Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

apples Related Abstracts

4 Phenolic Composition and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Borkh Fruit Cultivars

Authors: Raudone Lina, Raudonis Raimondas, Liaudanskas Mindaugas, Pukalskas Audrius, Viskelis Pranas, Janulis Valdimaras

Abstract:

Human health fortification, its protection and disease prophylaxis are the main problems of the health care systems. Plant origin materials and their preparations are applied for the prevention of the common diseases. Oxidative stress takes part in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune, neurodegenerative, tumor and ageing processes. The antioxidants are able to protect the human body from the free radicals and to stop the progression of numerous chronic diseases. The research of plant origin materials is relevant for the search of natural antioxidants. A group of compounds that gained scientific attention due to antioxidant properties and effects on human health are phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are widely abundant in various parts of plants, i.e. leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Most commonly consumed fruits all over the world are apples. It is very important to analyze the antioxidant activity of apples as they are extensively used in the prevention of various diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant profiles of Malus domestica Borkh fruit cultivars (Aldas, Auksis, Connel Red, Ligol, Lodel, Rajka) and to identify the phenolic compounds with potent contribution to antioxidant activity. Nineteen constituents were identified in apple cultivars using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC–QTOF–MS). Phytochemical profile was constituted of phenolic acids, procyanidins, quercetin derivatives and dihydrochalcones. Reducing and radical scavenging activities of individual constituents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to post-column FRAP and ABTS assay, respectively. Significant differences of total radical scavenging and reducing activity (expressed as trolox equivalents, TE µmol/g) were determined between the investigated cultivars. Chlorogenic acid and complex of procyanidins were the main contributors to antioxidant activity determining up to 35 % and 55 % of total TE values, respectively. Determined phenolic composition and antioxidant activity significantly depend on apple cultivars. It is important to determine the individual compounds that are significant for antioxidant activity and that could be investigated in vivo systems. The identification of the antioxidants provides information for the further research of standardized extracts that could be used for pharmaceutical preparations with specific phenolic traits.

Keywords: Chlorogenic Acid, antioxidant, phenolic, FRAP, ABTS, apples

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3 Potential of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum)

Authors: Nomakholwa F. Stokwe, Antoinette P. Malan

Abstract:

Woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum, is an important pest of apples worldwide. The aphid feeds above ground on buds and leaf axils and the roots of apple trees. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the two families, Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, and their symbiotic bacteria have generated extensive interest as inundative applied biological control agents of insects. With the development of the resistance of WAA to chemicals, export restrictions, and the inability of parasitoids to control the aphid successfully early in the season, considering EPNs as an alternative biocontrol agent is important. Seven EPN species were tested for their pathogenicity against WAA. Laboratory bioassays identified S. yirgalemense and H. zealandica as being the most virulent against the subterranean stage of the WAA, with a mortality rate of 48% and 38%, respectively. Studies on the effect of WAA size showed that the last instar is most susceptible to infection, whereas smaller instars appear to be too small for nematode penetration and infection. Neither increasing the exposure period of the aphids nor increasing the nematode concentration affected the infection rate positively. The haemolymph of WAA showed an inhibitory effect on the development of the symbiotic bacteria, preventing the completion of the nematode’s life cycle.

Keywords: Biocontrol, apples, woolly apple aphid, entomopathogenic nematodes

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2 Methodology for the Determination of Triterpenic Compounds in Apple Extracts

Authors: Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Darius Kviklys, Kristina Zymonė, Raimondas Raudonis, Jonas Viškelis, Norbertas Uselis, Pranas Viškelis, Valdimaras Janulis

Abstract:

Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits in the world. Based on data from the year 2014, approximately 84.63 million tons of apples are grown per annum. Apples are widely used in food industry to produce various products and drinks (juice, wine, and cider); they are also used unprocessed. Apples in human diet are an important source of different groups of biological active compounds that can positively contribute to the prevention of various diseases. They are a source of various biologically active substances – especially vitamins, organic acids, micro- and macro-elements, pectins, and phenolic, triterpenic, and other compounds. Triterpenic compounds, which are characterized by versatile biological activity, are the biologically active compounds found in apples that are among the most promising and most significant for human health. A specific analytical procedure including sample preparation and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed, optimized, and validated for the detection of triterpenic compounds in the samples of different apples, their peels, and flesh from widespread apple cultivars 'Aldas', 'Auksis', 'Connel Red', 'Ligol', 'Lodel', and 'Rajka' grown in Lithuanian climatic conditions. The conditions for triterpenic compound extraction were optimized: the solvent of the extraction was 100% (v/v) acetone, and the extraction was performed in an ultrasound bath for 10 min. Isocratic elution (the eluents ratio being 88% (solvent A) and 12% (solvent B)) for a rapid separation of triterpenic compounds was performed. The validation of the methodology was performed on the basis of the ICH recommendations. The following characteristics of validation were evaluated: the selectivity of the method (specificity), precision, the detection and quantitation limits of the analytes, and linearity. The obtained parameters values confirm suitability of methodology to perform analysis of triterpenic compounds. Using the optimised and validated HPLC technique, four triterpenic compounds were separated and identified, and their specificity was confirmed. These compounds were corosolic acid, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. Ursolic acid was the dominant compound in all the tested apple samples. The detected amount of betulinic acid was the lowest of all the identified triterpenic compounds. The greatest amounts of triterpenic compounds were detected in whole apple and apple peel samples of the 'Lodel' cultivar, and thus apples and apple extracts of this cultivar are potentially valuable for use in medical practice, for the prevention of various diseases, for adjunct therapy, for the isolation of individual compounds with a specific biological effect, and for the development and production of dietary supplements and functional food enriched in biologically active compounds. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by a grant from the Research Council of Lithuania, project No. MIP-17-8.

Keywords: Validation, HPLC, apples, triterpenic compounds

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1 Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Apples Grown in Different Geographical Regions

Authors: Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Monika Tallat-Kelpsaite, Darius Kviklys, Jonas Viskelis, Pranas Viskelis, Norbertas Uselis, Juozas Lanauskas, Valdimaras Janulis

Abstract:

Apples are an important source of various biologically active compounds used for human health. Phenolic compounds detected in apples are natural antioxidants and have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and cardiovascular protective activity. The quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in apples may be affected by various factors. It is important to investigate it in order to provide the consumer with high-quality well-known composition apples and products made out of it. The objective of this study was to evaluate phenolic compounds quantitative composition in apple fruits grown in a different geographical region. In this study, biological replicates of apple cv. 'Ligol', grown in Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, and Estonia, were investigated. Three biological replicates were analyzed; one of each contained 10 apples. Samples of lyophilized apple fruits were extracted with 70% ethanol (v/v) for 20 min at 40∘C temperature using the ultrasonic bath. The ethanol extracts of apple fruits were analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The study found that the geographical location of apple-trees had an impact on the composition of phenolic compounds in apples. The number of quercetin glycosides varied from 314.78±9.47 µg/g (Poland) to 648.17±5.61 µg/g (Estonia). The same trend was also observed with flavan-3-ols (from 829.56±47.17 µg/g to 2300.85±35.49 µg/g), phloridzin (from 55.29±1.7 µg/g to 208.78±0.35 µg/g), and chlorogenic acid (from 501.39±28.84 µg/g to 1704.35±22.65 µg/g). It was observed that the amount of investigated phenolic compounds tended to increase from apples grown in the southern location (Poland) (1701.02±75.38 µg/g) to apples grown northern location (Estonia) (4862.15±56.37 µg/g). Apples (cv. 'Ligol') grown in Estonia accumulated approx. 2.86 times higher amount of phenolic compounds than apples grown in Poland. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by a grant from the Research Council of Lithuania, project No. S-MIP-17-8.

Keywords: HPLC, Phenolic Compounds, apples, cultivar 'Ligol', geographical regions

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