Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

aorta Related Abstracts

3 Morphology and Risk Factors for Blunt Aortic Trauma in Car Accidents: An Autopsy Study

Authors: Ticijana Prijon, Branko Ermenc

Abstract:

Background: Blunt aortic trauma (BAT) includes various morphological changes that occur during deceleration, acceleration and/or body compression in traffic accidents. The various forms of BAT, from limited laceration of the intima to complete transection of the aorta, depends on the force acting on the vessel wall and the tolerance of the aorta to injury. The force depends on the change in velocity, the dynamics of the accident and of the seating position in the car. Tolerance to aortic injury depends on the anatomy, histological structure and pathomorphological alterations due to aging or disease of the aortic wall.An overview of the literature and medical documentation reveals that different terms are used to describe certain forms of BAT, which can lead to misinterpretation of findings or diagnoses. We therefore, propose a classification that would enable uniform systematic screening of all forms of BAT. We have classified BAT into three morphologycal types: TYPE I (intramural), TYPE II (transmural) and TYPE III (multiple) aortic ruptures with appropriate subtypes. Methods: All car accident casualties examined at the Institute of Forensic Medicine from 2001 to 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Autopsy reports were used to determine the occurrence of each morphological type of BAT in deceased drivers, front seat passengers and other passengers in cars and to define the morphology of BAT in relation to the accident dynamics and the age of the fatalities. Results: A total of 391 fatalities in car accidents were included in the study. TYPE I, TYPE II and TYPE III BAT were observed in 10,9%, 55,6% and 33,5%, respectively. The incidence of BAT in drivers, front seat and other passengers was 36,7%, 43,1% and 28,6%, respectively. In frontal collisions, the incidence of BAT was 32,7%, in lateral collisions 54,2%, and in other traffic accidents 29,3%. The average age of fatalities with BAT was 42,8 years and of those without BAT 39,1 years. Conclusion: Identification and early recognition of the risk factors of BAT following a traffic accident is crucial for successful treatment of patients with BAT. Front seat passengers over 50 years of age who have been injured in a lateral collision are the most at risk of BAT.

Keywords: Morphology, Risk Factors, aorta, blunt trauma, car accidents

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2 Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on the Histomorphometric Parameters in the Aortae and Hearts of Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

Authors: K. Subermaniam, Q. H. M. Saad, S. N. A. Bakhtiar, J. A. Hamid, F. Z .J. Sidek, F. Othman

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on histomorphometric changes in the aorta and heart of thermoxidized palm oil-fed rats. Methods: Thirty two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group fed with normal diet; 5 times heated palm oil-fed group (5HPO) fortified with 15% w/w of 5HPO; VCO group supplemented with 1.42 ml/kg of VCO; and 5HPO + VCO group. The treatment lasted for four months. Upon sacrifice, aortic and heart tissues were processed for light microscopic studies. Results: Light microscopic studies showed thickened intima and media of the aorta in two out of eight rats in the 5HPO group only, while the rest of the rats did not show any thickening of either the intima or media of the aorta. Intima media area (IMA) in the VCO, 5HPO and 5HPO+VCO was significantly increased compared to the control group. Circumferential wall tension (CWT) and tensile stress (TS) in the aorta of 5HPO showed significant increase compared to the other groups. Cardiomyofibre width in 5HPO group showed significant increase in size compared to the control, VCO and 5HPO+VCO groups. Cardiomyofibre nuclear size in the 5HPO group decreased in size significantly compared to the control, VCO and 5HPO+VCO groups. Conclusion: VCO supplementation at a dose of 1.42 ml/kg showed protectives effect on the aorta and heart of thermoxidized palm oil fed rats.

Keywords: heart, aorta, histomorphometric changes, thermoxidized palm oil, virgin coconut oil

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1 Gross Morphological Study on Heart of Yellow Bellied Sea Snake

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Jonnalagadda Naveen, Putluru Satish, Palanisamy Dharani

Abstract:

Present investigation was carried out on a single specimen of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake, which accidentally came to the seashore with the fisherman’s net. After the death, these specimens was preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin and observe for its morphology. The literature cited revealed that meager information was available on the anatomy of the heart of this species of snake thus present study was planned on the gross anatomy of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake. The heart of yellow-bellied sea snake was located between 28-35th rib in an oblique direction in the pericardial sac. It was three chambered with the complete division of atria but the ventricular cavity was incompletely divided. The apex did not show any gubernaculum cordis. The sinus venosus was the common cavity for confluence of anterior and posterior vana cava and the jugular vein was opened with anterior vena cava. The opening of posterior vena cava was slit-like and it was guarded by membranous valves whereas no valve could be observed at the opening of anterior vana cava and the jugular vein. Both the caval veins ran along the right border of the heart. Pulmonary vein was single which later divided into two branches. The length-width index for the atria was 1.33 whereas it was 1.67 for the ventricle. The atrioventricular canal was situated slightly towards the left of the midline of the heart and was divided into a right cavum pulmonale and left cavum arteriosum of which the right one was slightly larger and longer than the left. The cavum venosum was present in between the cavum pulmonale and the cavum arteriosum. The Ventricle was elongated triangle muscular compartment with ventrally located apex. Internally the cavity of ventricle was divided into two partial chambers dorsally by a muscular ridge and ventrally by an incomplete inter ventricular septum.

Keywords: heart, aorta, atrium, sinus venosus, ventricle, sea snake

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