Commenced in January 2007
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arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Related Abstracts

3 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Modulates Antioxidant Capacity of in vitro Propagated Hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis L.

Authors: Ira V. Stancheva, Maria P. Geneva, Marieta G. Hristozkova, Roumiana D. Vasilevska-Ivanova, Mariana T. Sichanova, Janet R. Mincheva

Abstract:

Hyssopus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, commonly called hyssop, is an aromatic, semi-evergreen, woody-based, shrubby perennial plant. Hyssop is a good expectorant and antiviral herb commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as influenza, sinus infections, colds, and bronchitis. Most of its medicinal properties are attributed to the essential oil of hyssop. The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of in vitro propagated hyssop plants on the: activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase; accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants total phenols and flavonoid, water-soluble soluble antioxidant metabolites expressed as ascorbic acid; the antioxidant potential of hyssop methanol extracts assessed by two common methods: free radical scavenging activity using free stable radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH• and ferric reducing antioxidant power FRAP in flowers and leaves. The successfully adapted to field conditions in vitro plants (survival rate 95%) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Claroideoglomus claroideum, ref. EEZ 54). It was established that the activities of enzymes with antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) were significantly higher in leaves than in flowers in both control and mycorrhized plants. In flowers and leaves of inoculated plants, the antioxidant enzymes activity were lower than in non-inoculated plants, only in SOD activity, there was no difference. The content of low molecular metabolites with antioxidant capacity as total phenols, total flavonoids, and water soluble antioxidants was higher in inoculated plants. There were no significant differences between control and inoculated plants both for FRAP and DPPH antioxidant activity. According to plant essential oil content, there was no difference between non-inoculated and inoculated plants. Based on our results we could suggest that antioxidant capacity of in vitro propagated hyssop plant under conditions of cultivation is determined by the phenolic compounds-total phenols and flavonoids as well as by the levels of water-soluble metabolites with antioxidant potential. Acknowledgments: This study was conducted with financial support from National Science Fund at the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, Project DN06/7 17.12.16.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, Hyssopus officinalis L, antioxidant metabolites, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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2 Improvement in Drought Stress Tolerance in Wheat by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Seema Sangwan, Ekta Narwal, Kannepalli Annapurna

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on drought stress tolerance in 3 genotypes of wheat subjected to moderate water stress, i.e. HD 3043 (drought tolerant), HD 2987 (drought tolerant), and HD 2967 (drought sensitive). Various growth parameters were studied, e.g. total dry weight, total shoot and root length, root volume, root surface area, grain weight and number, leaf area, chlorophyll content in leaves, relative water content, number of spores and percent colonisation of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Total dry weight, root surface area and chlorophyll content were found to be significantly high in AMF inoculated plants as compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones and also higher in drought-tolerant varieties of wheat as compared to the sensitive variety HD 2967, in moderate water stress treatments. Leakage of electrolytes was lower in case of AMF inoculated stressed plants. Under continuous water stress, leaf water content and leaf area were significantly increased in AMF inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated stressed plants. Overall, the increased colonisation of roots of wheat by AMF in inoculated plants weather drought tolerant or sensitive could have a beneficial effect in alleviating the harmful effects of water stress in wheat and delaying its senescence.

Keywords: Wheat, stress, Drought, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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1 Characterization of Common Maize Ear Rot Pathogens in Ilesa Nigeria and Their Potential Control Using Selected Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Olumayowa M. Olowe, Michael D. Asemoloye Odunayo J. Olawuyi, Hilda Vasanthakaalam

Abstract:

Poor management of maize ear rot caused by fungal infection in Nigeria affected the quantity and quality of maize. This study, therefore, aims at characterizing and controlling Fusarium strains using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Maize ear showing rot symptoms were obtained from some selected farms located at Ilesa East and West using random sampling technique. Isolation of Fusarium pathogen from infected maize grain was done using direct pour plate method on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and was characterized based on morphological and molecular ITS-amplification methods. The reaction of PVASYN8F2, T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1, and T2LCOMP4 maize varieties, to the Fusarium ear rot pathogens and biocontrol efficacy of the mycorrhizal fungi were assessed on growth, yield, agronomic parameters and symptoms observed. The strains; olowILH1 and olowILH2 identified as Fusarium napiforme were the most dominant and virulent pathogens associated with the maize. They showed genetic similarity with documented ear rot pathogens on NCBI with accession numbers Fusarium proliferatum KT224027, KT224023, and Fusarium sp AY237110. They both exhibited varying inhibitory effects on the three maize varieties compare to control (uninfected plant) which had better growth characteristics. It was also observed that strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2. T2LCOMP4 was generally more susceptible to both fungal strains compared to the other two maize (T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1 and T2LCOMP4 ). In all, strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2, and Glomus clarum had higher inhibitory pathogenic effect against Fusarium strains compared to G. deserticola.

Keywords: Identification, Disease Management, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Fusarium strains

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