Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Archaeological Sites Related Abstracts

6 Key Challenges Facing the Management of Archaeological and Tourism Sites in Jordan

Authors: Muna Slehat


Jordan is endowed with over 14,500 productive archaeological sites and also a wealth of heritage sites that need to be protected from the pressing threat of destruction and damage. Archaeological sites in Jordan face significant threats, including insensitive development, urbanization, pollution, tourism, and vandalism, therefore an effective management plan is a key element, not only for the conservation of this heritage, but also to address issues such as tourism and sustainable development. This study highlights the obstacles that confront the management of the archaeological and tourism sites in Jordan, prior to and after the launch of the Strategies for Management of Jordan’s Archaeological Heritage by the Department of Antiquities (DoA) 2007-2010 and 2014-2018, as well as the establishment of the Directorate of the Management of Archaeological Sites in 2010, and instructions for the proper use of tourism sites, 2014, by the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MoTA). The study has revealed that the management of the archaeological and tourism sites under the pretext of improvement of services for tourists and visitors to Jordan would allow access to so-called polarization tourism and facilitate tourism development that would be sustainable economically and provide attractive returns. The data required have been collected through conducting interviews with 18 specialists. The main findings of the study are that management is new in Jordan, and has become a vital and dynamic force in Jordan after 2000 but that there have also been many mistakes, with sustainability of the sites being ignored and a lack of awareness among local communities surrounding these sites. Management of the sites has also suffered from a lack of organizational vision, with no instructions for practical application and no legislative provisions which cater for the efficient management of the sites. All of this needs to be amended to remove gaps, overlaps and ambiguities, so that the authorities responsible for the rehabilitation and promotion, development and management of these sites can overcome the problems, such as lack of human resources (specialists) and financial resources.

Keywords: Management, Challenges, Tourism, Archaeological Sites, jordan

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5 Assessment Proposal to Establish the First Geo-Park in Egypt at Abu-Roash Area, Cairo

Authors: Kholoud Abdelmaksoud, Mahmoud Emam, Wael Al-Metwaly


Egypt is known as cradle of civilization due to its ancient history and archeological sites, but Egypt possess also a cradle of Geo-sites, which qualify it to be listed as one of the most important Geo-heritage sites all over the country. Geology and landscape in Abu-Roash area is considered as one of the most important geological places (geo-sites) inside Cairo which help us to know and understand geology and geologic processes, so the area is used mainly for geological education purposes, also the area contain an archeological sites; pyramid complex, tombs, and Coptic monastery which give the area unique importance. Abu-Roash area is located inside Cairo 9 km north of the Giza Pyramids, which make the accessibility to the area easy and safe, the geology of Abu-Roash constitutes a complex Cretaceous sedimentary succession mass with showing outstanding tectonic features (Syrian Arc system event), these features are considered as a Geo-heritage, which will be the main designation of ‘Geo-parks’ establishing. The research is dealing with the numerous geo-sites found in the area, and its geologic and archeological importance, the relation between geo-sites and archeology, also the research proposed a detailed maps for these sites depicting Geo-routes and the hazardous places surrounding Abu-Roash area. The research is proposing a new proposal not applied in Egypt before, establishing a Geo-park, to promote this unique geo-heritage from hazardous factors and anthropogenic effects, also it will offer geo-educational opportunities to the general public and to the scientific community, enhancement of Geo-tourism which will be linked easily with the Ancient Egyptian tourism, it will also provide a significant economic benefit to Abu-Roash residential area. Finally, the research recommends that The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations promote conservation of geological and geo-morphological heritage to list this area for its importance under the umbrella of geo-parks.

Keywords: Geo-Tourism, Archaeological Sites, geo-park, geo-sites, Abu-roash

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4 Destruction of History and the Syrian Conflict: Upholding the Cultural Integrity of Dura Europos

Authors: Justine A. Lloyd


Since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, the ancient city of Dura-Europos has faced widespread destruction and looting. The site is one of many places in the country the terrorist group ISIS has specifically targeted, allegedly due to its particular representations of Syrian history and culture. However, looted art and artifacts are the extremist group’s second largest source of income, only after oil. The protection of this site is important to both academics and the millions who have called Syria a home, as it aids in the nation’s sense of identity, reveals developments in the arts, and contributes to humanity’s collective history. At a time when Syria’s culture is being flattened, this sense of cultural expression is especially important to maintain. Creating an awareness of the magnitude of the issue at hand begins with an examination of the rich history of the ancient fortress city. Located on the western bank of the Euphrates River, Dura-Europos contains artifacts dating back to the Hellenistic, Parthian, and Roman periods. Though a great deal of the art and artifacts have remained safe in institutions such as the National Museum of Damascus and the Yale University Art Gallery, hundreds of looting pits and use of heavy machinery on the site has severely set back the investigative progress made by archaeologists over the last century, as well as the prospect of future excavation. Further research draws on the current destruction of the site by both ISIS and opportunists involved with the black market. Because Dura-Europos is located in a war stricken region, the acquisition of data and possibility of immediate action is particularly challenging. Resources gained from local reports, in addition to technology such as satellite imagery, however, have provided a firm starting point for the evaluation of the state of the site. The Syrian Ministry of Culture, UNESCO, and numerous Syrian and global organizations provide insight into the historic city’s past, present issues, and future plans to ensure that the cultural integrity of the site is upheld. Though over seventy percent of Dura-Europos has been completely decimated, this research challenges the notion that physically destroyed sites are lost forever. This paper assesses preventative measures that can take place to ensure the preservation of the site’s art and architecture, including examining possible solutions to the damage, such as digital reconstruction, replication, and distribution of information through exhibitions and other forms of publically accessible information. In order to investigate any possible retribution, research also includes the necessary information pertaining the global laws and regulations dealing with cultural heritage, as it directly affects the ways in which this situation can be dealt with. With the countless experts and citizens dedicated to the importance of cultural heritage, the prospect of honoring and valuing elements of Dura-Europos is possible—whether physically preserved or otherwise.

Keywords: Archaeological Sites, restitution, Syrian civil war, antiquities law

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3 Applying Semi-Automatic Digital Aerial Survey Technology and Canopy Characters Classification for Surface Vegetation Interpretation of Archaeological Sites

Authors: Yung-Chung Chuang


The cultural layers of archaeological sites are mainly affected by surface land use, land cover, and root system of surface vegetation. For this reason, continuous monitoring of land use and land cover change is important for archaeological sites protection and management. However, in actual operation, on-site investigation and orthogonal photograph interpretation require a lot of time and manpower. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a good alternative for surface vegetation survey in an automated or semi-automated manner. In this study, we applied semi-automatic digital aerial survey technology and canopy characters classification with very high-resolution aerial photographs for surface vegetation interpretation of archaeological sites. The main idea is based on different landscape or forest type can easily be distinguished with canopy characters (e.g., specific texture distribution, shadow effects and gap characters) extracted by semi-automatic image classification. A novel methodology to classify the shape of canopy characters using landscape indices and multivariate statistics was also proposed. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of canopy character clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy character classification (seven categories). Therefore, people could easily predict the forest type and vegetation land cover by corresponding to the specific canopy character category. The results showed that the semi-automatic classification could effectively extract the canopy characters of forest and vegetation land cover. As for forest type and vegetation type prediction, the average prediction accuracy reached 80.3%~91.7% with different sizes of test frame. It represented this technology is useful for archaeological site survey, and can improve the classification efficiency and data update rate.

Keywords: Archaeological Sites, Multivariate Statistics, digital aerial survey, canopy characters classification

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2 Assessing the Values and Destruction Degree of Archaeological Sites in Taiwan

Authors: Yung-Chung Chuang


Current situation and accumulated development of archaeological sites have very high impacts on the preservation value of the site. This research set 3 archaeological sites in Taiwan as study areas. Assessment of the degree of destruction of cultural layers due to land use change and geomorphological change were conducted with aerial photographs (1976-1978; 2016-2017) and digital aerial survey technology on 2D and 3D geographic information system platforms. The results showed that the archaeological sites were all seriously influenced due to the high land use intensity between 1976-2017. Geomorphological changes caused by human cultivation and engineering construction were main causes of site destruction, especially in private lands. Therefore, urban planning methods for land acquisition or land regulation are necessary.

Keywords: Archaeological Sites, accumulated development, destruction of cultural layers, geomorphological changes

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1 Tourism Management of the Heritage and Archaeological Sites in Egypt

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy


The archaeological heritage sites are one of the most important touristic attractions worldwide. Egypt has various archaeological sites and historical locations that are classified within the list of the archaeological heritage destinations in the world, such as Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Alexandria, and Sinai. This study focuses on how to manage the archaeological sites and provide them with all services according to the traveler's needs. Tourism management depends on strategic planning for supporting the national economy and sustainable development. Additionally, tourism management has to utilize highly effective standards of security, promotion, advertisement, sales, and marketing while taking into consideration the preservation of monuments. In Egypt, the archaeological heritage sites must be well-managed and protected, which would assist tourism management, especially in times of crisis. Recently, the monumental places and archeological heritage sites were affected by unstable conditions and were threatened. It is essential to focus on preserving our heritage. Moreover, more efforts and cooperation between the tourism organizations and ministry of archaeology have to be done in order to protect the archaeology and promote the tourism industry. Methodology: Qualitative methods have been used as the overall approach to this study. Interviews and observations have provided the researcher with the required in-depth insight to the research subject. The researcher was a lecturer of tourist guidance that allows visiting all historical sites in Egypt. Additionally, the researcher had the privilege to communicate with tourism specialists and attend meetings, conferences, and events that were focused on the research subject. Objectives: The main purpose of the research was gaining information in order to develop theoretical research on how to effectively benefit out of those historical sights both economically and culturally, and pursue further researches and scientific studies to be well-suited for tourism and hospitality sector. The researcher works hard to present further studies in a field related to tourism and archaeological heritage using previous experience. Pursing this course of study enables the researcher to acquire the necessary abilities and competencies to achieve the set goal successfully. Results: The professional tourism management focus on making Egypt one of the most important destinations in the world, and provide the heritage and archaeological sites with all services that will place those locations into the international map of tourism. Tourists interested in visiting Egypt and making tourism flourish supports and strengths Egypt's national economy and the local community, taking into consideration preserving our heritage and archaeology. Conclusions: Egypt has many tourism attractions represented in the heritage, archaeological sites, and touristic places. These places need more attention and efforts to be included in tourism programs and be opened for visitors from all over the world. These efforts will encourage both local and international tourism to see our great civilization and provide different touristic activities.

Keywords: Archaeology, Tourism Management, heritage, Archaeological Sites, national economy, ministry of archaeology, touristic attractions, tourism organizations

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