Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

AOP Related Abstracts

8 Code Refactoring Using Slice-Based Cohesion Metrics and AOP

Authors: Jagannath Singh, Durga Prasad Mohapatra


Software refactoring is very essential for maintaining the software quality. It is an usual practice that we first design the software and then go for coding. But after coding is completed, if the requirement changes slightly or our expected output is not achieved, then we change the codes. For each small code change, we cannot change the design. In course of time, due to these small changes made to the code, the software design decays. Software refactoring is used to restructure the code in order to improve the design and quality of the software. In this paper, we propose an approach for performing code refactoring. We use slice-based cohesion metrics to identify the target methods which requires refactoring. After identifying the target methods, we use program slicing to divide the target method into two parts. Finally, we have used the concepts of Aspects to adjust the code structure so that the external behaviour of the original module does not change.

Keywords: software refactoring, program slicing, AOP, cohesion metrics, code restructure, AspectJ

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7 Doping ZnO with Bi through Synthesis of Layered Double Hydroxide Application of Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Indigoid Dye in the Visible Light

Authors: I. Benyamina, B. Benalioua, M. Mansour, A. Bentouami


The aim of this study is to use a synthetic of the layered double hydroxide as a method of doping of zinc by transition metal. The choice of dopant metal being bismuth. The material has been heat treated at different temperatures then tested on the Photo discoloration of indigo carmine under visible irradiation. In contrast, the diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of the UV-visible heat treated material exhibits an absorbance in the visible unlike ZnO and TiO2 P25. This property let the photocatalytic activity of Bi-ZnO under visible irradiation. Indeed, the photocatalytic effectiveness of Bi-ZnO in a visible light was proved by the total discoloration of indigo carmine solution with intial concentration of 16 mg/L after 90 minutes, whereas the TiO2 P25 and ZnO their discolorations are obtained after 120 minutes.

Keywords: Doping, ZnO, AOP, photo-catalysis

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6 Comparative Study of Ozone Based AOP's for Mineralization of Reactive Black 5

Authors: Jayesh Ruparelia, Sandip Sharma


The present work focuses on the comparative study of ozone based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): O3, O3/UV and O3/UV/Persulfate for mineralization of synthetic wastewater containing Reactive Black5 (RB5) dye. The effect of various parameters: pH, ozone flow rate, initial concentration of dye and intensity of UV light was analyzed to access performance efficiency of AOPs. The performance of all the three AOPs was evaluated on the basis of decolorization, % TOC removal and ozone consumption. The highest mineralization rate of 86.83% was achieved for O3/UV/Persulfate followed by 71.53% and 66.82 % for O3/UV and O3 respectively. This is attributed to the fact that Persulfate ions (S2O82-) upon activation produce sulfate radical (SO4-●) which is very strong oxidant capable of degrading a wide variety of recalcitrant organic compounds, moreover to enhance the performance of Persulfate it is activated using UV irradiation. On increasing the intensity of UV irradiation from 11W to 66W, TOC removal efficiency is increased by 59.04%. Ozone based AOPs gives better mineralization on basic conditions, at pH 12 it gives 68.81%, 60.01% and 40.32% TOC removal for O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. The result also reveals that decolorization of 98.95%, 95.17% and 94.71% was achieved by O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. In addition to above, ozone consumption was also considerably decreased by 17% in case of O3/UV/Persulfate, as efficiency of process is enhanced by means of activation of persulfate through UV irradiation. Thus study reveals that mineralization follows: O3/UV/Persulfate> O3/UV> O3.

Keywords: Mineralization, AOP, TOC, recalcitrant organic compounds

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5 Sono- and Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigocarmine in Water Using ZnO

Authors: V. Veena, Suguna Yesodharan, E. P. Yesodharan


Two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) i.e., sono- and photo-catalysis mediated by semiconductor oxide catalyst, ZnO has been found effective for the removal of trace amounts of the toxic dye pollutant Indigocarmine (IC) from water. The effect of various reaction parameters such as concentration of the dye, catalyst dosage, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen etc. as well as the addition of oxidisers and presence of salts in water on the rate of degradation has been evaluated and optimised. The degradation follows variable kinetics depending on the concentration of the substrate, the order of reaction varying from 1 to 0 with increase in concentration. The reaction proceeds through a number of intermediates and many of them have been identified using GCMS technique. The intermediates do not affect the rate of degradation significantly. The influence of anions such as chloride, sulphate, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate etc. on the degradation of IC is not consistent and does not follow any predictable pattern. Phosphates and fluorides inhibit the degradation while chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate enhance. Adsorption studies of the dye in the absence as well as presence of these anions show that there may not be any direct correlation between the adsorption of the dye on the catalyst and the degradation. Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and persulphate enhance the degradation though the combined effect and it is less than the cumulative effect of individual components. COD measurements show that the degradation proceeds to complete mineralisation. The results will be presented and probable mechanism for the degradation will be discussed.

Keywords: photocatalysis, COD, AOP, indigocarmine, sonocatalysis

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4 Textile Wastewater Ecotoxicity Abatement after Aerobic Granular Sludge Treatment and Advanced Oxidation Process

Authors: Ana M. T. Mata, Alexiane Ligneul


Textile effluents are usually heavily loaded with organic carbon and color compounds, the latter being azo dyes in an estimated 70% of the case effluent posing a major challenge in environmental protection. In this study, the ecotoxicity of simulated textile effluent after biological treatment with anaerobic and aerobic phase (aerobic granular sludge, AGS) and after advanced oxidation processes (AOP) namely ozonation and UV irradiation as post-treatment, were tested to evaluate the fitness of this treatments for ecotoxicity abatement. AGS treatment achieved an 80% removal in both COD and color. AOP was applied with the intention to mineralize the metabolites resulting from biodecolorization of the azo dye Acid Red 14, especially the stable aromatic amine (4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4A1NS). The ecotoxicity evaluation was based on growth inhibition of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata following OECD TG 201 except regarding the medium, MBL medium was used instead. Five replicate control cultures and samples were performed with an average STD of 2.7% regarding specific algae growth rate determination. It was found that untreated textile effluent holds an inhibition of specific growth rate of 82%. AGS treatment by itself is able to lower ecotoxicity to 53%. This is probably due to the high color removal of the treatment. AOP post-treatment with Ozone and UV irradiation improves the ecotoxicity abatment to 49 and 43% inhibition respectively, less significantly than previously thought. Since over 85% of 4A1NS was removed by either of the AOP (followed by HPLC), an individual ecotoxicity test of 4A1NS was performed showing that 4A1NS does not inhibit algae growth (0% inhibition). It was concluded that AGS treatment is able by itself to achieve a significant ecotoxicity abatement of textile effluent. The cost-benefit of AOP as a post-treatment have to be better accessed since their application resulted in an improvement of only 10% regarding ecotoxicity effluent removal. It was also found that the 4A1NS amine had no apparent effect on ecotoxicity. Further studies will be conducted to study where ecotoxicity is coming from after AGS biological treatment and how to eliminate it.

Keywords: Ecotoxicity, AOP, aerobic granular sludge, textile wastewate

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3 Investigation of Fumaric Acid Radiolysis Using Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Wafa Jahouach-Rabai, Khouloud Ouerghi, Zohra Azzouz-Berriche, Faouzi Hosni


Widely used organic products in the pharmaceutical industry have been detected in environmental systems, essentially carboxylic acids. In this purpose, the degradation efficiency of these contaminants was evaluated using an advanced oxidation process (AOP), namely ionization process as an alternative to conventional water treatment technologies. This process permitted the generation of radical reactions to directly degrade organic pollutants in wastewater. In fact, gamma irradiation of aqueous solutions produces several reactive radicals, essentially hydroxyl radical (OH), to destroy recalcitrant pollutants. Different concentrations of aqueous solutions of Fumaric acid (FA) were considered in this study (0.1-1 mmol/L), which were treated by irradiation doses from 1 to 15 kGy with 6.1 kGy/h rate by ionizing system in pilot scale (⁶⁰Co irradiator). Variations of main parameters influencing degradation efficiency versus absorbed doses were released in the aim to optimize total mineralization of considered pollutants. Preliminary degradation pathway until complete mineralization into CO₂ has been suggested based on detection of residual degradation derivatives using different techniques, namely high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Results revealed total destruction of treated compound, which improve the efficiency of this process in water remediation. We investigated the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals generated by irradiation on dicarboxylic acid (FA) in aqueous solutions, leading to its degradation into other smaller molecules. In fact, gamma irradiation of FA leads to the formation of hydroxylated intermediates such as hydroxycarbonyl radical which were identified by EPR spectroscopy. Finally, pilot plant irradiation facilities improved the applicability of radiation technology on large scale.

Keywords: EPR, HPLC, gamma irradiation, hydroxyl radical, AOP, radiolysis, fumaric acid

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2 Degradation of Emerging Pharmaceuticals by Gamma Irradiation Process

Authors: W. Jahouach-Rabai, J. Aribi, Z. Azzouz-Berriche, R. Lahsni, F. Hosni


Gamma irradiation applied in removing pharmaceutical contaminants from wastewater is an effective advanced oxidation process (AOP), considered as an alternative to conventional water treatment technologies. In this purpose, the degradation efficiency of several detected contaminants under gamma irradiation was evaluated. In fact, radiolysis of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions produces powerful reactive species, essentially hydroxyl radical ( ·OH), able to destroy recalcitrant pollutants in water. Pharmaceuticals considered in this study are aqueous solutions of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac at different concentrations 0.1-1 mmol/L, which were treated with irradiation doses from 3 to 15 kGy. The catalytic oxidation of these compounds by gamma irradiation was investigated using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as a convenient oxidant. Optimization of the main parameters influencing irradiation process, namely irradiation doses, initial concentration and oxidant volume (H₂O₂) were investigated, in the aim to release high degradation efficiency of considered pharmaceuticals. Significant modifications attributed to these parameters appeared in the variation of degradation efficiency, chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) and concentration of radio-induced radicals, confirming them synergistic effect to attempt total mineralization. Pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics could be used to depict the degradation process of these compounds. A sophisticated analytical study was released to quantify the detected radio-induced radicals (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)). All results showed that this process is effective for the degradation of many pharmaceutical products in aqueous solutions due to strong oxidative properties of generated radicals mainly hydroxyl radical. Furthermore, the addition of an optimal amount of H₂O₂ was efficient to improve the oxidative degradation and contribute to the high performance of this process at very low doses (0.5 and 1 kGy).

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, EPR, HPLC, gamma irradiation, hydroxyl radical, COD, AOP

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1 Detergent Removal from Rinsing Water by Peroxi Electrocoagulation Process

Authors: M. Taleb Ahmed, A. Benhadji


Among the various methods of treatment, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) are the most promising ones. In this study, Peroxi Electrocoagulation Process (PEP) was investigated for the treatment of detergent wastewater. The process was compared with electrooxidation treatment. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) was high 7584 mgO2.L-1, while the biochemical oxygen demand was low (250 mgO2.L-1). This wastewater was hardly biodegradable. Electrochemical process was carried out for the removal of detergent using a glass reactor with a volume of 1 L and fitted with three electrodes. A direct current (DC) supply was used. Samples were taken at various current density (0.0227 A/cm2 to 0.0378 A/cm2) and reaction time (1-2-3-4 and 5 hour). Finally, the COD was determined. The results indicated that COD removal efficiency of PEP was observed to increase with current intensity and reached to 77% after 5 h. The highest removal efficiency was observed after 5 h of treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, detergent, COD, AOP, PEP

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