity of different 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions for microbiome studies in the archaeological samples. Towards this aim, archaeological bone samples and corresponding soil samples from each burial environment were collected in Medieval cemeteries in Latvia. The Ion 16S™ Metagenomics Kit targeting different 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions was used for library construction (Ion Torrent technologies). Sequenced data were analysed by using appropriate bioinformatic techniques; alignment and taxonomic representation was done using Mothur program. Sequences of most abundant genus were further aligned to E. coli 16S rRNA gene reference sequence using MEGA7 in order to identify the hypervariable region of the segment of interest. Our results showed that different hypervariable regions had different discriminatory power depending on the groups of microbes, as well as the nature of samples. On the basis of our results, we suggest that wider range of primers used can provide more accurate recapitulation of microbial communities in archaeological samples. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the ERAF grant Nr. 1.1.1.1/16/A/101.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Genomics, Archaeology, Molecular Biology, Microbiome, Next-generation sequencing, ancient human microbiome

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8 An Archaeological Approach to Dating Polities and Architectural Ingenuity in Ijebu, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Olanrewaju B. Lasisi

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The position of Ijebu-Ode, the historical capital of the Ijebu Kingdom, at the center of gravity of Ijebu land is enclosed by the 180-km-long earthwork and suggests a centrally controlled project. This paper reflects on the first stratigraphic drawing of the banks and ditches of this earthwork, and place its construction mechanism in a chronological framework. Nine radiocarbon dates obtained at the site suggest that the earthwork was built in the late 14th or early 15th century. This suggests a relationship with the Ijebu Kingdom, which pre-existed the opening of the Atlantic trade but first became visible only in the Portuguese records in the 1480s. In June 2017, more earthworks were found but within the core of Ijebu Land. This most recent finding points to an extension of territory from the center to the outlying villages. One central question about this discovery of monumental architectures that was functional around the 14th century or before is in its mode of construction. Apparently, iron tools must have been used in the construction of ‘a 20m deep ditch that runs 180km in circumference.’ Thus, the discovery of iron-working sites around the vicinity of the earthwork is a pointer to this building process that is up till now shrouded in mystery. By comparing the chronology of Ijebu earthworks with the evidence of Iron working in south western Nigeria around the first half of the first millennium AD, it can be thought that the rise in polity triggered the knowledge of metallurgy in the region.

Keywords: Archaeology, Metallurgy, Earthworks, Ijebu

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7 Documentation Project on Boat Models from Saqqara, in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mohamoud Ali, Rezq Diab

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This project aims to document and preserve boat models which were discovered in the Saqqara by Czech Institute of Egyptology archeological mission at Saqqara (GEM numbers, 46007, 46008, 46009). These boat models dates back to Egyptian Old Kingdom and have been transferred to the Conservation Center of the Grand Egyptian Museum, to be displayed at the new museum.The project objectives making such boat models more visible to visitors through the use of 3D reconstructed models and high resolution photos which describe the history of using the boats during the Ancient Egyptian history. Especially, The Grand Egyptian Museum is going to exhibit the second boat of King Khufu from Old kingdom. The project goals are to document the boat models and arrange an exhibition, where such Models going to be displayed next to the Khufu Second Boat. The project shows the importance of using boats in Ancient Egypt, and connecting their usage through Ancient Egyptian periods till now. The boat models had a unique Symbolized in ancient Egypt and connect the public with their kings. The Egyptian kings allowed high ranked employees to put boat models in their tombs which has a great meaning that they hope to fellow their kings in the journey of the afterlife.

Keywords: Archaeology, Museums, boat models

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6 The Relationship between Ruins and Vegetation: Different Approaches during the Centuries and within the Various Disciplinary Fields, Investigation of Writings and Projects

Authors: Rossana Mancini

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The charm of a ruin colonised by wild plants and flowers is part of Western culture. The relationship between ruins and vegetation involves a wide range of different fields of research. During the first phase of the research the most important writings and projects about this argument were investigated, to understand how the perception of the co-existence of ruins and vegetation has changed over time and to investigate the various different approaches that these different fields have adopted when tackling this issue. The paper presents some practical examples of projects carried out from the early 1900s on. The major result is that specifically regards conservation, the best attitude is the management of change, an inevitable process when it comes to the co-existence of ruins and nature and, particularly, ruins and vegetation. Limiting ourselves to adopting measures designed to stop, or rather slow down, the increasing level of entropy (and therefore disorder) may not be enough.

Keywords: Archaeology, Architecture, Conservation, Vegetation, ruins

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5 The Ephemeral Re-Use of Cultural Heritage: The Incorporation of the Festival Phenomenon Within Monuments and Archaeological Sites in Lebanon

Authors: Joe Kallas

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It is now widely accepted that the preservation of cultural heritage must go beyond simple restoration and renovation actions. While some historic monuments have been preserved for millennia, many of them, less important or simply neglected because of lack of money, have disappeared. As a result, the adaptation of monuments and archaeological sites to new functions allow them to 'survive'. Temporary activities or 'ephemeral' re-use, are increasingly recognized as a means of vitalization of deprived areas and enhancement of historic sites that became obsolete. They have the potential to increase economic and cultural value while making the best use of existing resources. However, there are often conservation and preservation issues related to the implementation of this type of re-use, which can also threaten the integrity and authenticity of archaeological sites and monuments if they have not been properly managed. This paper aims to get a better knowledge of the ephemeral re-use of heritage, and more specifically the subject of the incorporation of the festival phenomenon within the monuments and archaeological sites in Lebanon, a topic that is not yet studied enough. This paper tried to determine the elements that compose it, in order to analyze this phenomenon and to trace its good practices, by comparing international study cases to important national cases: the International Festival of Baalbek, the International Festival of Byblos and the International Festival of Beiteddine. Various factors have been studied and analyzed in order to best respond to the main problematic of this paper: 'How can we preserve the integrity of sites and monuments after the integration of an ephemeral function? And what are the preventive conservation measures to be taken when holding festivals in archaeological sites with fragile structures?' The impacts of the technical problems were first analyzed using various data and more particularly the effects of mass tourism, the integration of temporary installations, sound vibrations, the effects of unstudied lighting, until the mystification of heritage. Unfortunately, the DGA (General Direction of Antiquities in Lebanon) does not specify any frequency limit for the sound vibrations emitted by the speakers during musical festivals. In addition, there is no requirement from its part regarding the installations of the lighting systems in the historic monuments and no monitoring is done in situ, due to the lack of awareness of the impact that could be generated by such interventions, and due to the lack of materials and tools needed for the monitoring process. The study and analysis of the various data mentioned above led us to the elaboration of the main objective of this paper, which is the establishment of a list of recommendations. This list enables to define various preventive conservation measures to be taken during the holding of the festivals within the cultural heritage sites in Lebanon. We strongly hope that this paper will be an awareness document to start taking into consideration several factors previously neglected, in order to improve the conservation practices in the archaeological sites and monuments during the incorporation of the festival phenomenon.

Keywords: Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, Tourism, Conservation, Integrity, Authenticity, Monuments, festival, historic sites

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4 Tourism Management of the Heritage and Archaeological Sites in Egypt

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy

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The archaeological heritage sites are one of the most important touristic attractions worldwide. Egypt has various archaeological sites and historical locations that are classified within the list of the archaeological heritage destinations in the world, such as Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Alexandria, and Sinai. This study focuses on how to manage the archaeological sites and provide them with all services according to the traveler's needs. Tourism management depends on strategic planning for supporting the national economy and sustainable development. Additionally, tourism management has to utilize highly effective standards of security, promotion, advertisement, sales, and marketing while taking into consideration the preservation of monuments. In Egypt, the archaeological heritage sites must be well-managed and protected, which would assist tourism management, especially in times of crisis. Recently, the monumental places and archeological heritage sites were affected by unstable conditions and were threatened. It is essential to focus on preserving our heritage. Moreover, more efforts and cooperation between the tourism organizations and ministry of archaeology have to be done in order to protect the archaeology and promote the tourism industry. Methodology: Qualitative methods have been used as the overall approach to this study. Interviews and observations have provided the researcher with the required in-depth insight to the research subject. The researcher was a lecturer of tourist guidance that allows visiting all historical sites in Egypt. Additionally, the researcher had the privilege to communicate with tourism specialists and attend meetings, conferences, and events that were focused on the research subject. Objectives: The main purpose of the research was gaining information in order to develop theoretical research on how to effectively benefit out of those historical sights both economically and culturally, and pursue further researches and scientific studies to be well-suited for tourism and hospitality sector. The researcher works hard to present further studies in a field related to tourism and archaeological heritage using previous experience. Pursing this course of study enables the researcher to acquire the necessary abilities and competencies to achieve the set goal successfully. Results: The professional tourism management focus on making Egypt one of the most important destinations in the world, and provide the heritage and archaeological sites with all services that will place those locations into the international map of tourism. Tourists interested in visiting Egypt and making tourism flourish supports and strengths Egypt's national economy and the local community, taking into consideration preserving our heritage and archaeology. Conclusions: Egypt has many tourism attractions represented in the heritage, archaeological sites, and touristic places. These places need more attention and efforts to be included in tourism programs and be opened for visitors from all over the world. These efforts will encourage both local and international tourism to see our great civilization and provide different touristic activities.

Keywords: Archaeology, Tourism Management, heritage, Archaeological Sites, national economy, ministry of archaeology, touristic attractions, tourism organizations

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3 The Impact of Political Events on National Archaeological Heritage and Tourism Industry: Study Case of Egypt after January 25th, 2011

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy

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Tourism plays an essential role in supporting the National Economy. Egypt was ranked as one of the most attractive touristic destinations worldwide. Tourism as a service sector affects political events and unstable conditions. Within the revolution of January 25th, 2011, tourism became below standards, and the archeological heritage sites were subject to threat. Because of the political tension and social instability, Egypt's tourism sector has drastically dropped. Currently, Egypt is working on overcoming the crisis caused by political unrest. However, it is expected to take a long time to get back to where it was, especially in terms of regaining the confidence of travelers in the country's ability to guarantee and maintain security and stability. Recently, many great projects have been done, such as; New Administrative Cairo Capital, New Suez Canal logistic project, New City of Al Alamin, New Grand Egyptian Museum, as well as other great projects that reflect positively on the tourism industry and archaeological heritage development in Egypt.

Keywords: Archaeology, Tourism Industry, Archaeological Heritage, national economy, attractions, political events, touristic destinations

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2 A Site Unexplored: Recently Discovered In Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rifat-Ur- Rahman

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Dhamairnagar, Sirajganj, Bangladesh, local villagers describe the peculiar mounds spotted scattered among the nearby villages as “Buruj”. Among these, a mound was explored in one of these mounds, in Khirtala village, in early 2019. Primary archaeological surveys and map making has been conducted in this site, where suspect lays the remains of an 8 square miles city, at least 1200 years old. In the government gazettes of Bangladesh from 1990, this place has been linked with a mythical kind from the Indian epic, Mahabharata. In the primary explorations, found bricks, mortars, different kinds of potteries and terracotta pieces. Assumable observation is that this city was a flourishing establishment during the early Pala dynasty of Bengal (800 AD to 1200 AD). At present there are four indigenous groups live around this site and they are known as Mahato, Teli, Oraon and Santals. These four indigenous groups are considered as the core four of Bengali ethnicity. In the folklore of these groups we find stories of ancient kingdoms which have not been documented through archaeological findings yet. So, a question rises about the population that was used to reside in this archaeological site. Were they the ancestors of these indigenous tribes that are dwelling in this area? With such primary information, the aim is to conduct a comparative study of the physiology; osteology and cultural practices of this civilization.

Keywords: Archaeology, Physiology, heritage, Indigenous Peoples

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1 Neuroecological Approach for Anthropological Studies in Archaeology

Authors: Kalangi Rodrigo

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The term Neuroecology elucidates the study of customizable variation in cognition and the brain. Subject marked the birth since 1980s, when researches began to apply methods of comparative evolutionary biology to cognitive processes and the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition. In Archaeology and Anthropology, we observe behaviors such as social learning skills, innovative feeding and foraging, tool use and social manipulation to determine the cognitive processes of ancient mankind. Depending on the brainstem size was used as a control variable, and phylogeny was controlled using independent contrasts. Both disciplines need to enriched with comparative literature and neurological experimental, behavioral studies among tribal peoples as well as primate groups which will lead the research to a potential end. Neuroecology examines the relations between ecological selection pressure and mankind or sex differences in cognition and the brain. The goal of neuroecology is to understand how natural law acts on perception and its neural apparatus. Furthermore, neuroecology will eventually lead both principal disciplines to Ethology, where human behaviors and social management studies from a biological perspective. It can be either ethnoarchaeological or prehistoric. Archaeology should adopt general approach of neuroecology, phylogenetic comparative methods can be used in the field, and new findings on the cognitive mechanisms and brain structures involved mating systems, social organization, communication and foraging. The contribution of neuroecology to archaeology and anthropology is the information it provides on the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of cognition and brain structure of the mankind. It will shed a new light to the path of evolutionary studies including behavioral ecology, primate archaeology and cognitive archaeology.

Keywords: Archaeology, cognitive archaeology, Neuroecology, Brain Evolution

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