Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Applied Linguistics Related Abstracts

11 Motivation Among Arab Learners of English in the UK

Authors: Safa Kaka

Abstract:

As more and more students are travelling to different countries to study and, in particular, to study English, the question of what motivates them to make such a large move has come under question. This is particularly pertinent in the case of Arab students who make up nearly 15% of the foreign student body in the UK. Given that the cultural differences between the UK and Arab nations are extremely wide, the decision to come to this country to study English must be driven by strong motivational forces. Numerous previous studies have considered what motivates foreign students to travel to the UK and other countries for their education or language learning but the specific motivators of Arab students have yet to be explored. This study undertakes to close that gap by examining the concepts and theories of motivation, both in general terms and in relation to English learning and foreign study. 70 Arab students currently studying in the UK were asked to participate in an online questionnaire which asked about their motivations for coming to the UK and for studying and learning English. A further six individuals were interviewed on a face to face basis. The outcomes have indicated that the factors which motivate the decision to come to the UK are similar to those that motivate the desire to learn English. In particular a motivation for self-improvement, career advancement and potential future benefits were cited by a number of respondents. Other indications were the ease of accessibility to the UK as an English speaking country, a motivation to experience different cultures and lifestyles and even political freedoms. Overall the motivations of Arab students were not found to be conspicuously different from those of other foreign students, although it was noted that their motivations did change, both positively and negatively following a period of time in the country. These changes were based on the expectations of the students pre-arrival and their actual experience of the country and its teaching approaches and establishments and were, as indicated both good and bad. The implications for the Arab student population and UK educational establishments are reviewed and future research pathways highlighted.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Language Teaching, Motivation, Arab learners of English

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10 Albanian Students’ Errors in Spoken and Written English and the Role of Error Correction in Assessment and Self-Assessment

Authors: Arburim Iseni, Afrim Aliti, Nagri Rexhepi

Abstract:

This paper focuses mainly on an important aspect of student-linguistic errors. It aims to explore the nature of Albanian intermediate level or B1 students’ language errors and mistakes and attempts to trace the possible sources or causes by classifying the error samples into both inter lingual and intra lingual errors. The hypothesis that intra lingua errors may be determined or induced somehow by the native language influence seems to be confirmed by the significant number of errors found in Albanian EFL students in the Study Program of the English Language and Literature at the State University of Tetova. Findings of this study have revealed that L1 interference first and then ignorance of the English Language grammar rules constitute the main sources or causes of errors, even though carelessness cannot be ruled out. Although we have conducted our study with 300 students of intermediate or B1 level, we believe that this hypothesis would need to be confirmed by further research, maybe with a larger number of students with different levels in order to draw more steady and accurate conclusions. The analysis of the questionnaires was done according to quantitative and qualitative research methods. This study was also conducted by taking written samples on different topics from our students and then distributing them with comments to the students and University teachers as well. These questionnaires were designed to gather information among 300 students and 48 EFL teachers, all of whom teach in the Study Program of English Language and Literature at the State University of Tetova. From the analyzed written samples of the students and face-to-face interviews, we could get useful insights into some important aspects of students’ error-making and error-correction. These different research methodologies were used in order to comprise a holistic research and the findings of the questionnaires helped us to come up with some more steady solutions in order to minimize the potential gap between students and teachers.

Keywords: Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, sla, L1 & L2, Albanian EFL students and teachers, Errors and Mistakes, Students’ Assessment and Self-Assessment

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9 Error Analysis in English Essays Writing of Thai Students with Different English Language Experiences

Authors: Sirirat Choophan Atthaphonphiphat

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to analyze errors in English essay writing of Thai (Suratthani Rajabhat University)’s students with different English language experiences. 16 subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on their English language experience. The data were collected from English essay writing about 'My daily life'. The finding shows that 275 tokens of errors were found from 240 English sentences. The errors were categorized into 4 types based on frequency counts: grammatical errors, mechanical errors, lexical errors, and structural errors, respectively. The findings support all of the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the students with low English language experience made more errors than those with high English language experience; 2) all errors in English essay writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students, the interlingual errors are more than the intralingual ones; 3) systemic and structural differences between English (target language) and Thai (mother-tongue language) lead to the errors in English essays writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Error Analysis, Interference, language transfer

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8 Investigating 'Criticality' in Written Assignments of Postgraduate Students in TESOL and Applied Linguistics

Authors: Josephine Mirador

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Too often, one hears teachers complaining about how uncritical students can be, yet the notion of ‘criticality’ may be subject to variable understandings or interpretations. One challenge facing postgraduate students is the writing of essays responding to a specific reading assignment. Such an essay requires students not only to summarise, but to engage in a discussion of the significant points of the article, pointing out its strengths as well as its weaknesses. This paper presents the results of an investigation on criticality in written assignments of postgraduate students in applied linguistics and TESOL. The guiding questions for this investigation were: -How ‘critical’ are postgraduate students when writing their assignments? -What kind of ‘critical’ comments are they able to offer? A total of 70 essays were analysed, using two sets of corpora in the initial and follow-through phases of the research from three different universities in Asia. The essays were written by MA applied linguistics and TESOL students. Students were told that the response essay should definitely not just summarise, but should offer a reflection or critique on the ideas presented in the subject article. The initial findings from the investigation include: the identification of at least 10 general ‘moves’ each of which has a number of possible specific categories; presence of critique ‘nodes’ as distinguished from ‘support’ comments; and the identification of at least 4 moves as the most recurrent and possibly obligatory categories. This investigation has unearthed a few more questions or issues that are definitely worth investigating as extensions of this research, and will be of interest (most especially) to genre analysts and teachers of writing.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, criticality, postgraduate students, discourse and genre analysis

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7 Efficiency of a Semantic Approach in Teaching Foreign Languages

Authors: Genady Shlomper

Abstract:

During the process of language teaching, each teacher faces some general and some specific problems. Some of these problems are mutual to all languages because they yield to the rules of cognition, conscience, perception, understanding and memory; to the physiological and psychological principles pertaining to the human race irrespective of origin and nationality. Still, every language is a distinctive system, possessing individual properties and an obvious identity, as a result of a development in specific natural, geographical, cultural and historical conditions. The individual properties emerge in the script, in the phonetics, morphology and syntax. All these problems can and should be a subject of a detailed research and scientific analysis, mainly from practical considerations and language teaching requirements. There are some formidable obstacles in the language acquisition process. Among the first to be mentioned is the existence of concepts and entire categories in foreign languages, which are absent in the language of the students. Such phenomena reflect specific ways of thinking and the world-outlook, which were shaped during the evolution. Hindi is the national language of India, which belongs to the group of Indo-Iranian languages from the Indo-European family of languages. The lecturer has gained experience in teaching Hindi language to native speakers of Uzbek, Russian and Hebrew languages. He will show the difficulties in the field of phonetics, morphology and syntax, which the students have to deal with during the acquisition of the language. In the proposed lecture the lecturer will share his experience in making the process of language teaching more efficient by using non-formal semantic approach.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Semantics, Foreign Language Teaching, Language teaching methodology

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6 A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications

Authors: Adeyemo Abduljeeel Taiwo

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This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Arabic language, Socio-linguistics, modern communications

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5 Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language

Authors: Fhajema Kunso

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People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Morphology, Language, Phonology, Qualitative, Processes, Lexicon, Variation, Philippines, Maguindanao

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4 Semantic Preference across Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study of Adjectives in English

Authors: Valdênia Carvalho e Almeida

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The goal of the present study is to investigate the semantic preference of the most frequent adjectives in research articles through a corpus-based analysis of texts published in journals in Applied Linguistics (AL). The corpus used in this study contains texts published in the period from 2014 to 2018 in the three journals: Language Learning and Technology; English for Academic Purposes, and TESOL Quaterly, totaling more than one million words. A corpus-based analysis was carried out on the corpus to identify the most frequent adjectives that co-occurred in the three journals. By observing the concordance lines of the adjectives and analyzing the words they associated with, the semantic preferences of each adjective were determined. Later, the AL corpus analysis was compared to the investigation of the same adjectives in a corpus of Chemistry. This second part of the study aimed to identify possible differences and similarities between the two corpora in relation to the use of the adjectives in research articles from both areas. The results show that there are some preferences which seem to be closely related not only to the academic genre of the texts but also to the specific domain of the discipline and, to a lesser extent, to the context of research in each journal. This research illustrates a possible contribution of Corpus Linguistics to explore the concept of semantic preference in more detail, considering the complex nature of the phenomenon.

Keywords: Chemistry, Applied Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, research article, semantic preference

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3 Grammatical and Lexical Explorations on ‘Outer Circle’ Englishes and ‘Expanding Circle’ Englishes: A Corpus-Based Comparative Analysis

Authors: Orlyn Joyce D. Esquivel

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This study analyzed 50 selected research papers from professional language and linguistic academic journals to portray the differences between Kachru’s (1994) outer circle and expanding circle Englishes. The selected outer circle Englishes include those of Bangladesh, Malaysia, the Philippines, India, and Singapore; and the selected expanding circle Englishes are those of China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Thailand. The researcher built ten corpora (five research papers for each corpus) to represent each variety of Englishes. The corpora were examined under grammatical and lexical features using Modified English TreeTagger in Sketch Engine. Results revealed the distinct grammatical and lexical features through the table and textual analyses, illustrated from the most to least dominant linguistic elements. In addition, comparative analyses were done to distinguish the features of each of the selected Englishes. The Language Change Theory was used as a basis in the discussion. Hence, the findings suggest that the ‘outer circle’ Englishes and ‘expanding circle’ Englishes will continue to drift from International English.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, English as a global language, expanding circle Englishes, global Englishes, outer circle Englishes

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2 Learner's Difficulties Acquiring English: The Case of Native Speakers of Rio de La Plata Spanish Towards Justifying the Need for Corpora

Authors: Maria Zinnia Bardas Hoffmann

Abstract:

Contrastive Analysis (CA) is the systematic comparison between two languages. It stems from the notion that errors are caused by interference of the L1 system in the acquisition process of an L2. CA represents a useful tool to understand the nature of learning and acquisition. Also, this particular method promises a path to un-derstand the nature of underlying cognitive processes, even when other factors such as intrinsic motivation and teaching strategies were found to best explain student’s problems in acquisition. CA study is justified not only from the need to get a deeper understanding of the nature of SLA, but as an invaluable source to provide clues, at a cognitive level, for those general processes involved in rule formation and abstract thought. It is relevant for cross disciplinary studies and the fields of Computational Thought, Natural Language processing, Applied Linguistics, Cognitive Linguistics and Math Theory. That being said, this paper intends to address here as well its own set of constraints and limitations. Finally, this paper: (a) aims at identifying some of the difficulties students may find in their learning process due to the nature of their specific variety of L1, Rio de la Plata Spanish (RPS), (b) represents an attempt to discuss the necessity for specific models to approach CA.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, natural language processing, Second language acquisition, Contrastive Analysis, applied contrastive analysis English language department, meta-linguistic rules, cross-linguistics studies, computational thought

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1 Developing University EFL Students’ Communicative Competence by Using Communicative Approach

Authors: Mutwakel Abdalla Ali Garalzain

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The aim of this study is to develop university EFL students’ communicative competence. The descriptive, analytical method was used in this study. To collect the data, the researcher designed two questionnaires, one for university EFL students and the other for English language teachers. The respondents of the study were eighty-eight; 76 university EFL students, and 12 English language teachers. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study have revealed that most of the university EFL students are unable to express their ideas properly, although they have an abundance of vocabulary. The findings of the study have also shown that most of the university EFL students have positive attitudes towards communicative competence. The results of the study also identified the best strategies that can be used to enhance university EFL students’ communicative competence in English language teaching. The study recommends that English language textbooks should be compatible with the requirements of the student-centered approach. It also recommends that English language teachers should adopt the communicative approach’s strategies in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Communicative Competence, English Language Teaching, university EFL students

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