Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Aquatic Plants Related Abstracts

6 Performance of Phytogreen Zone for BOD5 and SS Removal for Refurbishment Conventional Oxidation Pond in an Integrated Phytogreen System

Authors: S. Sulaiman, A. R. Abdul Syukor, A. W. Zularisam, Z. Ideris, M. S. Mohd Ismid, H. M. Nakmal, A. H. Hasmanie, M. R. Siti Norsita, M. Nasrullah


In this study, the effectiveness of integrated aquatic plants in phytogreen zone was studied and statistical analysis for the promotional integrated phytogreen system approached was discussed. It was found that the effectiveness of using aquatic plant such as Typha angustifolia sp., Lepironia articulata sp., Limnocharis flava sp., Monochoria vaginalis sp., Pistia stratiotes sp., and Eichhornia crassipes sp. in the conventional oxidation pond process in order to comply the standard A according to Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127); Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009 for effluent discharge into inland water near the residential area was successfully shown. It was concluded that the integrated phytogreen system developed in this study has great potential for refurbishment wastewater in conventional oxidation pond.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Aquatic Plants, integrated phytogreen system, sewage treatment plant, oxidation pond

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5 Reducing Metabolism Residues in Maintenance Goldfish (Carrasius auratus auratus) by Phytoremediation Plant

Authors: Anna Nurkhasanah, Hamzah Muhammad Ihsan, Nurul Wulandari


Water quality affects the body condition of aquatic organisms. One of the methods to manage water quality, usually called phytoremediation, involves using aquatic plants. The purpose of this study is to find out the best aquatic plants to reducing metabolism residues from aquatic organism. 5 aquariums (40x30x30 cm) containing 100 grams from each 4 different plants such as water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), salvinia (Salvinia molesta), cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana), and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), thirteen goldfis (Carrasius auratus auratus) are maintained. The maintenance is conducted through a week and water quality measurements are performed three times. The results show that pH value tends to range between 7,22-8,72. The temperature varies between 25-26 °C. DO values varies between 5,2-10,5 mg/L. Amoniac value is between 0,005–5,2 mg/L. Nitrite value is between 0,005 mg/L-2,356 mg/L. Nitrate value is between 0,791 mg/L-1,737 mg/L. CO2 value is between 2,2 mg/L-6,1 mg/L. The result of survival rate of goldfish for all treatments is 100%. Based on this study, the best aquatic plant to reduce metabolism residues is hydrilla.

Keywords: Water Quality, Phytoremediation, Goldfish, Aquatic Plants

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4 Roles of Aquatic Plants on Erosion Relief of Stream Bed

Authors: Jin-Hong Kim


Roles of the vegetation to mitigate the erosion of the stream bed or to facilitate the deposition of the fine sediments by the species of the aquatic plants were presented. Field investigation on the estimation of the change of the bed level and the estimation of the flow characteristics were performed. The results showed that Phragmites japonica has the mitigation function of 0.3m-0.4m of the erosion in the range of higher than 1.0m/s of flow velocity at the vegetated region. Phragmites communis has the mitigation function of 0.2m-0.3m of the erosion in the range of higher than 0.7m/s of flow velocity at the vegetated region. Salix gracilistyla has greater role than Phragmites japonica and Phragmites communis to sustain the stable channel. It has the mitigation function of 0.4m-0.5m of the erosion in the range of higher than 1.4m/s of flow velocity. Miscanthus sacchariflorus has a weak role compared with that of Phragmites japonica and Salix gracilistyla, but it has still function for sustaining the stable bed. From these results, the vegetation has effective roles to mitigate the erosion or to facilitate the deposition of the stream bed.

Keywords: Aquatic Plants, Phragmites japonica, Phragmites communis, Salix gracilistyla

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3 The Aquatic Plants Community in the Owena-Idanre Section of the Owena River of Ondo State

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, Rafiu O. Sanni, Rotimi F. Olaniyan, Abayomi O. Olajuyigbe


The Owena River lies within the drainage basins of the Oni, Siluko, and Ogbesse rivers. The river’s immediate surroundings are covered by dense forests, interspersed by plantations of cocoa, oil palm, kolanut, bananas, and other crops. The objectives were to identify the aquatic plants community, comprising the algae and aquatic macrophytes, observe their population dynamics in relation to the two seasons and identify their economic importance, especially to the neighbouring community. The study sites were determined using a stratified sampling method. Three strata were marked out for sampling namely strata I (upstream)–5 stations, strata II (reservoir) –2 stations, and strata III (outflow) 2 stations. These nine stations were tagged st1, st2, st3…st9. The aquatic macrophytes were collected using standard methods and identified at the University of Ibadan herbarium while the algal samples were collected using standard methods for microalgae. The periphytonic species were scraped from surfaces of rocks (perilithic), sucked with large syringe from mud (epipellic), scraped from suspended logs, washed from roots of aquatic angiosperms (epiphytic), as well as shaken from other particles such as suspended plant parts. Some were collected physically by scooping floating thallus of non-microscopic multicellular forms. The specimens were taken to the laboratory and observed under a microscope with mounted digital camera for photomicrography. Identification was done using Prescott.

Keywords: Algae, Aquatic Plants, Owena river, aquatic macrophytes

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2 Impact of Water Courses Lining on Water Quality and Distribution of Aquatic Vegetations in Two Egyptian Governorates

Authors: Nahed M. M. Ismail, Bayoumy B. Mostafa, Ahmed Abdel-Kader, Khalil M. El-Said, Asmaa Abdel-Motleb, Hoda M. Abu Taleb


This study was carried out in lined and unlined watercourses in Beheira and Giza governorates to investigate the effect of water canals lining on water quality and aquatic vegetations. Samples of water and aquatic plants were collected from the examining sites during four seasons in two successive years. The main ecological parameters were recorded and water quality was measured. Results showed that the mean value of water conductivity and total dissolved salts in lined sites was significantly lower than those of unlined ones (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). In Beheira, the dissolved oxygen concentrations during autumn and winter were higher in lined sites (3.93±1.3 and 9.6±1.1 ppm, respectively) than those of unlined ones (the same values of 1.2±0.6 ppm). However, it represented by lower values of 5.77±6.05 and 4.9±1.8 ppm in lined watercourses in spring and summer, respectively, comparing with those in unlined ones (14.05±5.59 and 5.83±0.8 ppm, respectively). Generally, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cd were higher in both lined and unlined sites during summer than the other seasons. However, Zn and Fe were higher in lined sites (0.78±0.37 and 17.4±4.3 ppb, respectively) during summer than that of unlined ones (0.4±0.1 and 10.95±1.93 ppb, respectively). Cu was absent during summer in lined and unlined sites and only in unlined ones during spring. Regarding to Giza sites, Cu and Pb were absent in both lined and unlined sites during summer and only in unlined ones during spring. Whereas, Fe recorded higher values in autumn in both lined (8.8±20.1 ppb) and unlined sites (15.16±3 ppb) than the other seasons. Present survey study revealed that 13 species of aquatic plants were collected from lined and unlined sites in Beheira and Giza governorates. Eichhornia crassipes, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Potamogeton sp. were the only plant species infested the examined sites during autumn and winter in Beheira. In autumn C. demersum was the only plant found in lined sites represented by highly lower significant percentage (12.5% of the all examined sites) compared to the unlined sites (50%). E. crassipes was completely absent in the lined sites during the two seasons. In spring, there is only 3 plant species in lined sites compared to 6 ones in unlined. Also, in summer, there is only 2 species in lined sites comparing with 5 in unlined. The percentage of occurrence and density of these plants was highly significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) higher in unlined sites compared to the lined ones during all seasons. A diversity of plant species, E. crassipes, C. demersum, Jussias repens, Lemma giba, and Polygonum serr were the most abundant in many examined sites during all seasons in Giza. In summer, the percentage of sites containing the two plants E. crassipes (83.3%) and C. demersum (50%) was highly significant (p < 0.001) higher in unlined sites compared to the lined ones (50% and 0.0%, respectively). It concluded from the results that watercourses lining may play a significant role in preserving water with a good quality and reduces the distribution of aquatic vegetation which rendered the current of water.

Keywords: Water Quality, Aquatic Plants, physicochemical parameters, lining of watercourses

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1 The Role of Two Macrophyte Species in Mineral Nutrient Cycling in Human-Impacted Water Reservoirs

Authors: Ludmila Polechonska, Agnieszka Klink


The biogeochemical studies of macrophytes shed light on elements bioavailability, transfer through the food webs and their possible effects on the biota, and provide a basis for their practical application in aquatic monitoring and remediation. Measuring the accumulation of elements in plants can provide time-integrated information about the presence of chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the contents of micro- and macroelements in two cosmopolitan macrophytes, submerged Ceratophyllum demersum (hornworth) and free-floating Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit), in order to assess their bioaccumulation potential, elements stock accumulated in each plant and their role in nutrients cycling in small water reservoirs. Sampling sites were designated in 25 oxbow lakes in urban areas in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). In each sampling site, fresh whole plants of C. demersum and H. morsus-ranae were collected from squares of 1x1 meters each where the species coexisted. European frog-bit was separated into leaves, stems and roots. For biomass measurement all plants growing on 1 square meter were collected, dried and weighed. At the same time, water samples were collected from each reservoir and their pH and EC were determined. Water samples were filtered and acidified and plant samples were digested in concentrated nitric acid. Next, the content of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn was determined using atomic absorption method (AAS). Statistical analysis showed that C. demersum and organs of H. morsus-ranae differed significantly in respect of metals content (Kruskal-Wallis Anova, p<0.05). Contents of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were higher in hornwort, while European frog-bit contained more Ca, Fe, K, Mg. Bioaccumulation Factors (BCF=content in plant/concentration in water) showed similar pattern of metal bioaccumulation – microelements were more intensively accumulated by hornwort and macroelements by frog-bit. Based on BCF values both species may be positively evaluated as good accumulators of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. However, the distribution of metals in H. morsus-ranae was uneven – the majority of studied elements were retained in roots, which may indicate to existence of physiological barriers developed for dealing with toxicity. Some percent of Ca and K was actively transported to stems, but to leaves Mg only. Although the biomass of C. demersum was two times greater than biomass of H. morsus-ranae, the element off-take was greater only for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn. Nevertheless, it can be stated that despite a relatively small biomass, compared to other macrophytes, both species may have an influence on the removal of trace elements from aquatic ecosystems and, as they serve as food for some animals, also on the incorporation of toxic elements into food chains. There was a significant positive correlation between content of Mn and Fe in water and roots of H. morus-ranae (R=0.51 and R=0.60, respectively) as well as between Cu concentration in water and in C. demersum (R=0.41) (Spearman rank correlation, p<0.05). High bioaccumulation rates and correlation between plants and water elements concentrations point to their possible use as passive biomonitors of aquatic pollution.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Biomonitoring, Trace Metals, Aquatic Plants, bioaccumulation, macroelements

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