Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

apoptosis Related Abstracts

69 Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Β Receptor/P38 Pathway May Be the Potential Liver Damage Mechanisms Caused by Saikosaponin D

Authors: Li Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng

Abstract:

SaikosaponinD (SSD) is a major component of saikosaponins isolated from Bupleurumfalactum. Our current study was to examine the toxic effect of SSD on liver cells and explore the possible mechanism. The results demonstrated that SSD induced mouse liver injury and led to apoptosis in LO2 cells. HE staining and TUNEL analyses showed that SSD stimulated liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo. Subsequent experiments showed that SSD down-regulated Bcl-2 but up-regulated Bax. In vitro, SSD-treated LO2 cells exhibited apparent down-regulated expression of p-p38. Moreover, PDGF-βR agonist PDGF-BB alone significantly upregulated p38 phosphorylation, while combined with SSD, p38 phosphorylation expression was reduced. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated PDGF-βR knockdown augmented the inactivation of p-p38 and Bcl2 but abrogated the activation of Bax, these results were more obvious when shRNA combined with SSD. These data indicated that SSD stimulated liver injury and apoptosis in hepatocytes and PDGF-βR /p38 pathway may be the potential mechanistic.

Keywords: apoptosis, saikosaponin D, hepatotoxicity, liver injury, platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor, p38

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
68 Genistein Suppresses Doxorubicin Associated Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Tanveer Beg, Yasir H. Siddique, Gulshan Ara, Asfar S. Azmi, Mohammad Afzal

Abstract:

Doxorubicin is a well-known DNA intercalating chemotherapy drug that is widely used for treatment of different cancers. Its clinical utility is limited due to the observed genotoxic side effects on healthy cells suggesting that newer combination and genoprotective regimens are urgently needed for the management of doxorubicin chemotherapy. Some dietary phytochemicals are well known for their protective mechanism of action and genistein from soy is recognized as an anti-oxidant with similar properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of genistein against the genotoxic doses of doxorubicin by assessing chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, cell cycle kinetics, cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage markers in cultured human lymphocytes. Our results reveal that genistein treatment significantly suppresses genotoxic damage induced by doxorubicin. It is concluded that genistein has the potential to reduce the genotoxicity induced by anti-cancer drugs, thereby reducing the chances of developing secondary tumors during the therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, Genotoxicity, doxorubicin, DNA damage markers, genistein, human lymphocyte culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
67 Carvedilol Ameliorates Potassium Dichromate-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats: Plausible Role of Inflammation and Apoptosis

Authors: Bidya Dhar Sahu, Meghana Koneru, R. Shyam Sunder, Ramakrishna Sistla

Abstract:

Environmental and occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via textile manufacture, metallurgy, spray paints, stainless steel industries, drinking water containing chromium are often known to cause acute renal injury in humans and animals. Nephrotoxicity is the major effect of chromium poisoning. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of carvedilol using rat model of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of carvedilol revealed that carvedilol attenuated nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB (p65), restored antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and attenuated apoptosis related protein expressions in kidney tissues. The serum levels of TNF-α, the renal iNOS and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly decreased in carvedilol pre-treated K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxic rats. These results were further supported and confirmed by histological findings. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that carvedilol is an effective chemoprotectant against K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: apoptosis, Applied Pharmacology, Inflammation, carvedilol, potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
66 Effect of Copper Complexes on Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line and Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Katarína Koňariková, Georgios A. Perdikaris, Lucia Andrezálová, Zdeňka Ďuračková, Lucia Laubertová, Helena Gbelcová, Ingrid Žitňanová

Abstract:

Introduction: The continuous demand for new anti-cancer drugs has stimulated chemotherapeutic research based on the use of essential metalloelements with the aim to develop potential drugs with lower toxicity and higher antiproliferative activity against tumors. Copper(II) and its complexes play an important role as suitable species for antiproliferative tests. Objectives: The central objective of the current study was to investigate the potential in vitro anti-proliferative effects of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes and molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by tested complexes. In our project we tested N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes ZK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK0 - ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O); MK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol); MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] at concentration range 0.001-100 µmol/L against human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Methods: Viability was assessed by direct counting of 0.4% trypan blue dye-excluding cells after 24, 48 and 72 hour cultivations with or without copper complex and by MTT assay. To analyze the type of cell death and its mechanism induced by our copper complex we used different methods. To distinguish apoptosis from necrosis we used electrophoretic analysis, to study the activity of caspases 8 and 9 – luminometric analysis and caspase activity 3 colorimetric assay. Results: The observed anti-proliferative effect of the copper complexes appeared to be dose-, time- and cell line- dependent. Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) than to ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)). Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex than human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. IC50 decreased with time of incubation (24, 48 and 72h) for HT-29, but increased for MCF-7. By electrophoresis we found apoptotic cell death induced by our copper complexes in HT-29 at concentrations 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol/L after 48h (ZK1) and 72h (MK0, MK1) and in MCF-7 we did not find apoptosis. We also studied molecular mechanism of apoptosis in HT-29 induced by copper complexes. We found active caspase 9 in HT-29 after ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)) influence and active caspase 8 after MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) influence. Conclusion: Our copper complexes showed cytotoxic activities against human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. Apoptosis was activated by mitochondrial pathway (intrinsic pathway) in case of ZK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol) and MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] copper complexes and by death receptors (extrinsic pathway) in case of MK0 [Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O copper complex in HT-29.

Keywords: Cancer, apoptosis, copper complex, carcinoma cell line

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
65 Neuroprotective Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Hanan F. Aly, Fateheya M. Metwally, Hanaa H. Ahmed

Abstract:

The current study is undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) against the development of Alzheimer’s disease in experimental rat model. Alzheimer’s disease was produced in young female ovariectomized rats by intraperitoneal administration of AlCl3 (4.2 mg/kg body weight) daily for 12 weeks. Half of these animals also received orally DHEA (250 mg/kg body weight, three times weekly) for 18 weeks. Control groups of animals received either DHAE alone, or no DHEA, or were not ovariectomized. After such treatment the animals were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Also, brain cholinergic markers (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine) were determined. The results revealed significant increase in oxidative stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats. Significant depletion in brain Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were also detected. Moreover, significant elevations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity accompanied with significant reduction in acetylcholine level were recorded. Significant amelioration in all investigated parameters was detected as a result of treatment of Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats with DHEA. These results were confirmed by histological examination of brain sections. These results clearly indicate a neuroprotective effect of DHEA against Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, alzheimer’s disease, dehydroepiandrosterone

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
64 Annona muricata Leaves Induced Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Cells

Authors: Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Mohammadjavad Paydar, Elham Rouhollahi, Hamed Karimian

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of Annona muricata leaves ethyl acetate extract (AMEAE) against lung cancer A549 cells. Cell viability analysis revealed the selective cytotoxic effect of AMEAE towards A549 cells. Treatment of A549 cells with AMEAE significantly elevated the reactive oxygen species formation, followed by attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential via upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, accompanied by cytochrome c release to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. In addition, AMEAE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Our data showed for the first time that AMEAE inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death through activation of the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway.

Keywords: Lung cancer, apoptosis, Mitochondria, Annona muricata

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
63 Apoptosis Activity of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Methanolic Crude Extract

Authors: P. Narrima, C. Y. Looi, M. A. Mohd, H. M. Ali

Abstract:

Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.

Keywords: apoptosis, antiproliferative, MCF-7 human breast cancer, Persea declinata

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
62 Rauvolfine B Isolated from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa (Apocynaceae) Induces Apoptosis through Activation of Caspase-9 Coupled with S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Hamed Karimian, Mehran Fadaeinasab, Najihah Mohd Hashim

Abstract:

In this study, three indole alkaloids namely; rauvolfine B, macusine B, and isoreserpiline have been isolated from the dichloromethane crude extract of Rauvolfia reflexa bark (Apocynaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds has been performed using spectral methods such as UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Rauvolfine B showed anti proliferation activity on HCT-116 cancer cell line, its cytotoxicity induction was observed using MTT assay in eight different cell lines. Annexin-V is serving as a marker for apoptotic cells and the Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS). Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8 and -9 assays. Cell cycle arrest was also investigated using flowcytometric analysis. rauvolfine B had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cell line. The treatment significantly arrested HCT-116 cells in the S phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that rauvolfine B inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells and programmed cell death followed by cell cycle arrest.

Keywords: apoptosis, apocynacea, indole alkaloid, cell cycle arrest

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
61 Induction of Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (CAOV-3) by an Isoquinoline Alkaloid Isolated from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Hamed Karimian, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Noraziah Nordin, Nazia Abdul Majid, Mashitoh Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Enicosanthellum pulchrum belongs to family Annonaceae is also known as family of 'mempisang' in Malaysia. Liriodenine was isolated by prep-HPLC method. This method was first technique used for the isolation of this compound. The structure of the liriodenine was elucidated by 1D and 2D spectroscopy techniques. Liriodenine was tested on ovarian cancer cells line (CAOV-3) for MTT, AO/PI and cytotoxicity 3 assays. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity effect of lirodenine on CAOV-3 cells. The morphological changes on CAOV-3 cells were observed by AO/PI assay for the early and late stage of apoptosis, as well as necrosis. Meanwhile, the measurement of cell loss, nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c release from mitochondria were detected through cytotoxicity 3 assay. The IC50 results showed liriodenine inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells after 24 h of treatment at 10.25 ± 1.06 µg/mL. After 48 and 72 h of treatments, the IC50 values were decreased to 7.65 ± 0:07 and 6.35 ± 1.62 µg/mL, respectively. The morphology changes can be seen on CAOV-3 with a production of cell membrane blebbing, cromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies with increasing time of treatment from 24 to 72 h. Evaluation of cytotoxicity 3 on CAOV-3 cells after treated with liriodenine, resulting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The results demonstrated the capability of liriodenine as a promising anticancer agent, particularly on human ovarian cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, Ovarian Cancer, Cytotoxicity, Enicosanthellum pulchrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
60 A Prenylflavanoid, HME5 with Antiproliferative Activity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Hamed Karimian, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Noraziah Nordin, Mashitoh Abd Rahman, Faiqah Ramli, Syam Mohan

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancies. HME5, a prenylflavanoid has been isolated from local medicinal plant. This compound has been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer property. However, the potential of HME5 as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on an ovarian cancer cells has not yet been investigated. In this present study, we examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of HME5 on Caov-3 (Human Ovarian Adenocarcinoma) cell line by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-y]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Acridine orange and propidium Iodide (AOPi) and cell cycle analysis study. HME5 has shown to inhibit Caov-3 in a time-dependent manner with the IC50 values of 5µg/ml, 2µg/ml and 1µg/ml after 24h, 48h and 72h treatment, respectively. Morphological study from AOPi analysis showed that HME5 induced apoptosis after 24 and 48h post-treatment. Nevertheless, HME5 exhibited cell cycle arrest at G1 phase as indicated in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling. In conclusion, HME5 inhibited proliferation of Caov-3 through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase.

Keywords: apoptosis, Ovarian Cancer, prenylflavanoid, HME5

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
59 Satureja bachtiarica Bunge Induce Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway and G1 Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Hamed Karimian, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Noraziah Nordin, Syam Mohan, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin, Mahboubeh Razavi, Happipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Satureja bachtiarica Bunge is a perennial medicinal plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family and endemic species in Iran. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge with the local name of Marzeh koohi is edible vegetable use as flavoring agent, anti-bacterial and to relieve cough and indigestion. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge on the MDA-MB-231 cell line as an Breast cancer cell model has been analyzed for the first time. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge was extracted using different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. Cytotoxicity activity of hexane extract of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge (SBHE) was observed using MTT assay. Acridine orange/Propidium iodide staining was used to detect early apoptosis; Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS), with Annexin-Vserving as a marker for apoptotic cells. Caspase 3/7, 8 and-9 assays showed significantly activation of caspase-9 where lead intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Bcl-2/Bax expressions and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. SBHE had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 Cell line compare to other cell lines. A significant increase in chromatin condensation in the cell nucleus was observed by fluorescence analysis. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with SBHE encouraged apoptosis, by down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating Bax, which lead the activation of caspase 9. Moreover, SBHE treatment significantly arrested MDA-MB-231 cells in the G1 phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that SBHE inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was confirmed to be through the mitochondrial pathway.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cell Cycle, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, MDA-MB-231, annexin-V

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
58 Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of New Quinazolinone-Based Compounds against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Maryam Hajrezaie, Maryam Zahedifard, Fadhil Lafta Faraj

Abstract:

In the current study, we prepared two new quinazoline schiff bases through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The chemical structures of both newly synthesized compounds (1 and 2) were confirmed by FT-IR and X-ray crystallography studies. The cytotoxic effect of compounds was investigated against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MTT results showed that (1) and (2) decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, exhibiting an IC50 value of 3.23 ± 0.28 µg/mL and 3.41 ± 0.34 µg/mL, respectively, after a 72-hours treatment period. In contrast, they did not show significant anti-proliferative effect towards MCF-10A normal breast cells and WRL-68 normal liver cells. We found a perturbation in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, suggesting an activation of apoptosis by compounds, which was confirmed by activation of the initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3/7. (1) was also able to trigger extrinsic pathway via activation of caspase-8 and inhibition of NF-κB translocation. The acute toxicity test showed no toxicity effect of the compounds in rats. Our results showed that the selected synthesized compounds are highly potent to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

Keywords: apoptosis, Quinazoline Schiff base, MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, caspase, NF-κB translocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
57 New Quinazoline Derivative Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect agaisnt MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Maryam Zahedifard, Fadhil Lafta Faraj

Abstract:

The new quinazoline Schiff bases have been synthesized through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The compound was investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. It demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 3.41±0.34, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with compound subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release as well as increase in ROS generation. We also found activation of caspases 3/7 and -9. Moreover, acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed the selected compound significantly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via intrinsic pathway, which might be considered as a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cell Cycle, acute toxicity, MCF-7, Quinazoline Schiff base, caspase

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
56 The Role of Moringa oleifera Extract Leaves in Inducing Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: V. Yurina, H. Sujuti, E. Rahmani, A. R. Nopitasari

Abstract:

Breast cancer has the highest prevalence cancer in women. Moringa leaves (M. oleifera) contain quercetin, kaempferol, and benzyl isothiocyanate which can enhance induction of apoptosis. This research aimed to study the role of the leaf extract of Moringa to increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. This research used in vitro experimental, post-test only, control group design on breast cancer cells MCF-7 in vitro. Moringa leaves were extracted by maceration method with ethanol 70%. Cells were treated with drumstick leaves extract on 1100, 2200, and 4400 μg/ml for Hsp27 and caspase-9 expression (immunocytochemistry) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) test. The results of this study found that the IC50 2200 µg/ml. Moringa leaves extract can significantly increase the expression of caspase-9 (p<0.05) and decreased Hsp 27 expression (p<0.05). Moreover it can increase apoptosis (p<0.05) significantly in MCF-7 cells. The conclusion of this study is Moringa leaves extract is able to increase the expression of caspase-9, decrease Hsp27 expression and increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell-line MCF-7.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, apoptosis, Moringa oleifera, caspase-9, Hsp27

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
55 Effects of Kolavironon Liver Oxidative Stress and Beta-Cell Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omolola R. Ayepola, Nicole L. Brooks, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

Abstract:

The liver plays an important role in the regulation of blood glucose and is a target organ of hyperglycaemia. Hyperglycemia plays a crucial role in the onset of various liver diseases and may culminate into hepatopathy if untreated. Alteration in antioxidant defense and increase in oxidative stress that results in tissue injury is characteristic of diabetes. We evaluated the protective effects of kolaviron-a biflavonoid complex, on hepatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the liver of diabetic rats. To induce type I diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with kolaviron (100 mg/kg) started on the 6th day after diabetes induction and continued for 6 weeks (5 times weekly). Diabetic rats exhibited a significant increase in the peroxidation of hepatic lipids as observed from the elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA) estimated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. In addition, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and catalase (CAT) activity was decreased in the liver of diabetic rats. TUNEL assay revealed increased apoptotic cell death in the liver of diabetic rats. Examination of Pancreatic beta-cells by immunohistochemical methods revealed beta cell degeneration and reduction in beta cell/ islet area in the diabetic controls. Kolaviron-treatment increased the area of insulin immunoreactive beta-cells significantly. Kolaviron attenuated lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the liver of diabetic rats, increased CAT activity GSH levels and the resultant GSH: GSSG. The ORAC of kolaviron-treated diabetic liver was restored to near-normal values. Kolaviron protects the liver against oxidative and apoptotic damage induced by hyperglycemia. The antidiabetic effect of kolaviron may also be related to its beneficial effects on beta-cell function.

Keywords: apoptosis, Liver, Oxidative Stress, diabetes mellitus, kolaviron

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
54 Therapeutical Role of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO NPs) for Breast Cancer Therapy

Authors: Dipranjan Laha, Parimal Karmakar

Abstract:

Metal oxide nanoparticles are well known to generate oxidative stress and deregulate normal cellular activities. Among these, transition metals copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are more compelling than others and able to modulate different cellular responses. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized CuO NPs by various biophysical methods. These CuO NPs (~30 nm) induce autophagy in human breast cancer cell line, MCF7 in a time and dose-dependent manner. Cellular autophagy was tested by MDC staining, induction of green fluorescent protein light chain 3 (GFP-LC3B) foci by confocal microscopy, transfection of pBABE-puro mCherry-EGFP-LC3B plasmid and western blotting of autophagy marker proteins LC3B, beclin1, and ATG5. Further, inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) decreased LD50 doses of CuO NPs. Such cell death was associated with the induction of apoptosis as revealed by FACS analysis, cleavage of PARP, dephosphorylation of Bad and increased cleavage product of caspase3. siRNA-mediated inhibition of autophagy-related gene beclin1 also demonstrated similar results. Finally, induction of apoptosis by 3-MA in CuO NPs treated cells were observed by TEM. This study indicates that CuO NPs are a potent inducer of autophagy which may be a cellular defense against the CuO NPs mediated toxicity and inhibition of autophagy switches the cellular response into apoptosis. A combination of CuO NPs with the autophagy inhibitor is essential to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge for financial support for this research work to the Department of Biotechnology (No. BT/PR14661/NNT/28/494/2010), Government of India.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, apoptosis, autophagy, siRNA-mediated inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
53 Targeted Delivery of Novel Copper-Based Nanoparticles for Advance Cancer Therapeutics

Authors: Parimal Karmakar, Arindam Pramanik

Abstract:

We have explored the synergistic anti-cancer activity of copper ion and acetylacetone complex containing 1,3 diketone group (like curcumin) in metallorganic compound “Copper acetylacetonate” (CuAA). The cytotoxicity mechanism of CuAA complex was evaluated on various cancer cell lines in vitro. Among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione level (GSH) in the cell was found to increase. Further mitochondrial membrane damage was observed. The fate of cell death was found to be induced by apoptosis. For application purpose, we have developed a novel biodegradable, non-toxic polymer-based nanoparticle which has hydrophobically modified core for loading of the CuAA. Folic acid is conjugated on the surface of the polymer (chitosan) nanoparticle for targeting to cancer cells for minimizing toxicity to normal cells in-vivo. Thus, this novel drug CuAA has an efficient anticancer activity which has been targeted specifically to cancer cells through polymer nanoparticle.

Keywords: apoptosis, Targeted drug delivery, anticancer, copper nanoparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
52 Detection of Bcl2 Polymorphism in Patient with Hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Olfat Gamil Shaker, Doha El-Sayed Ellakwa, Eman Fathy Abdel-Maksoud

Abstract:

Introduction: Despite advances in the knowledge of the molecular virology of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the mechanisms of hepatocellular injury in HCV infection are not completely understood. Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) influences the susceptibility to apoptosis. This could lead to insufficient antiviral immune response and persistent viral infection. Aim of this study: was to examine whether BCL-2 gene polymorphism at codon 43 (+127G/A or Ala43Thr) has an impact on development of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients. Subjects and Methods: The study included three groups; group 1: composing of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), group 2 composing of 30 patients with HCV, group 3 composing of 30 healthy subjects matching the same age and socioeconomic status were taken as a control group. Gene polymorphism of BCL2 (Ala43Thr) were evaluated by PCR-RFLP technique and measured for all patients and controls. Results: The summed 43Thr genotype was more frequent and statistically significant in HCC patients as compared to control group. This genotype of BCL2 gene may inhibit the programmed cell death which leads to disturbance in tissue and cells homeostasis and reduction in immune regulation. This result leads to viral replication and HCV persistence. Moreover, virus produces variety of mechanisms to block genes participated in apoptosis. This mechanism proves that HCV patients who have 43Thr genotype are more susceptible to HCC. Conclusion: The data suggest for the first time that the BCL2 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to HCC in Egyptian populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating HCC risk. This study clearly demonstrated that Chronic HCV exhibit a deregulation of apoptosis with the disease progression. This provides an insight into the pathogenesis of chronic HCV infection, and may contribute to the therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Sensitivity, specificity, BCL2 gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
51 Profiling of Apoptotic Protein Expressions after Trabectedin Treatment in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line PC-3 by Protein Array Technology

Authors: Harika Atmaca, Emir Bozkurt, Latife Merve Oktay, Selim Uzunoglu, Ruchan Uslu, Burçak Karaca

Abstract:

Microarrays have been developed for highly parallel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) applications. The most common protein arrays are produced by using multiple monoclonal antibodies, since they are robust molecules which can be easily handled and immobilized by standard procedures without loss of activity. Protein expression profiling with protein array technology allows simultaneous analysis of the protein expression pattern of a large number of proteins. Trabectedin, a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid derived from a Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata, has been shown to have antitumor effects. Here, we used a novel proteomic approach to explore the mechanism of action of trabectedin in prostate cancer cell line PC-3 by apoptosis antibody microarray. XTT cell proliferation kit and Cell Death Detection Elisa Plus Kit (Roche) was used for measuring cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Human Apoptosis Protein Array (R&D Systems) which consists of 35 apoptosis related proteins was used to assess the omic protein expression pattern. Trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of the death receptor pathway molecules, TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF R1/TNFRSF1A, FADD were significantly increased by 4.0-, 21.0-, 4.20- and 11.5-fold by trabectedin treatment in PC-3 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial pathway related pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, and Cleaved Caspase-3 expressions were induced by 2.68-, 2.07-, 2.8-, and 4.5-fold and the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were reduced by 3.5- and 5.2-fold in PC-3 cells. Proteomic (antibody microarray) analysis suggests that the mechanism of action of trabectedin may be exerted via the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The antibody microarray platform can be utilised to explore the molecular mechanism of action of novel anticancer agents.

Keywords: apoptosis, Prostate Cancer, trabectedin, omic protein expression profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
50 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, nanosuspension, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
49 Hepatic Regenerative Capacity after Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mouse Model

Authors: N. F. Hamid, A. Kipar, J. Stewart, D. J. Antoine, B. K. Park, D. P. Williams

Abstract:

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic that is safe at therapeutic doses. The mouse model of APAP has been extensively used for studies on pathogenesis and intervention of drug induced liver injury based on the CytP450 mediated formation of N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinoneimine and, more recently, as model for mechanism based biomarkers. Delay of the fasted CD1 mice to rebound to the basal level of hepatic GSH compare to fed mice is reported in this study. Histologically, 15 hours fasted mice prior to APAP treatment leading to overall more intense cell loss with no evidence of apoptosis as compared to non-fasted mice, where the apoptotic cells were clearly seen on cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining. After 15 hours post APAP administration, hepatocytes underwent stage of recovery with evidence of mitotic figures in fed mice and return to completely no histological difference to control at 24 hours. On the contrary, the evidence of ongoing cells damage and inflammatory cells infiltration are still present on fasted mice until the end of the study. To further measure the regenerative capacity of the hepatocytes, the inflammatory mediators of cytokines that involved in the progression or regression of the toxicity like TNF-α and IL-6 in liver and spleen using RT-qPCR were also included. Yet, quantification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has demonstrated the time for hepatic regenerative in fasted is longer than that to fed mice. Together, these data would probably confirm that fasting prior to APAP treatment does not only modulate liver injury, but could have further effects to delay subsequent regeneration of the hepatocytes.

Keywords: apoptosis, Liver, Regeneration, acetaminophen, proliferating cell nuclear antigen

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
48 New Quinazoline Derivative Induce Cytotoxic Effect against Mcf-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Maryam Zahedi Fard

Abstract:

New quinazoline schiff base 3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one was investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line with involved mechanism of apoptosis. The compound demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.34, after 72 hours of treatment. Morphological apoptotic features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. Furthermore, treated MCF-7 cells subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release as well as increase in ROS generation. We also found activation of caspases 3/7 and -9. Moreover, acute toxicity test demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compound in mice. Our results showed the selected compound significantly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via intrinsic pathway, which might be considered as a potent candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

Keywords: apoptosis, MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, antiproliferative effect, caspases

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
47 Right Atrial Tissue Morphology in Acquired Heart Diseases

Authors: Edite Kulmane, Mara Pilmane, Romans Lacis

Abstract:

Introduction: Acquired heart diseases remain one of the leading health care problems in the world. Changes in myocardium of the diseased hearts are complex and pathogenesis is still not fully clear. The aim of this study was to identify appearance and distribution of apoptosis, homeostasis regulating factors, and innervation and ischemia markers in right atrial tissue in different acquired heart diseases. Methods: During elective open heart surgery were taken right atrial tissue fragments from 12 patients. All patients were operated because of acquired heart diseases- aortic valve stenosis (5 patients), coronary heart disease (5 patients), coronary heart disease and secondary mitral insufficiency (1 patient) and mitral disease (1 patient). The mean age was (mean±SD) 70,2±7,0 years (range 58-83 years). The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin methods for routine light-microscopical examination and for immunohistochemical detection of protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP 9.5), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANUP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chromogranin A and endothelin. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Results: All specimens showed degeneration of cardiomyocytes with lysis of myofibrils, diffuse vacuolization especially in perinuclear region, different size of cells and their nuclei. The severe invasion of connective tissue was observed in main part of all fragments. The apoptotic index ranged from 24 to 91%. One specimen showed region of newly performed microvessels with cube shaped endotheliocytes that were positive for PGP 9.5, endothelin, chromogranin A and VEGF. From all fragments, taken from patients with coronary heart disease, there were observed numerous PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres, except in patient with secondary mitral insufficiency, who showed just few PGP 9.5 positive nerves. In majority of specimens there were regions observed with cube shaped mixed -VEGF immunoreactive endocardial and epicardial cells. Only VEGF positive endothelial cells were observed just in few specimens. There was no significant difference of hANUP secreting cells among all specimens. All patients operated due to the coronary heart disease moderate to numerous number of chromogranin A positive cells were seen while in patients with aortic valve stenosis tissue demonstrated just few factor positive cells. Conclusions: Complex detection of different factors may indicate selectively disordered morphopathogenetical event of heart disease: decrease of PGP 9.5 nerves suggests the decreased innervation of organ; increased apoptosis indicates the cell death without ingrowth of connective tissue; persistent presence of hANUP proves the unchanged homeostasis of cardiomyocytes probably supported by expression of chromogranins. Finally, decrease of VEGF detects the regions of affected blood vessels in heart affected by acquired heart disease.

Keywords: apoptosis, heart, protein-gene peptide 9.5, atrial natriuretic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, chromogranin A, endothelin

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
46 The Effect of Combined Doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta on Apoptosis Induction in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Dina Fatmawati, Sofia Mubarika, Mae Sri Wahyuningsih

Abstract:

Chemotherapy for breast cancer is largely ineffective, but innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. In our previous study, the combination of Doxorubicin (Dox) and ethanolic extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber ((EED) was found to have a synergistic effect on T47D human breast cancer cell line. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of the combination on T47D human breast cancer cells and normal fibroblasts cell line and its effects on the expression of Caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (cPARP-1) protein. T47D cell lines and fibroblasts cells were treated with the combination of Dox and EED. Apoptotic effect of the combination was determined using flow cytrometry assay. Protein expressions were determined by immunocytochemistry staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in T47D cell lines (75%) than that of in fibroblast cells (23%). The expression of Caspase 3 (84.53%) and cPARP-1 (83.36%) were significantly higher in the cancer cell lines than those of normal cells. These results indicate that the combination of doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta is a promising candidate for the treatment of breast cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, Immunocytochemistry, cancer cells, doxorubicin, Dioscorea esculenta

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
45 Regulation of Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer NCI-H226 Cells through Caspase – Dependent Mechanism by Benjakul Extract

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Pintusorn Hansakul, Ruchilak Rattarom

Abstract:

Background: Benjakul, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, comprises of five plants: Piper chaba, Piper sarmentosum, Piper interruptum, Plumbago indica, and Zingiber officinale. It has been widely used to treat cancer patients in the context of folk medicine in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract of Benjakul against three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (NCI-H226, A549, COR-L23), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line NCI-H1688 and normal lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. The study further examined the molecular mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis in NCI-H226 cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of Benjakul was determined by SRB assay. The effect of Benjakul on cell cycle distribution was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptotic effects of Benjakul were determined by sub-G1 quantitation and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analyses as well as by changes in caspase-3 activity. Results: Benjakul exerted potent cytotoxicity on NCI-H226 and A549 cells but lower cytotoxicity on COR-L23 and NCI-H1688 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Molecular studies showed that Benjakul extract induced G2/M phase arrest in human NCI-H226 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The highest concentration of Benjakul (150 μg/ml) led to the highest increase in the G2/M population at 12 h, followed by the highest increase in the sub-G1 population (apoptotic cells) at 60 h. Benjakul extract also induced early apoptosis (AnnexinV +/PI−) in NCI-H226 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with 150 μg/ml Benjakul extract for 36 h markedly increased caspase-3 activity by 3.5-fold, and pretreatment with the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk completely abolished such activity. Conclusions: This study reveals for the first time the regulation of apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H226 cells through caspase-dependent mechanism by Benjakul extract.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cytotoxicity, Benjakul, caspase activation

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
44 Correlation between Calpain 1 Expression and Proliferating/Apoptotic Index and Prognostic Factors in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Ruqaya Al-Rashdi, Shadia Al-Sinawi, Maya Al-Bahri

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and Human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. The role of clapins in pathogenesis and tumor progression has been studied in certain cancer types; however, its definite role is not yet established in breast cancer especially in the TNBC subtype. Objectives: This study aims to measure calpain-1 expression and correlate this measurement with the proliferating/apoptotic index as well with the prognostic factors in TNBC patients’ tissue. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine paraffin blocks from patients diagnosed with TNBC were used to measure the expression of calpain-1 and Ki-67 (proliferating marker) proteins using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was assessed morphological and biochemically using conventional Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining method and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediate dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay respectively. Data was statistically analyzed using Pearson X2 test of association. Results: Calpain-1 content was visualized in the nucleus of the TNBC cells and its expression varied from low to high among the patients tissue. Calpain expression showed no significant correlation with the proliferating/apoptotic index as well with the clinicopathological variables. Apoptotic counts quantified by H&E staining showed significant association with the apoptotic TUNEL assay, validating both approaches. Conclusion: Although calpain-1 expression showed no significant association with the clinical outcome, its variable level of expression might indicate a hidden role in breast cancer tissue. Larger number of samples and different mode of assessments are needed to fully investigate such role. Exploring the involvement of calpain-1 in cancer progression might help in considering it as a biomarker of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, apoptosis, prognosis, calpain

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
43 Investigation of The Effects of Hydroxytyrosol on Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, PI3K/Akt, and ERK 1/2 Pathways in Ovarian Cancer Cell Cultures

Authors: Latife Merve Oktay, Berrin Tugrul

Abstract:

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic phytochemical molecule derived from the hydrolysis of oleuropein, which originates during the maturation of the olives. It has recently received particular attention because of its antioxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of hydroxytyrosol and its effects on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) signaling pathways in human ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774. XTT cell proliferation kit, Cell Death Detection Elisa Plus Kit (Roche) and Human Apoptosis Array (R&D Systems) were used to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HT in OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 cell lines at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Effect of HT on PI3K/Akt and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways were investigated by using specific inhibitors of these pathways. IC50 values of HT were found to be 102.3 µM in MDAH-2774 cells at 72 h and 51.5 µM in OVCAR-3 cells at 96 h. Apoptotic effect of HT in MDAH-2774 cells was the highest at 50 µM at 72 h, and kept decreasing at 100 and 150 µM concentrations and was not seen at 200 µM and higher concentrations. Highest apoptotic effect was seen at 100 µM concentration in OVCAR-3 cells at 96 h, however apoptotic effect was decreased over 100 µM concentrations. According to antibody microarray results, HT increased the levels of pro-apoptotic molecules Bad, Bax, active caspase-3, Htra2/Omi by 2.0-, 1.4-, 1.2-, 4.2-fold, respectively and also increased the levels of pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, FAS/TNFRSF6 by 2.1-, 1.7-, 1.6-fold, respectively, however, it decreased the level of Survivin by 1.6-fold which is one of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family in MDAH-2774 cells. In OVCAR-3 cells, HT decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, pro-caspase 3 by 3.1-, 8.2-fold, respectively and IAP family proteins CIAP-1, CIAP-2, XIAP, Livin, Survivin by 6.5-, 6.0-, 3.2-, 2.2-, 2.7-fold, respectively and increased the level of cytochrome-c by 1.2-fold. We have shown that HT shows its cytotoxic and apoptotic effect through inhibiting ERK 1/2 signaling pathway in both OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 cells. Further studies are needed to investigate molecular mechanisms and modulatory effects of hydroxytyrosol.

Keywords: apoptosis, Ovarian Cancer, Cytotoxicity, hydroxytyrosol

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
42 Calpain-Mediated, Cisplain-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Khadija Al-Bulushi, Zuweina Al-Hadidi, Buthaina Al-Dhahl, Nadia Al-Abri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. However, the role of calpain in cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells is not fully understood. Here, TNBC (MDA-MB231) cells were treated with different concentration of CDDP (0, 20 & 40 µM) and calpain activation and apoptosis were measured by western blot and Hoechst Stain respectively. In addition, calpain modulation by either activation and/or inhibition and its effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis were assessed by the same above approaches. Our findings showed that CDDP induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and thus Calcium release and subsequently activate calpain α-fodrin cleavage indicated by the increase in GRP78 and Calmodulin protein expression and respectively in MDA-MB231 cells. It also induced apoptosis as measured by Hoechst stain and caspase-12 cleavage. Calpain activation by both Cyclopiazonic acid and Thapsigargin showed similar effect and enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to CDDP treatment. On the other hand, calpain inhibition by either specific siRNA and/or exogenous inhibitor (Calpeptin) had an adverse effect where it attenuated calpain activation and thus CDDP- induced apoptosis in these cells. Altogether, these findings suggested that calpain activation play an essential role in sensitizing the TNBC cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis. This might lead to the discovery of novel treatment to over this aggressive type of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, apoptosis, calpain, cisplatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
41 Induction of Apoptosis by Diosmin through Interleukins/STAT and Mitochondria Mediated Pathway in Hep-2 and KB Cells

Authors: K. Suresh, M. Rajasekar

Abstract:

Diosmin is a flavonoid, most abundantly found in many citrus fruits. As a flavonoid, it possesses a multitude of biological activities including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipid peroxidative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-mutagenic properties. At this point, we established the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of diosmin in Hep-2 and KB cells. Diosmin has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of Hep-2 and KB cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as apparent by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G1phase of the cell cycle. Results exposed that inhibition of cell proliferation is associated with regulation of the Interleukins/STAT pathway. In addition, Diosmin treatment with Hep-2 and KB cells actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. And also an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations conclude that Diosmin induce apoptosis via Interleukins /STAT-mediated pathway.

Keywords: apoptosis, antioxidant, diosmin, STAT pathway

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
40 Novel Nickel Complex Compound Reactivates the Apoptotic Network, Cell Cycle Arrest and Cytoskeletal Rearrangement in Human Colon and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nima Samie, Batoul Sadat Haerian, Sekaran Muniandy, M. S. Kanthimathi

Abstract:

Colon and breast cancers are categorized as the most prevalent types of cancer worldwide. Recently, the broad clinical application of metal complex compounds has led to the discovery of potential therapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic action of a selected nickel complex compound (NCC) against human colon and breast cancer cells. In this context, we determined the potency of the compound in the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. HT-29, WiDr, CCD-18Co, MCF-7 and Hs 190.T cell lines were used to determine the IC50 of the compound using the MTT assay. Analysis of apoptosis was carried out using immunofluorescence, acridine orange/ propidium iodide double staining, Annexin-V-FITC assay, evaluation of the translocation of NF-kB, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity, quenching of reactive oxygen species content , measurement of LDH release, caspase-3/-7, -8 and -9 assays and western blotting. The cell cycle arrest was examined using flowcytometry and gene expression was assessed using qPCR array. Results showed that our nickel complex compound displayed a potent suppressive effect on HT-29, WiDr, MCF-7 and Hs 190.T after 24 h of treatment with IC50 value of 2.02±0.54, 2.13±0.65, 3.76±015 and 3.14±0.45 µM respectively. This cytotoxic effect on normal cells was insignificant. Dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by the nickel complex compound. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 9 and 3/7.The nickel complex compound (NCC) was also shown activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-kB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and up-regulation of glutathione reductase, based on excessive ROS production were also observed. The results of this study suggest that the nickel complex compound is a potent anti-cancer agent inducing both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways as well as cell cycle arrest in colon and breast cancer cells.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, apoptosis, Colon Cancer, nickel complex, cytoskeletal rearrangement

Procedia PDF Downloads 199