Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Aquaculture Related Abstracts

25 Modeling the Impact of Aquaculture in Wetland Ecosystems Using an Integrated Ecosystem Approach: Case Study of Setiu Wetlands, Malaysia

Authors: Roseliza Mat Alipiah, David Raffaelli, J. C. R. Smart

Abstract:

This research is a new approach as it integrates information from both environmental and social sciences to inform effective management of the wetlands. A three-stage research framework was developed for modelling the drivers and pressures imposed on the wetlands and their impacts to the ecosystem and the local communities. Firstly, a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was used to predict the probability of anthropogenic activities affecting the delivery of different key wetland ecosystem services under different management scenarios. Secondly, Choice Experiments (CEs) were used to quantify the relative preferences which key wetland stakeholder group (aquaculturists) held for delivery of different levels of these key ecosystem services. Thirdly, a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was applied to produce an ordinal ranking of the alternative management scenarios accounting for their impacts upon ecosystem service delivery as perceived through the preferences of the aquaculturists. This integrated ecosystem management approach was applied to a wetland ecosystem in Setiu, Terengganu, Malaysia which currently supports a significant level of aquaculture activities. This research has produced clear guidelines to inform policy makers considering alternative wetland management scenarios: Intensive Aquaculture, Conservation or Ecotourism, in addition to the Status Quo. The findings of this research are as follows: The BBN revealed that current aquaculture activity is likely to have significant impacts on water column nutrient enrichment, but trivial impacts on caged fish biomass, especially under the Intensive Aquaculture scenario. Secondly, the best fitting CE models identified several stakeholder sub-groups for aquaculturists, each with distinct sets of preferences for the delivery of key ecosystem services. Thirdly, the MCDA identified Conservation as the most desirable scenario overall based on ordinal ranking in the eyes of most of the stakeholder sub-groups. Ecotourism and Status Quo scenarios were the next most preferred and Intensive Aquaculture was the least desirable scenario. The methodologies developed through this research provide an opportunity for improving planning and decision making processes that aim to deliver sustainable management of wetland ecosystems in Malaysia.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Bayesian belief network (BBN), choice experiments (CE), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)

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24 Evaluation of the Socio-Economic Impact of Marine Debris in Coastal Nigeria

Authors: Chibuzo Okoye Daniels, Gillian Glegg, Lynda Rodwell

Abstract:

Marine debris from fishing nets to medical equipment to food packaging that play major roles in boosting the economy and protecting human health is now more than an environmental problem that can be solved by legislation, law enforcement and technical solutions. It has also been identified as a cultural problem that can only be addressed by identifying instruments that can be used to change human attitudes and behaviors. This may be through management approaches, education and involvement of all sectors/interests, including the public. To contribute to the sustainable development of coastal Nigeria, two case study areas (Ikoyi and Victoria Islands of Lagos State) were used to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of marine debris problem in coastal Nigeria. The following methods were used: (1) semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and businesses on beaches, waterfronts and waterways within the study areas and (2) observational study of beaches, waterfronts and waterways within the study areas. The results of the study have shown that marine debris is a cultural and multi-sectoral problem that poses great threat not only to the environmental sustainability of the study areas but also to the wellbeing of its citizens and the economy of coastal Nigeria. Current solid waste and marine debris management practices are inefficient due to inadequate knowledge of how to tackle the problem. To ensure environmental sustainability in coastal Nigeria and avoid waste of scarce financial resources, adequate, appropriate and cost effective solutions to the marine debris problem need to be identified and effectively transferred for implementation in the study areas.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Sustainability, coastal Nigeria, study areas

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23 Management Challenges and Product Quality of Fish Farms in Greece

Authors: S. Anastasiou, C. Nathanailides, G. Kanlis, S. Logothetis

Abstract:

The Greek aquaculture industry is second most important economic sector for the growth of the Greek Economy. The purpose of the present work is to present some data for the management challenges that the Aquaculture industry in Greece is currently facing. Currently the Greek aquaculture industry is going through a series of mergers and restructure. The financial status of the different aquaculture companies, the working conditions and management practices may vary according to lending exposure, market mix, company size, and technological parameters of the different fish farm units and rearing systems. Frequently, the aquaculture personnel are exposed to harsh environmental conditions and to occupational risk. Furthermore, there is pressure on the personnel of fish farms to constantly improve their production efficiency and to enhance their work skills to the new methods and practices which are adopted by the aquaculture industry. There is some data to suggest the existence of gender inequality in the workforce of Greek fish farms. Women are paid less, frequently absent higher managerial positions and most of the male workmates consider the job to harsh for women. Nevertheless, high level of job satisfaction was observed in both men and women. This high level of job satisfaction of the aquaculture personnel can be attributed, at least partially, to the nature of the work which has a very distinct working environment but most of the staff has very positive experiences with the interaction with their workmates and the satisfaction of being in a business which always exceeds its production target. Indeed, there is some evidence to suggest that the Greek aquaculture industry is always exceeding its production targets, while it is rapidly adopting and improving new technology, constantly improving of human resources management practices, which include constant training of the staff, very good communication channels between management and the personnel and reducing the risk of occupational hazard to the aquaculture personnel. All these parameters of management may have a determining role for the volume and quality of the production and future of this sector in Greece.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Management, fish quality, production targets

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22 Participation in the Decision Making and Job Satisfaction in Greek Fish Farms

Authors: S. Anastasiou, C. Nathanailides

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There is considerable evidence to suggest that employees participation in the decision-making process of an organisation, has a positive effect on job satisfaction and work performance of the employees. The purpose of the present work was to examine the HRM practices, demographics and the level of job satisfaction of employees in Greek Aquaculture fish farms. A survey of employees (n=86) in 6 Greek Aquaculture Firms was carried out. The results indicate that HRM practices such as recruitment of the personnel and communication between the departments did not vary between different firms. The most frequent method of recruitment was through the professional network or the personal network of the managers. The preferred method of HRM communication was through the line managers and through group meeting. The level of job satisfaction increased with work experience participation and participation in the decision making process. A high percentage of the employees (81,3%±8.39) felt that they frequently participated in the decision making process. The Aquaculture employees exhibited high level of job satisfaction (88,1±6.95). The level of job satisfaction was related with participation in the decision making process (-0.633, P<0.05) but was not related with as age or gender. In terms of the working conditions, employees were mostly satisfied with their work itself, their colleagues and mostly dissatisfied with working hours, salary issues and low prospects of pay rises.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Human Resources, Job Satisfaction

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21 Seasonal Variability of the Price and Quality of Fresh Red Porgy Fish Sold in the Local Market of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece

Authors: C. Nathanailides, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis S. Anastasiou, L. Kokokiris, P. Mpeza

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Farmed Red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) is one of the “new candidate fish species” for the diversification of Mediterranean aquaculture which is predomintly based on the cultivation of the European sea bass, (Dicenfrarchus labrax), and the gilthead sea bream, (Sparus aurata). The quality of farmed red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) was investigated with samples obtained from the local fish market in the region of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece. Sample of the fish (ungutted and with scales) were purchased from three local fish mongers and transported to the laboratory within few minutes in foamed polystyrene boxes in ice. The average weight of whole fish ranged between 271-289g. A sample of the fish flesh taken from the upper epaxial region was transferred aseptically to a stomacher bag containing sterile Buffered Peptone Water solution (0.1%) and homogenized. After serial dilutions in 0.1% peptone water, the homogenates were spread on the surface of agar plates. Total viable counts (TVC) were determined using plate count agar after incubation at 30 oC for 3 days. The quality attributes monitored during the present work included bacterial load (total mesophilic) and the pH of the flesh. There was a marginal increase in the price of fresh red porgy sold during the summer time, with prices ranging, over a period of four seasons, from 5.85 to 7.5 per kilo. The results of the microbiological analysis indicate that with the exception of summer samples (which exhibited 5.23 (±0.13) log cfu/g), the bacterial load remained well below the legal limits and was around 3.1 log cfu/g. The pH values varied between 6.54 and 6.69. The results indicate a possible influence of season on the bacterial load of fish sold in the market. Nevertheless, the parameters investigated in the present work indicate that the bacteria load was well below the legal limit and that fish were sold within few days after harvesting. The peak of bacterial load in the summer samples may be a result of a post-harvesting contamination of the farmed fish and temperature fluctuations during handling and transportation.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Marketing, fish quality, Pagrus pagrus

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20 Growth Response and Nutrient Utilization of African Mud Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Fed Processed Macroalgae and Macroalgae-Based Formulated Feeds

Authors: A. O Amosu, A. M Hammed, G. W. Maneveldt, D. V. Robertson-Andersson

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In aquaculture, feed utilization is an important factor affecting growth of the target species, and thus the success of the aquaculture operation. Growth of C. gariepinus fingerlings (weight 1.60 ± 0.05 g; length 4.50 ± 0.07cm) was monitored in a closed door hatchery for a period of 21 days in an experiment consisting of 4 treatments stocked at 20 fish/10 litre tanks, fed in triplicate twice daily (08:30, 17:30) at 4% body weight with weight changes recorded every 3 days. Treatments were: 1) FeedX; 2) 35% crude protein diet + non enriched Ulva spp (11.18% crude protein) (CD + NEU); 3) 35% crude protein diet + enriched Ulva spp (11.98% crude protein)(CD +EU) and 4) control diet of 35% crude protein (CD). The production of Ulva spp. biomass was cultivated for a period of 3 months. The result shows that the fish fed macroalgal enriched diet had good growth, though no significant difference (p > 0.05) was recorded amongst the weight gain, %weight gain, specific growth rates and nitrogen metabolism of diets CD + NEU, CD + EU and CD. Significant differences (p < 0.05), were, however, found in the food conversion ratio (FCR) and gross food conversion ratio (gFCR) among the fingerlings across all the different experimental diets. The best FCRs were recorded for control diet (0.79 ± 2.39) and the Ulva enriched (1.75 ± 1.34) diets. The results suggest that the fingerlings were able to utilize Ulva supplemented with control diet better than the FeedX. We have shown that Ulva supplemented diets are good substitutes for formulated and commercial feeds, with potential to be successful fish feed in aquaculture systems.

Keywords: Aquaculture, nutrient, Growth, macroalgae, Clarias gariepinus, ulva

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19 Technological Innovation and Efficiency of Production of the Greek Aquaculture Industry

Authors: S. Anastasiou, C. Nathanailides, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis, A. Dimitroglou

Abstract:

In the present work we reviewed historical data of the Greek Marine aquaculture industry including adoption of new methods and technological innovation. The results indicate that the industry exhibited a rapid rise in production efficiency, employment and adoption of new technologies which reduced outbreaks of diseases, reduced production risk and the price of the farmed fish. The improvements of total quality practices and technological input on the Greek Aquaculture industry include improved survival, growth and body shape of farmed fish, which resulted from development of new aquaculture feeds and the genetic selection of the bloodstock. Also improvements in the quality of the final product were achieved via technological input in the methods and technology applied during harvesting, packaging, and transportation-preservation of farmed fish ensuring high quality of the product from the fish farm to the plate of the consumers. These parameters (health management, nutrition, genetics, harvesting and post-harvesting methods and technology) changed significantly over the last twenty years and the results of these improvements are reflected in the production efficiency of the Aquaculture industry and the quality of the final product. It is concluded that the Greek aquaculture industry exhibited a rapid growth, adoption of technologies and supply was stabilized after the global financial crisis, nevertheless, the development of the Greek aquaculture industry is currently limited by international trade sanctions, credit crunch, and increased taxation and not by limited technology or resources.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Management, Innovation, Total Quality

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18 Review of the Nutritional Value of Spirulina as a Potential Replacement of Fishmeal in Aquafeed

Authors: Onada Olawale Ahmed

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As the intensification of aquaculture production increases on global scale, the growing concern of fish farmers around the world is related to cost of fish production, where cost of feeding takes substantial percentage. Fishmeal (FM) is one of the most expensive ingredients, and its high dependence in aqua-feed production translates to high cost of feeding of stocked fish. However, to reach a sustainable aquaculture, new alternative protein sources including cheaper plant or animal origin proteins are needed to be introduced for stable aqua-feed production. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has good nutrient profile that could be useful in aquaculture. This review therefore emphasizes on the nutritional value of Spirulina as a potential replacement of FM in aqua-feed. Spirulina is a planktonic photosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium that forms massive populations in tropical and subtropical bodies of water with high levels of carbonate and bicarbonate. Spirulina grows naturally in nutrient rich alkaline lake with water salinity ( > 30 g/l) and high pH (8.5–11.0). Its artificial production requires luminosity (photo-period 12/12, 4 luxes), temperature (30 °C), inoculum, water stirring device, dissolved solids (10–60 g/litre), pH (8.5– 10.5), good water quality, and macro and micronutrient presence (C, N, P, K, S, Mg, Na, Cl, Ca and Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Se). Spirulina has also been reported to grow on agro-industrial waste such as sugar mill waste effluent, poultry industry waste, fertilizer factory waste, and urban waste and organic matter. Chemical composition of Spirulina indicates that it has high nutritional value due to its content of 55-70% protein, 14-19% soluble carbohydrate, high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 1.5–2.0 percent of 5–6 percent total lipid, all the essential minerals are available in spirulina which contributes about 7 percent (average range 2.76–3.00 percent of total weight) under laboratory conditions, β-carotene, B-group vitamin, vitamin E, iron, potassium and chlorophyll are also available in spirulina. Spirulina protein has a balanced composition of amino acids with concentration of methionine, tryptophan and other amino acids almost similar to those of casein, although, this depends upon the culture media used. Positive effects of spirulina on growth, feed utilization and stress and disease resistance of cultured fish have been reported in earlier studies. Spirulina was reported to replace up to 40% of fishmeal protein in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) diet and even higher replacement of fishmeal was possible in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), partial replacement of fish meal with spirulina in diets for parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) has also been conducted. Spirulina have considerable potential for development, especially as a small-scale crop for nutritional enhancement and health improvement of fish. It is important therefore that more research needs to be conducted on its production, inclusion level in aqua-feed and its possible potential use of aquaculture.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Fish feed, fish nutrition, Spirulina

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17 The Role of Biosecurity in Sustainable Aquaculture

Authors: Barbara Montwill

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The last three decades of continuing increase in the farming of aquatic animals worldwide placed a biosecurity in a different perspective. An introduction of new countries, technologies, species to aquaculture, increased movement of animals are a few factors the might be associated with biosecurity risks. Most farms depend on trade for various inputs such as broodstock, post-larvae/fingerlings and feed. These inputs represent potential pathways by which pathogens can enter farming operations and create conditions for emergence of new or reoccurrence of diseases and production loses. Farm biosecurity should be considered an essential component of a national aquatic animal biosecurity program and together with adequate import and export controls can lead to the development of successful aquaculture industry as a reliable source of safe seafood product. This presentation would describe some biosecurity management approaches to minimize the negative impact of aquatic diseases on production and preserve the power of antibiotics.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Biosecurity, Antibiotics, antibiotics residues

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16 An Economic Study for Fish Production in Egypt

Authors: Manal Elsayed Elkheshin, Rasha Saleh Mansour, Mohamed Fawzy Mohamed Eldnasury, Mamdouh Elbadry Mohamed

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This research Aims to identify the main factors affecting the production and the fish consumption in Egypt, through the econometric estimation for various forms functions of fish production and fish consumption during the period (1991-2014), as the aim of this research to forecast the production and the fish consumption in Egypt until 2020, through determine the best standard methods using (ARIMA).This research also aims to the economic feasibility of the production of fish in aquaculture farms study; investment cost and represents the value of land, buildings, equipment and irrigation. Aquaculture requires three types of fish (Tilapia, carp fish, and mullet fish), and the total area of the farm, about an acre. The annual Fish production from this project about 3.5 tons. The annual investment costs of about 50500 pounds, Find conclude that the project can repay the cost of their investments after about 4 years and 5 months, and therefore recommend the implementation of the project, and internal rate of return reached (IRR) of about 22.1%, where it is clear that the rate of large internal rate of return, and achieves pound invested in this project annual return is estimated at 22.1 pounds, more than the opportunity cost, so we recommend the need to implement the project.Recommendations:1. Increasing the fish agriculture to decrease the gap of animal protein. 2.Increasing the number of mechanism fishing boats, and the provision of transport equipped to maintain the quality of fish production. 3.Encourage and attract the local and foreign investments, providing advice to the investor on the aquaculture field. 4. Action newsletters awareness of the importance of these projects where these projects resulted in a net profit after recovery in less than five years, IRR amounted to about 23%, which is much more than the opportunity cost of a bank interest rate is about 7%, helping to create work and graduates opportunities, and contribute to the reduction of imports of the fish, and improve the performance of the food trade balance.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Production, consumption, Fish Production, feasibility study, equation model, individual share, red meat, endogenous variable, exogenous variable, financial performance evaluates fish culture

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15 Optimization of Groundwater Utilization in Fish Aquaculture

Authors: M. Ahmed Eldesouky, S. Nasr, A. Beltagy

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Groundwater is generally considered as the best source for aquaculture as it is well protected from contamination. The most common problem limiting the use of groundwater in Egypt is its high iron, manganese and ammonia content. This problem is often overcome by applying the treatment before use. Aeration in many cases is not enough to oxidize iron and manganese in complex forms with organics. Most of the treatment we use potassium permanganate as an oxidizer followed by a pressurized closed green sand filter. The aim of present study is to investigate the optimum characteristics of groundwater to give lowest iron, manganese and ammonia, maximum production and quality of fish in aquaculture in El-Max Research Station. The major design goal of the system was determined the optimum time for harvesting the treated water, pH, and Glauconite weight to use it for aquaculture process in the research site and achieve the Egyptian law (48/1982) and EPA level required for aquaculture. The water characteristics are [Fe = 0.116 mg/L, Mn = 1.36 mg/L,TN = 0.44 mg/L , TP = 0.07 mg/L , Ammonia = 0.386 mg/L] by using the glauconite filter we obtained high efficiency for removal for [(Fe, Mn and Ammonia] ,but in the Lab we obtained result for (Fe, 43-97), ( Mn,92-99 ), and ( Ammonia, 66-88 )]. We summarized the results to show the optimum time, pH, Glauconite weight, and the best model for design in the region.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Groundwater, Groundwater Treatment, ammonia in groundwater, iron and manganese in water

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14 Harnessing Environmental DNA to Assess the Environmental Sustainability of Commercial Shellfish Aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest United States

Authors: James Kralj

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Commercial shellfish aquaculture makes significant contributions to the economy and culture of the Pacific Northwest United States. The industry faces intense pressure to minimize environmental impacts as a result of Federal policies like the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act and the Endangered Species Act. These policies demand the protection of essential fish habitat and declare several salmon species as endangered. Consequently, numerous projects related to the protection and rehabilitation of eelgrass beds, a crucial ecosystem for countless fish species, have been proposed at both state and federal levels. Both eelgrass beds and commercial shellfish farms occupy the same physical space, and therefore understanding the effects of shellfish aquaculture on eelgrass ecosystems has become a top ecological and economic priority of both government and industry. This study evaluates the organismal communities that eelgrass and oyster aquaculture habitats support. Water samples were collected from Willapa Bay, Washington; Tillamook Bay, Oregon; Humboldt Bay, California; and Sammish Bay, Washington to compare species diversity in eelgrass beds, oyster aquaculture plots, and boundary edges between these two habitats. Diversity was assessed using a novel technique: environmental DNA (eDNA). All organisms constantly shed small pieces of DNA into their surrounding environment through the loss of skin, hair, tissues, and waste. In the marine environment, this DNA becomes suspended in the water column allowing it to be easily collected. Once extracted and sequenced, this eDNA can be used to paint a picture of all the organisms that live in a particular habitat making it a powerful technology for environmental monitoring. Industry professionals and government officials should consider these findings to better inform future policies regulating eelgrass beds and oyster aquaculture. Furthermore, the information collected in this study may be used to improve the environmental sustainability of commercial shellfish aquaculture while simultaneously enhancing its growth and profitability in the face of ever-changing political and ecological landscapes.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Sustainability, Shellfish, environmental DNA

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13 Achievement of Sustainable Groundwater Exploitation through the Introduction of Water-Efficient Usage Techniques in Fish Farms

Authors: Lusine Tadevosyan, Natella Mirzoyan, Anna Yeritsyan, Narek Avetisyan

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Due to high quality, the artesian groundwater is the main source of water supply for the fisheries in Ararat Valley, Armenia. From 1.6 billion m3 abstracted groundwater in 2016, half was used by fish farms. Yet, the inefficient water use, typical for low-intensity aquaculture systems in Ararat Valley, has become a key environmental issue in Armenia. In addition to excessive pure groundwater exploitation, which along with other sectors of groundwater use in this area resulted in the reduction of artesian zone by approximately 67% during last 20 years, the negative environmental impact of these productions is magnified by the discharge of large volumes of wastewater into receiving water bodies. In turn, unsustainable use of artesian groundwater in Ararat Valley along with increasingly strict policy measures on water use had a devastating impact on small and/or medium scale aquaculture: over the last two years approximately 100 fish farms have permanently seized their operations. The current project aims at the introduction of efficient and environmentally friendly fish farming practices (e.g., Recirculating Aquaculture Systems) in Ararat Valley fisheries in order to support current levels of fish production and simultaneously reduce the negative environmental pressure of aquaculture facilities in Armenia. Economic and environmental analysis of current small and medium scale operational systems and subsequently developed environmentally–friendly and economically sustainable system configurations will be presented.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Sustainability, Groundwater, recirculation

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12 Intelligent Technology for Real-Time Monitor and Data Analysis of the Aquaculture Toxic Water Concentration

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsieh, Wei-Chun Lu, Yu-Hong Zeng

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The situation of a group of fish die is frequently found due to the fish disease caused by the deterioration of aquaculture water quality. The toxic ammonia is produced by animals as a byproduct of protein. The system is designed by the smart sensor technology and developed by the mathematical model to monitor the water parameters 24 hours a day and predict the relationship among twelve water quality parameters for monitoring the water quality in aquaculture. All data measured are stored in cloud server. In productive ponds, the daytime pH may be high enough to be lethal to the fish. The sudden change of the aquaculture conditions often results in the increase of PH value of water, lack of oxygen dissolving content, water quality deterioration and yield reduction. From the real measurement, the system can send the message to user’s smartphone successfully on the bad conditions of water quality. From the data comparisons between measurement and model simulation in fish aquaculture site, the difference of parameters is less than 2% and the correlation coefficient is at least 98.34%. The solubility rate of oxygen decreases exponentially with the elevation of water temperature. The correlation coefficient is 98.98%.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Sensor, Ammonia, dissolved oxygen

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11 Exploring the Optimum Temperature and Diet for Growth and Gastric Emptying Time of Juvenile Malabar Blood Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus)

Authors: Sabuj Kanti Mazumder, Mazlan Abd Ghaffar, Simon Kumar Das

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In this study, we analyzed the effects of water temperature and diet on the growth properties and gastric emptying period of juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) over a 30day experimental period. Fish were collected from a local hatchery of Pulau Ketam, Selangor, Malaysia and immediately transferred to flow-through sea water system and subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (formulated pellet and shrimp). Body weight gain, food consumption, food conversion ratio, food consumption efficiency, specific growth rate, relative growth rate, daily growth rate, and gastric emptying period were significantly influenced by temperature and diet (P<0.05). The best food conversion ratio was with the shrimp group recorded at 30°C (1.33±0.08). The highest growth rate was observed in the shrimp group at 30°C (3.97±0.57% day-1), and the lowest was observed in the formulated pellet group at 22°C (1.63±0.29% day-1). No significant difference was observed between the groups subjected to temperatures of 26 and 30°C. Similarly, the lowest gastric emptying period was detected in the shrimp group at 30°C (16h), where the proportion of meal residues in the stomach decreased from 100% to less than 8% after 12h of starvation. A significantly longer gastric emptying period was observed in the formulated pellet group at 22°C (28h). Overall, the best results were observed on shrimp group subjected to a 30°C temperature. The data obtained from this study suggest that a shrimp diet fed on L. malabaricus at 30°C will optimize the commercial production of this commercially important fish species.

Keywords: Aquaculture, diet, Growth, digestion rate, Malabar blood snapper

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10 Different Feedings on Chemical Characteristics of Atlantic Salmon Fillet

Authors: Mahsa Jalili, Trude Johansen, Signe Dille Lovmo, Turid Rustad, Rolf Erik Olsen, Atle M. Bones

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The quality of fish muscle is a key factor in fish industry, and dietary ingredients can influence fish quality. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell® and butyrate fortified feeds and control diet on characteristics of salmon fillet. Thirty Atlantic salmon (6 per each group) were farmed for 12 weeks. All the fish were killed and frozen immediately. The white muscle from top posterior part of dorsal fin was dissected to analyze fat content, carotenoid content, content of water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins, cathepsin B and cathepsin B-L activities. ANOVA test was used to analyze mean and standard error of mean values at 0.05 significance level. There were significant difference in cathepsin B activity, water-soluble proteins and salt-soluble proteins (p-value= 0.005, 0.009 and 0.002). The mean values of other factors were not significantly different among the groups. Cathepsin B activity was higher in soymeal group. Water-soluble proteins were reported higher in soy meal and krill groups and salt-soluble proteins were significantly higher in soy meal and butyrate rich diets. Although soy meal has proven effect on enteritis, it results in higher percentage of protein in fillets. On the other hand, this feeding may have role in textural deterioration of fillets owing to higher values of endogenous cathepsin B in soymeal group.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Food Quality, Probiotics, Prebiotics, soy, Krill protein extract, Salmo salar

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9 Transcriptomic and Translational Regulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors after Different Feedings in Salmon

Authors: Mahsa Jalili, Signe Dille Lovmo, Rolf Erik Olsen, Essa Ehsan Khan, Augustine Akruwe, Egil Lien, Trygve Sigholt, Atle Magnus Bones

Abstract:

Data from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries reported that >1.2 million tons of Atlantic salmon were produced in Norway aquaculture industry in 2016. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are one of the key transcription factor families that respond to nutritional ligands. Recent studies have shown the connection between PPARs with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in aquaculture. To our knowledge, there is no published data about the effects of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell ® and butyrate feedings compared to control group on PPARs gene and protein expressions in Atlantic salmon. Fish, 1year +postsmolt, average weight 250 gram were cultured for 12 weeks after acclimatization by control commercial feeding in 2 weeks after hatchery. Water oxygen rate, salinity, and temperature were monitored every second day. At the end of the trial, fish were taken from tanks randomly, and four replicates per group were collected and stored in -80 freezers until analysis. Total RNA extracted from posterior part of dorsal fin muscle tissues and Nanodrop and Bioanalyzer was used to check the quality of RNA. Gene expression of PPAR α, β and γ were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of genes of interest was measured relative to control group after normalization to three reference genes. Total protein concentration was calculated by Bradford method, and protein expression was determined with primary PPARγ antibody by western blot. All data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni tests. Probability values <0.05 considered significant. Bactocell® and butyrate groups showed significantly lower PPARα expression. PPARβ and γ were not significantly different among groups. PPARγ mRNA expression was approximately consistent with protein expression pattern, except than butyrate group showed lower mRNA level. The order of PPARγ expression was Bactocell® > soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > control respectively. PPARβ gene expression decreased more in soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > Bactocell® > control groups respectively. In conclusion, the increased expression of PPARγ and α is proposed to represent a reduction tendency of lipid storage in fish fed by Bactocell®, butyrate, soy and krill meal.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Probiotics, Gene expression, Prebiotics, Krill protein extract, Salmo salar, blotting western

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8 Study on Hybridization between Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1809)

Authors: Wasiu Olaniyi, Ofelia Omitogun

Abstract:

Hybridization has been of importance in both research and commercial aquaculture due to its benefits such as increased growth rate, sex ratio manipulation, production of sterile species and many other desirable economic traits. In this study, we successfully produced hybrids between crosses of Clariid catfish species of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis for stock improvement. Milt and eggs from parent broodstock of C. gariepinus and H. bidorsalis were collected for both intrageneric and interspecific hybridization, viz: same parent species crosses (♀C. gariepinus ×♂C. gariepinus; ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis) and inter-specific crosses (♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus; ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis). These crosses were made in triplicates whereby the data on latency period, fertility, hatchability, deformity, and survival were recorded. A phenotypic form of distinction was registered in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis that was smooth-greyed while its reciprocal cross was marpatic. The parent species C. gariepinus had greyed-marpatic color while the H. bidorsalis was yellowish-brown. Fertility data revealed the significant difference (p < 0.05) between the hybrid cross ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (88.00 ± 1.00%) compared to its reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (71.67 ± 10.41%) which further had carried over effects to hatchability. The reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus recorded the highest deformity (11.67 ± 3.06%) that was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the rest of the crosses. Also, an outcome of equal sex ratio in the hybrids compared with the two parent species was shown. Specific growth rate (SGR) data revealed highest significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.64 ± 0.09%), followed by the cross of ♀C. gariepinus × ♂ C. gariepinus (1.91 ± 0.02%) while there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (2.20 ± 0.57%) and ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.19 ± 0.19%). The SGR analysis proved that the crosses ♀C. gariepinus × ♂C. gariepinus had slow growth performance compared to its hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. Critical evaluation based on survival and specific growth performance showed the superiority of the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. The least survival in reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (27.33%) can be explained by significant deformity (11.67%) recorded due to maternal effects. Hence, the survival of hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis was better.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Hybridization, Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis

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7 Establishment of Farmed Fish Welfare Biomarkers Using an Omics Approach

Authors: Pedro M. Rodrigues, Claudia Raposo, Denise Schrama, Marco Cerqueira

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Farmed fish welfare is a very recent concept, widely discussed among the scientific community. Consumers’ interest regarding farmed animal welfare standards has significantly increased in the last years posing a huge challenge to producers in order to maintain an equilibrium between good welfare principles and productivity, while simultaneously achieve public acceptance. The major bottleneck of standard aquaculture is to impair considerably fish welfare throughout the production cycle and with this, the quality of fish protein. Welfare assessment in farmed fish is undertaken through the evaluation of fish stress responses. Primary and secondary stress responses include release of cortisol and glucose and lactate to the blood stream, respectively, which are currently the most commonly used indicators of stress exposure. However, the reliability of these indicators is highly dubious, due to a high variability of fish responses to an acute stress and the adaptation of the animal to a repetitive chronic stress. Our objective is to use comparative proteomics to identify and validate a fingerprint of proteins that can present an more reliable alternative to the already established welfare indicators. In this way, the culture conditions will improve and there will be a higher perception of mechanisms and metabolic pathway involved in the produced organism’s welfare. Due to its high economical importance in Portuguese aquaculture Gilthead seabream will be the elected species for this study. Protein extracts from Gilthead Seabream fish muscle, liver and plasma, reared for a 3 month period under optimized culture conditions (control) and induced stress conditions (Handling, high densities, and Hipoxia) are collected and used to identify a putative fish welfare protein markers fingerprint using a proteomics approach. Three tanks per condition and 3 biological replicates per tank are used for each analisys. Briefly, proteins from target tissue/fluid are extracted using standard established protocols. Protein extracts are then separated using 2D-DIGE (Difference gel electrophoresis). Proteins differentially expressed between control and induced stress conditions will be identified by mass spectrometry (LC-Ms/Ms) using NCBInr (taxonomic level - Actinopterygii) databank and Mascot search engine. The statistical analysis is performed using the R software environment, having used a one-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test (p < 0.05) to assess which proteins were differentially expressed in a statistically significant way. Validation of these proteins will be done by comparison of the RT-qPCR (Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) expressed genes pattern with the proteomic profile. Cortisol, glucose, and lactate are also measured in order to confirm or refute the reliability of these indicators. The identified liver proteins under handling and high densities induced stress conditions are responsible and involved in several metabolic pathways like primary metabolism (i.e. glycolysis, gluconeogenesis), ammonia metabolism, cytoskeleton proteins, signalizing proteins, lipid transport. Validition of these proteins as well as identical analysis in muscle and plasma are underway. Proteomics is a promising high-throughput technique that can be successfully applied to identify putative welfare protein biomarkers in farmed fish.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Proteomics, Fish welfare, welfare biomarkers

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6 Modulation of Fish Allergenicity towards the Production of a Low Allergen Farmed Fish

Authors: Pedro Rodrigues, Claudia Raposo, Denise Schrama

Abstract:

Background: Food allergies are conducted by a hypersensitive response of the immune system. These allergies are a global concern for the public health. Consumption of fish is increasing worldwide as it is a healthy meat with high nutritional value. Unfortunately, fish can cause adverse immune-mediate reactions, affecting part of the population with higher incidence in children. β-parvalbumin, a small, highly conserved stable, calcium or magnesium binding muscle protein is the main fish allergen. In fish-allergic patients, cross-reactivity between different fish species exist due to recognition of highly identical protein regions. Enolases, aldolases, or fish gelatin are other identified fish allergens in some fish species. With no available cure for fish allergies, clinical management is only based on an avoidance diet aiming at the total exclusion of offending food. Methods: Mediterranean fish (S. aurata and D. labrax) were fed specifically designed diets, enriched in components that target the expression or inactivation of parvalbumin (creatine and EDTA, respectively). After 90 days fish were sampled and biological tissues were excised. Proteomics was used to access fish allergens characterization and expression in muscle while IgE assays to confirm the lower allergenic potential are conducted in patients with history of fish allergies. Fish welfare and quality of flesh were established with biochemical, texture and sensorial analysis. Results: Fish welfare shows no major impact between diets. In case of creatine supplementation in D. labrax proteomic analysis show a slight decrease in parvalbumin expression. No accumulation of this compound was found in muscle. For EDTA supplementation in S. aurata IgE assay show a slight decrease in allergenicity when using sera of fish allergic patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with these two compounds seems to change slightly the allergenicity of the two mean Mediterranean species.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Proteomics, fish nutrition, fish allergies

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5 Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis from Gut Microbiome of Rohu (Labeo rohita)

Authors: Anuj Tyagi, Prem Kumar, Harsh Panwar, Vaneet Inder Kaur

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Though aquaculture started as an occupation for poor and weak farmers for livelihood, it has now acquired the shape of one of the biggest industry to grow live protein in the form of aquatic organisms. Industrialization of the aquaculture sector has led to intensification resulting in stress on aquatic organisms and frequent disease outbreaks leading to huge economic impacts. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoter and prophylactic agent in aquaculture has resulted in rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. Over the past few years, use of probiotics (as an alternative of antibiotics) in aquaculture has gained attention due to their immunostimulant and growth promoting properties. It has now well known that after administration, a probiotic bacterium has to compete and establish itself against native microbiota to show its eventual beneficial properties. Due to their non-fish origin, commercial probiotics sometimes may display poor probiotic functionalities and antagonistic effects. Thus, isolation and characterization of probiotic bacteria from same fish host is very much necessary. In this study, attempts were made to isolate potent probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from intestinal microflora of rohu fish. Twenty-five experimental rohu fishes (mean weight 400 ± 20gm, mean standard length 20 ± 3cm) were used in the study to collect fish gut after dissection in a sterile condition. A total of 150 tentative LAB isolates from selective agar media (de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS)) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Microccocus leuteus. A total of 17 isolates, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, identified by biochemical tests and PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment, displayed promising antimicrobial activity against both the pathogens. Two isolates from each species (FLB1, FLB2 from L. plantarum; and FLC1, FLC2 from L. lactis) were subjected to downstream probiotic potential characterization. These isolates were compared in vitro for their hemolytic activity, acid and bile tolerance for growth kinetics, auto-aggregation, cell-surface hydrophobicity against xylene, and chloroform, tolerance to phenol, cell adhesion, and safety parameters (by intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections). None of the tested isolates showed any hemolytic activity indicating their potential safety. Moreover, these isolates were tolerant to 0.3% bile (75-82% survival), phenol stress (96-99% survival) with 100% viability at pH 3 over a period of 3 h. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that all the tested LAB isolates were resistant to vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin and sensitive to Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Trimethoprim, and Nitrofurantoin. Tetracycline resistance was found in L. plantarum (FLB1 and FLB2 isolates), whereas L. lactis were susceptible to it. Intramuscular and intraperitoneal challenges to fingerlings of rohu fish (5 ± 1gm weight) with FLB1 showed no pathogenicity and occurrence of disease symptoms in fishes over an observation period of 7 days. The results revealed FLB1 as a potential probiotic candidate for aquaculture application among other isolates.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis

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4 Evaluating Aquaculture Farmers Responses to Climate Change and Sustainable Practices in Kenya

Authors: Olalekan Adekola, Margaret Gatonye, Paul Orina

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The growing demand for farmed fish by underdeveloped and developing countries as a means of contributing positively towards eradication of hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition for their fast growing populations has implications to the environment. Likewise, climate change poses both an immediate and future threat to local fish production with capture fisheries already experiencing a global decline. This not only raises fundamental questions concerning how aquaculture practices affect the environment, but also how ready are aquaculture farmers to adapt to climate related hazards. This paper assesses existing aquaculture practices and approaches to adapting to climate hazards in Kenya, where aquaculture has grown rapidly since the year 2009. The growth has seen rise in aquaculture set ups mainly along rivers and streams, importation of seed and feed and intensification with possible environmental implications. The aquaculture value chain in the context of climate change and their implication for practice is further investigated, and the strategies necessary for an improved implementation of resilient aquaculture system in Kenya is examined. Data for the study are collected from interviews, questionnaires, two workshops and document analysis. Despite acclaimed nutritional benefit of fish consumption in Kenya, poor management of effluents enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter, and suspended solids has implications not just on the ecosystem, goods, and services, but is also potential source of resource-use conflicts especially in downstream communities and operators in the livestock, horticulture, and industrial sectors. The study concluded that aquaculture focuses on future orientation, climate resilient infrastructure, appropriate site selection and invest on biosafety as the key sustainable strategies against climate hazards.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Environment, Resilience, Strategies, Kenya

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3 Reclamation of Saline and Alkaline Soils through Aquaculture: A Review and Prospects for Future Research

Authors: M. Shivakumar, S. R. Somashekhar, C. V. Raju

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Secondary salinization of agricultural lands in any command areas of the world is the major issue in the recent past. Currently, it is estimated that the 954 mh of saline and alkaline soil is present in the world. Thousands of hectares of land, getting added every year. Argentina, Bangladesh and Australia are most affected countries. In India, out of 142.80 million hectare (mh) cropped area, 56 mh is irrigated area. Of which, more than 9 mh (about 16.%) of land is found to be alkaline/saline. Due to continuous utilization of same land for same agricultural activities, excessive usage of fertilizers and water, most of the soils have become alkaline, saline or water logged. These lands are low productive and at times totally unfit for agricultural activities. These soils may or may not posses good physical condition, but plants may suffer from its inability to absorb water from salty solution. Plants suffer from dehydration and loose water to the soil, shrink, resulting death of plant. This process is called plasmolysis. It is the fact that soil is an independent, organic body of nature that acquires properties in accordance with forces which act upon it. Aquaculture is one of the solutions to utilize such problematic soils for food production. When the impoundments are constructed in an area 10-15% of the affected areas, the excess water along with the salts gets into impoundments and management of salt is easier in water than in the soil. Due to high organic input in aquaculture such as feed, manure and continuous deposition of fecal matter, pH of the soil gets reduced and over the period of time such soils can be put back into the original activity. Under National Agricultural Development Program (NADP), the project was implemented in 258 villages of Mandya District, Karnataka State, India and found that these lands can be effectively utilized for fish culture and increase the proteinacious food production by many folds while conserving the soils. The findings of the research can be adopted and up scaled in any country.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Problematic Soils, reclamation, saline and alkaline soils

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2 Impact of Aquaculture on Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bukola Dawodu, Titilayo Shodeinde

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Aquaculture practice in Nigeria is an industry that includes fish development in a controlled situation. It has developed through various stages and stages with its latent capacity yet to be completely tapped. To avow this potential in adding to human advancement, nourishment security and improved way of life, the aquaculture business requires new approaches. Subsequently, this seminar paper reviews the impact of aquaculture on sustainable development in Nigeria. The examination received on subjective research strategy. The segments and the frameworks of business fish cultivating were completely talked about. Additionally, imperatives to business fish cultivating in the area were explained. The systems for advancing business aquaculture, for example, increment in consciousness of aquaculture items, financing of aquaculture data sources, preparing and labor improvement, government support, arrangement of fish ranchers agreeable social orders, access to advances and credit offices, advancement of research exercises, viable fisheries approaches, great institutional structure, and decreasing the degrees of defilement and instability in the district, were plainly brought up as a veritable devices, for changing the current situation with aquaculture in Niger Delta, through arranged, engaged and composed compelling administration procedures, by singular ranchers, government organizations and applicable foundations for economical advancement of the locale specifically and the nation by and large.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Sustainability, Research, Nigeria

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1 Prebiotics and Essential Oils-Enriched Diet Can Increase the Efficiency of Vaccine against Furunculosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Authors: Niki Hayatgheib, SéGolèNe Calvez, Catherine Fournel, Lionel Pineau, Herve Pouliquen, Emmanuelle Moreau

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Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known disease found principally in salmonid aquaculture. Vaccination has been partly successful in preventing this disease, but outbreaks still occur. The application of functional feed additive found to be a promising yield to improve fish health against diseases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of prebiotics and plant essential oils-enriched diet on immune response and disease resistance in vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against furunculosis. A total of 600 fish were fed with the basal diet or supplement. On 4th week of feeding, fish were vaccinated with an autovaccine. Following 8 weeks, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and mortalities were recorded for 3 weeks. Lysozyme activity and antibody titer in serum were measured in different groups. The results of this study showed that lysozyme and circulatory antibody titer in plasma elevated significantly in vaccinated fish fed with additive. The best growth rate and relative percentage survival (62%) were in fish fed with a supplement, while 15% in control fish. Overall, prebiotics and essential oils association can be considered as a potential component for enhancing vaccine efficacy against furunculosis by increasing the growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance in rainbow trout.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Vaccination, Fish, Disease Resistance, Immune response, rainbow trout, aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, prebiotics-essential oils feed additive

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