Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

ARB Related Abstracts

2 Management Practices in Hypertension: Results of Win-Over-A Pan India Registry

Authors: Abhijit Trailokya, Kamlesh Patel


Background: Hypertension is a common disease seen in clinical practice and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many patients require combination therapy for the management of hypertension. Objective: To evaluate co-morbidities, risk factors and management practices of hypertension in Indian population. Material and methods: A total of 1596 hypertensive adult patients received anti-hypertensive medications were studied in a cross-sectional, multi-centric, non-interventional, observational registry. Statistical analysis: Categories or nominal data was expressed as numbers with percentages. Continuous variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics using mean, SD, and range Chi square test was used for in between group comparison. Results: The study included 73.50% males and 26.50% females. Overweight (50.50%) and obesity (30.01%) was common in the hypertensive patients (n=903). A total of 54.76% patients had history of smoking. Alcohol use (33.08%), sedentary life style (32.96%) and history of tobacco chewing (17.92%) were the other lifestyle habits of hypertensive patients. Diabetes (36.03%) and dyslipidemia (39.79%) history was common in these patients. Family history of hypertension and diabetes was seen in 82.21% and 45.99% patients respectively. Most (89.16%) patients were treated with combination of antihypertensive agents. ARBs were the by far most commonly used agents (91.98%) followed by calcium channel blockers (68.23%) and diuretics (60.21%). ARB was the most (80.35%) preferred agent as monotherapy. ARB was also the most common agent as a component of dual therapy, four drug and five drug combinations. Conclusion: Most of the hypertensive patients need combination treatment with antihypertensive agents. ARBs are the most preferred agents as monotherapy for the management of hypertension. ARBs are also very commonly used as a component of combination therapy during hypertension management.

Keywords: Management, Hypertension, antihypertensive, ARB

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1 Nanoindentation Studies of Metallic Cu-CuZr Composites Synthesized by Accumulative Roll Bonding

Authors: Ehsan Alishahi, Chuang Deng


Materials with microstructural heterogeneity have recently attracted dramatic attention in the materials science community. Although most of the metals are identified as crystalline, the new class of amorphous alloys, sometimes are known as metallic glasses (MGs), exhibited remarkable properties, particularly high mechanical strength and elastic limit. The unique properties of MGs led to the wide range of studies in developing and characterizing of new alloys or composites which met the commercial desires. In spite of applicable properties of MGs, commercializing of metallic glasses was limited due to a major drawback, the lack of ductility and sudden brittle failure mode. Hence, crystalline-amorphous (C-A) composites were introduced almost in 2000s as a toughening strategy to improve the ductility of MGs. Despite the considerable progress reported in previous studies, there are still challenges in both synthesis and characterization of metallic C-A composites. In this study, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was used to synthesize bulk crystalline-amorphous composites starting from crystalline Cu-Zr multilayers. Due to the severe plastic deformation state, new CuZr phases were formed during the rolling process which was reflected in SEM-EDS analysis. EDS elemental analysis showed the variation in the composition of CuZr phases such as 38-62, 50-50 to 68-32 at Cu-Zr % respectively. Moreover, TEM with electron diffraction analysis indicated the presence of both crystalline and amorphous structures for the new formed CuZr phases. In addition to the microstructural analysis, the mechanical properties of the synthesized composites were studied using the nanoindentation technique. Hysitron Nanoindentation instrument was used to conduct nanoindentation tests with cube corner tip. The maximum load of 5000 ┬ÁN was applied in load control mode to measure the elastic modulus and hardness of different phases. The trend of results indicated three distinct regimes of hardness and elastic modulus including pure Cu, pure Zr, and new formed CuZr phases. More specifically, pure Cu regions showed the lowest values for both nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus while the CuZr phases take the highest values. Consequently, pure Zr was placed in the intermediate range which is harder than pure Cu but softer than CuZr phases. In overall, it was found that CuZr phases with higher hardness were nucleated during ARB process as a result of mechanical alloying phenomenon.

Keywords: Mechanical Alloying, ARB, crystalline-amorphous composites, nanoindentation hardness

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