Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Anxiety Related Abstracts

87 The Effects of Fearing Cancer in Women

Authors: E. Kotrotsiou, A. S. Topsioti, S. Mantzoukas, E. Dragioti, M. Gouva

Abstract:

Introduction: The literature has demonstrated that individual and psychological factors have a direct effect on the perceptions and attitudes of women with cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the fear of cancer and anxiety. Aim: To examine the impact of the fear of cancer in women with state and trait anxiety of women. Methods: A community sample of 286 women (mean age 39.6 years, SD = 9.5 ranged 20-60) participated in the current study. The women completed a) State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for fear of cancer. Results: The perception of fear in women with cancer is statistically independent from their age (t–test, p = 0.58), their family status (χ2, p = 0.519), their place of residency (χ2, p = 0.148), the manifestation of gynecological cancer (χ2, p = 0.979) or the manifestation of any type of cancer in the family (χ2, p = 0.277). In contrast, it was observed that there was a dependence in relation to a total of phobias (χ2, p = 0.003), the fear of illness (χ2, p< 0.001) and the fear of heights (χ2, p = 0.004). Furthermore, the participants that responded that they feared cancer displayed greater level of stress both as situation (t=-3.462; p=0.001) and as a trait of their personality (t=-4.377; p<0.001), and at the same time they displayed greater levels of depression in comparisons with the other participants. Furthermore, following multiple linear regression analysis it was observed that the participants that responded positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8, 3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively to the question if they feared cancer (B=8.3; p=0.016; R2=0.506). Conclusion: Women’s fear of cancer is statistically independent from their age, family status, place of residency, the manifestation of gynaecological cancer and with the manifestation of cancer any type in the family. In contrast, there is a dependency with the total of phobias, fear of illness and fear of heights. Women that state that they have a fear of cancer manifest greater levels of stress from the rest of the participants both as situation and as a trait of their personality (p = 0.001 and p< 0.001 accordingly). In specific, the study demonstrated that the participants that positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8,3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively.

Keywords: Psychology, Cancer, Anxiety, Women Health, fear

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86 Application of the Tripartite Model to the Link between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Risk

Authors: Ashley Wei-Ting Wang, Wen-Yau Hsu

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Objectives: The current study applies and expands the Tripartite Model to elaborate the link between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior. We propose a structural model of NSSI and suicidal risk, in which negative affect (NA) predicts both anxiety and depression, positive affect (PA) predicts depression only, anxiety is linked to NSSI, and depression is linked to suicidal risk. Method: Four hundreds and eighty seven undergraduates participated. Data were collected by administering self-report questionnaires. We performed hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling to test the proposed structural model. Results: The results largely support the proposed structural model, with one exception: anxiety was strongly associated with NSSI and to a lesser extent with suicidal risk. Conclusions: We conclude that the co-occurrence of NSSI and suicidal risk is due to NA and anxiety, and suicidal risk can be differentiated by depression. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal risk, the tripartite model, hierarchical relationship

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85 Personal Characteristics Related to Hasty Behaviour in Korea

Authors: Kyung-Ja Cho, Sun Jin Park

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This study focused on characteristics related to hasty behaviour. To investigate the relation between personal characteristics and hasty behaviour, 601 data were collected, 335 males and 256 females answered their own 'social avoidance and distress’, ‘anxiety’, ‘sensation seeking', 'hope', and ' hasty behaviour. And then 591 data were used for the analysis. The factor analysis resulted hasty behaviour consisted of 5 factors, time pressure, isolation, uncomfortable situation, boring condition, and expectation of reward. The result showed anxiety, sensation seeking, and hope related to hasty behaviour. Specifically, anxiety was involved in every hasty behaviour. This result means that psychological tension and worry are related to hasty behaviour in common. 'Social avoidance and distress', 'sensation seeking' and 'hope' influenced on hasty behaviour under time pressure, in isolation, in expectation of rewards respectively. This means that each factor of hasty behaviour has anxiety as its basis, expressed through a varied nature.

Keywords: Anxiety, Sensation Seeking, hasty behaviour, social avoidance and distress, hope

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84 Formal Stress Management Teaching Incorporated into the First Year of a Doctor's Practice: A Career Transition Study of British Foundation Year 1 Doctors

Authors: Edward Ridyard, Vinary Varadarajan

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Background and Aims: The first year as a doctor in any country represents a major career transition in any physician's life. During this period, many physicians concentrate on obtaining clinical skills but may not obtain the important skills necessary to cope with stress. In this study we elucidate stress levels amongst FY1 doctors regarding the transitioning into specialty career choices, working in the NHS and anxiety about future career success. Methods: A prospective single blinded analysis of Foundation Year one (FY1) trainees using a non-mandatory online questionnaire was distributed. No exclusion criteria were applied. The only inclusion criteria was the doctor was in a full-time FY1 post and this was their first job in the UK. A total of n= 22 doctors were included in the study. After data collection, statistical analysis using chi-squared testing was applied. Results: The large majority of FY1 doctors (72.7%) already knew what specialty they wished to pursue (p=0.0001). With regards to their future careers 45.5% of FY1 doctors stated "above average" stress levels. The majority of FY1 doctors (64.3%) stated their stress levels working in the NHS were either "above average" or "high". Finally, 81.8% of respondents know colleagues who have been put off from pursuing specialties due to the stress of competition. Conclusions: A large majority of FY1 doctors already know at this early stage what area they would like to specialise in. With this in mind, a large proportion have above "average" levels of stress with regards to securing this future career path. The most worrying finding is that 64.3% of FY1s stated they had "above average" or "high" stress levels working in the NHS. We therefore recommend formal stress management education to be incorporated into the foundation programme curriculum.

Keywords: Education, Anxiety, stress, junior doctor

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83 Effectiveness of Metacognitive Therapy in Metacognitive Beliefs, Anxiety and Social Phobia of Male High School Students

Authors: Saba Hasanvandi, Molok Khademi Ashkezari, Niloofar Esmaieli

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The research purpose was to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia of male students studying in the high schools of Dargaz City. The sample comprised 30 students who were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and control groups. The kind of this study was experimental study with pre-ops and follow-up stages. Subjects filled out metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia questionnaires. The experimental group underwent 10 sessions of therapeutic metacognitive sessions. The group therapy was conducted for ten, weekly, 90-minute sessions. Mankova analysis was utilized to analyze the data. Results revealed that metacognitive group therapy decreased metacognitive beliefs (P=0.007), anxiety (P<0.001) and social phobia (P=<0.017) in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effectiveness of group metacognitive therapy was stable and consistent after one month of time interval. The results of present study can be effective for mental health professional in reaching a better understanding of anxiety and social phobia.

Keywords: Anxiety, Metacognitive Beliefs, high school students, group metacognitive therapy, social phobia

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82 Pomegranates Attenuates Cognitive and Behavioural Deficts and reduces inflammation in a Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: M. M. Essa, S. Subash, M. Akbar, S. Al-Adawi, A. Al-Asmi, G. J. Guillemein

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Objective: Transgenic (tg) mice which contain an amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene mutation, develop extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in the brain, and severe memory and behavioural deficits with age. These mice serve as an important animal model for testing the efficacy of novel drug candidates for the treatment and management of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports have suggested that oxidative stress is the underlying cause of Aβ neurotoxicity in AD. Pomegranates contain very high levels of antioxidants and several medicinal properties that may be useful for improving the quality of life in AD patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Omani pomegranate extract on the memory, anxiety and learning skills along with inflammation in an AD mouse model containing the double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576). Methods: The experimental groups of APP-transgenic mice from the age of 4 months were fed custom-mix diets (pellets) containing 4% pomegranate. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4-5 months and 18-19 months using the Morris water maze test, rota rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open field test. Further, inflammatory parameters also analysed. Results: APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a standard chow diet without pomegranates showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability and motor coordination along with increased inflammation compared to the wild type mice on the same diet, at the age of 18-19 months In contrast, APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a diet containing 4% pomegranates showed a significant improvements in memory, learning, locomotor function, and anxiety with reduced inflammatory markers compared to APPsw/Tg2576 mice fed the standard chow diet. Conclusion: Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with pomegranates may slow the progression of cognitive and behavioural impairments in AD. The exact mechanism is still unclear and further extensive research needed.

Keywords: Anxiety, Inflammation, Cognitive Decline, alzheimer's disease, oman, pomegranates, memory loss

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81 Date Palm Fruits from Oman Attenuates Cognitive and Behavioral Defects and Reduces Inflammation in a Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: M. M. Essa, S. Subash, M. Akbar, S. Al-Adawi, A. Al-Asmi, G. J. Guillemein

Abstract:

Transgenic (tg) mice which contain an amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene mutation, develop extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in the brain, and severe memory and behavioral deficits with age. These mice serve as an important animal model for testing the efficacy of novel drug candidates for the treatment and management of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports have suggested that oxidative stress is the underlying cause of Aβ neurotoxicity in AD. Date palm fruits contain very high levels of antioxidants and several medicinal properties that may be useful for improving the quality of life in AD patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Omani date palm fruits on the memory, anxiety and learning skills along with inflammation in an AD mouse model containing the double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576). The experimental groups of APP-transgenic mice from the age of 4 months were fed custom-mix diets (pellets) containing 2% and 4% Date palm fruits. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4-5 months and 18-19 months using the Morris water maze test, rota rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open field test. Further, inflammatory parameters also analyzed. APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a standard chow diet without dates showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability and motor coordination along with increased inflammation compared to the wild type mice on the same diet, at the age of 18-19 months In contrast, PPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a diet containing 2% and 4% dates showed a significant improvements in memory, learning, locomotor function, and anxiety with reduced inflammatory markers compared to APPsw/Tg2576 mice fed the standard chow diet. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with dates may slow the progression of cognitive and behavioral impairments in AD. The exact mechanism is still unclear and further extensive research needed.

Keywords: Anxiety, Inflammation, Cognitive Decline, alzheimer's disease, oman, memory loss, date palm fruits

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80 Anxiety and Stress as a Function of Dental Disfigurement

Authors: Lata Rathi, N. R. Mrinal

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Dental Disfigurement is a major problem for a person who is suffering from Malocclusion. Malocclusion, is a technical name given to crowded, irregular or protruded teeth. In the present investigation the Anxiety and Stress are studied with reference to Dental Disfigurement among Adolescents. The 8 SQ Questionnaire (Cattell,1976)was administered to 50 Male(age range 12-20 years) and 50 Female(age range 12-20 years) patients to investigate anxiety and stress with an equal number of normal’s having no dental disfigurement of teeth. Both the groups, experimental and control were matched on age and sex. It was found that experimental group, i. e. orthodontic patients (M=14.34,s= 4.99) have significantly greater anxiety than their normal counterparts (M=11.8,s= 4.20) F=15.04,p=<.01. The sex differences were not observed. However, with reference to stress it was observed that it was significantly greater in orthodontic patients (M=15.11,s= 4.93 )as compared to normal’s (M=12.83, s=4.87). The gender differences on stress were also observed. The females showed greater stress (M=15.06) as compared to males (M=12.88),F=11.55,p.<1. Overall Malocclusion was found to have significant effect on anxiety and stress.

Keywords: Anxiety, stress, Malocclusion, orthodontic patients

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79 Determine the Effectiveness of Group Therapy with Reality Therapy Approach to Reduce Symptoms of Anxiety, Increase Self-esteem, and Internal Control in Infertile Women

Authors: Mansour Abdi, Fatemeh Alsadat Borhani, Hassan Heydari

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The purpose of this study to determine the effectiveness of group therapy with approach reality therapy in reducing symptoms of anxiety and increased self- esteem and internal control of infertile women. The population of this study is all infertile women in Qom city in 2012 that with the use of purposeful sampling, 32 individuals were selected as sample. 16 individuals of infertile women in the control group and 16 infertile women in the experimental group is replaced. The research design was of type quasi-experimental with design pretest-posttest with control group. Thus, infertile women were randomly appointed in the experimental and control groups. Also, in this study data through normalized questionnaires, the Beck Anxiety scale, Rotter's Locus of control inventory, Cooper Smith self-esteem inventory was collected. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics, one way analysis of covariance model with SPSS version 20 software was used. The findings indicated that intervention of the group therapy with approach reality therapy in experimental group reduced symptoms of anxiety and mutually increased self-esteem and internal control in infertile women of experimental group.

Keywords: Anxiety, Internal control, reality therapy, infertile women, self esteem

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78 Attachment Style, Attachment Figure, and Intimate Relationship among Emerging Adults with Anxiety and Depression

Authors: P. K. Raheemudheen, Vibha Sharma, C. B. Tripathi

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Background and Aim: Intimate relationships are one of the major sources of unhappiness for emerging adults(18-25 years) and the extent of worry from it is higher for them as compared to older adults. This increases their vulnerability to develop anxiety and depression. Current academic literature have highlighted adult attachment have a crucial role in determining the psycho social adjustment and psychopathology in Emerging Adulthood. In this context, present study is an attempt to explore patterns of adult attachment styles, availability of attachment figures and dimensions of intimate relationship among emerging adults. Method: The participants(n=30) were emerging adults diagnosed with anxiety or/and depression seeking treatment from IHBAS, Delhi. Relationship Style Questionnaire was used to assess the adult attachment styles and Multidimensional Relationship Questionnaire was used to assess dimensions of intimate relationship. Results& Discussion: Results showed that majority of the participants have insecure attachment styles. They perceived their attachment figure as insensitive and unavailable. Further, it was found that participants experience multiple difficulties to establish and maintain healthy intimate relationships. These findings highlight Adult attachment insecurities seem to contribute to anxiety and depression among emerging adults. It proved a conceptual foundation for planning interventions to deal with these attachment based correlate of anxiety and depression which may be more amenable to therapeutic change.

Keywords: Anxiety, emerging adult, adult attachment, intimate relationship

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77 Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Headache Patients: Major Concern for Community Mental Health

Authors: Neeti Sharma, Harshika Pareek, Prerna Puri, Manika Mohan

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The present study is aimed at studying the significant relationship between anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. Chronic Headache patients coming to the Neurology Unit-1 Outpatient Department of the Sawai Mansingh Hospital (SMS) Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in this study. The sample consisted of 100 patients (N=100). Initially patients were examined by a physician and then they were assessed for Anxiety and Depression using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relevant information was recorded on a Performa designed for this purpose comprising of socio-demographic variables like age, gender and triggering factors. The correlation-coefficient indicated a significant positive relationship between the anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. These findings implicate high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the general population, and also indicate an association between headache and psychological disorders. Many evidences support the anxiety-headache-depression syndrome as a distinct disorder, and the association of co-morbid psychiatric illness with headache intractability. This study highlights the importance of prospective research for studying the developmental course and consequences of headache syndromes. Also, various psychotherapies should be applied to the headache patients so as to treat them, at the onset level of anxiety and depression, with the help of medication.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, chronic headaches, HAM-A, HAM

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76 The Comparison of Parental Childrearing Styles and Anxiety in Children with Stuttering and Normal Population

Authors: Pegah Farokhzad

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Family has a crucial role in maintaining the physical, social and mental health of the children. Most of the mental and anxiety problems of children reflects the complex interpersonal situations among family members, especially parents. In other words, anxiety problems of the children is correlated with deficit relationships of family members and improper child rearing styles. The parental child rearing styles leads to positive and negative consequences which affect the children’s mental health. Therefore, the present research was aimed to compare the parental child rearing styles and anxiety of children with stuttering and normal population. It was also aimed to study the relationship between parental child rearing styles and anxiety of children. The research sample included 54 boys with stuttering and 54 normal boys who were selected from the children (boys) of Tehran, Iran in the age range of 5 to 8 years in 2013. In order to collect data, Baumrind Child rearing Styles Inventory and Spence Parental Anxiety Inventory were used. Appropriate descriptive statistical methods and multivariate variance analysis and t test for independent groups were used to test the study hypotheses. Statistical data analyses demonstrated that there was a significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in anxiety (t = 7.601, p< 0.01); But there was no significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in parental child rearing styles (F = 0.129). There was also not found significant relationship between parental child rearing styles and children anxiety (F = 0.135, p< 0.05). It can be concluded that the influential factors of children’s society are parents, school, teachers, peers and media. So, parental child rearing styles are not the only influential factors on anxiety of children, and other factors including genetic, environment and child experiences are effective in anxiety as well. Details are discussed.

Keywords: Anxiety, Stuttering, Iran, child rearing styles

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75 Anti-Anxiety Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Flowers Nerium indicum

Authors: Deepak Suresh Mohale, Anil V. Chandewar

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Anxiety is defined as an exaggerated feeling of apprehension, uncertainty and fear. Nerium indicum is a well-known ornamental and medicinal plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae. A wide spectrum of biological activities has been reported with various constituents isolated from different parts of the plant. This study was conducted to investigate antianxiety activity of flower extract. Flowers were collected and dried in shade and coarsely powdered. Powdered mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate by maceration process. Extract of flowers obtained was subsequently dried in oven at 40-50 °C. This extract is then tested for antianxiety activity at low and high dose using elevated plus maze and light & dark model. Rats shown increased open arm entries and time spent in open arm in elevated Plus maze with treatment low and high dose of extract of Nerium indicum flower as compared to their respective control groups. In Light & dark Model, light box entries and time spent in light box increased with treatment low and high dose of extract of Nerium indicum flower as compared to their respective control groups. From result it is concluded that ethyl acetate extract of flower of Nerium indicum possess antianxiety activity at low and high dose.

Keywords: Anxiety, social isolation, antianxiety, kaner, nerium indicum

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74 Anxiety Caused by the Single Mode of Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: The Case of African Language Learners

Authors: Stanle Madonsela

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For learning to take place effectively, learners have to use language. Language becomes a critical tool by which to communicate, to express feelings, desires and thoughts, and most of all to learn. However, each individual’s capacity to use language is unique. In multilingual countries, classrooms usually comprise learners from different language backgrounds, and therefore the language used for teaching and learning requires rethinking. Interaction in the classroom, if done in a language that is understood by the learners, could maximise the outcomes of learning. This paper explores the extent to which the use of a single code becomes a source of anxiety to learners in multilingual classrooms in South African schools. It contends that a multilingual approach in the learning process should be explored in order to promote learner autonomy in the learning process.

Keywords: Anxiety, Foreign Language Teaching, classroom, multilingual

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73 The Impact of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety on Oscillatory Brain Activity during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Yulia V. Kovas, Tatyana A. Dolgorukova

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The present study compared spectral-power indexes and cortical topography of brain activity in a sample characterized by different levels of trait and mathematical anxiety. 52 healthy Russian-speakers (age 17-32; 30 males) participated in the study. Participants solved an error recognition task under 3 conditions: A lexical condition (simple sentences in Russian), and two numerical conditions (simple arithmetic and complicated algebraic problems). Trait and mathematical anxiety were measured using self-repot questionnaires. EEG activity was recorded simultaneously during task execution. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) were used to analyze spectral-power changes in brain activity. Additionally, sLORETA was applied in order to localize the sources of brain activity. When exploring EEG activity recorded after tasks onset during lexical conditions, sLORETA revealed increased activation in frontal and left temporal cortical areas, mainly in the alpha/beta frequency ranges. When examining the EEG activity recorded after task onset during arithmetic and algebraic conditions, additional activation in delta/theta band in the right parietal cortex was observed. The ERSP plots reveled alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three (lexical, arithmetic and algebraic) conditions. The level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the amplitude of alpha/beta desynchronization. The level of mathematical anxiety was negatively correlated with the amplitude of theta synchronization and of alpha/beta desynchronization. Overall, trait anxiety was related with an increase in brain activation during task execution, whereas mathematical anxiety was associated with increased inhibitory-related activity. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the №11.G34.31.0043 grant from the Government of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: Anxiety, eeg, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, alpha/beta desynchronization

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72 Observing the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Meditation on Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Pain Patients

Authors: Kim Rod

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People whose chronic pain limits their independence are especially likely to become anxious and depressed. Mindfulness training has shown promise for stress-related disorders. Methods: Chronic pain patients who complained of anxiety and depression and who scored higher than moderate in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as moderate in Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) were observed for eight weeks, three days a week for an hour of Mindfulness Meditation training with an hour daily home Mindfulness Meditation practice. Pain was evaluated on study entry and completion, and patients were given the Patients’ Global Impression of Change (PGIC) to score at the end of the training program. Results: Forty-seven patients (47) completed the Mindfulness Meditation Training program. Over the year-long observation, patients demonstrated noticeable improvement in depression, anxiety, pain, and global impression of change. Conclusion: Chronic pain patients who suffer with anxiety and depression may benefit from incorporating Mindfulness Meditation into their treatment plans.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Meditation, Chronic Pain, Mindfulness

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71 The Effectiveness of Psychodrama on Anxiety Enhancement in Adolescent Boys

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Marjan Pooee

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Background - Psychodrama, as a form of art therapy, helps people to enact and use role-plays for a specific problem, rather than just talking about it, in an effort to review the problem, gain feedback from group members, find appropriate solutions, and practice them for their life. This paper evaluated the effectiveness of psychodrama on enhancing anxiety of young adolescent boys. Methodology - This is aquasi-experimental research study, using a pre-post testing plan with control group. From four secondary schools in Kermanshah - Iran, 210 adolescent boys (aged 13 and 14 years) were asked to complete Koper Smith's self-esteem measure scale. Given the low self-esteem scores (less than the cut-off of 23), a number of 20 individuals were selected and randomly placed into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in a twelve-session psychodrama therapy plan for 6 weeks, while the control group received no intervention. Data analysis was carried out by the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results - The results of ANCOVA analysis showed an increase in the post-test scores for anxiety, and such increase was statistically significant. Conclusion - The findings indicated the effectiveness of psychodrama on anxiety enhancement of young boys. During psychodrama sessions, the adolescents learned to take the initiative, communicate with others in an excited state, and improve their anxiety with positive and constructive experiences.

Keywords: Anxiety, psychodrama, art therapy, young adolescents

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70 An Investigation on Students’ Reticence in Iranian University EFL Classrooms

Authors: Azizeh Chalak, Firouzeh Baktash

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Reticence is a prominent and complex phenomenon which occurs in foreign language classrooms and influences students’ oral passivity. The present study investigated the extent in which students experience reticence in the EFL classrooms and explored the underlying factors triggering reticence. The participants were 104 Iranian freshmen undergraduate male and female EFL students, who enrolled in listening and speaking courses, all majoring in English studying at Islamic Azad University Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch and University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. To collect the data, the Reticence Scale-12 (RS-12) questionnaire which measures the level of reticence consisting of six dimensions (anxiety, knowledge, timing, organization, skills, and memory) was administered to the participants. The statistical analyses showed that the reticent level was high among the Iranian EFL undergraduate students, and their major problems were feelings of anxiety and delivery skills. Moreover, the results revealed that factors such as low English proficiency, the teaching method, and lack of confidence contributed to the students’ reticence in Iranian EFL classrooms. It can be implied that language teachers’ awareness of learners’ reticence can help them choose more appropriate activities and provide a friendly environment enhancing hopefully more effective participation of EFL learners. The findings can have implications for EFL teachers, learners and policy makers.

Keywords: Anxiety, Iranian EFL learners, reticence, reticence scale-12

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69 Effect of Educational Information with Video Compact Disc on Anxiety Level in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy in Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Chariya Laohavich, Viboon Bunsrangsuk

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Objective: Bronchoscopy is a common outpatient procedure. The authors compared the patient anxiety level before and after received video-assisted procedural information. Method: One hundred and twenty patients who never received bronchoscopy and scheduled for elective bronchoscopy at outpatient Bronchosope unit at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University were randomized into control and intervention group. Video-assisted procedural information was given in intervention group. Pre and post procedural anxiety score were recorded and compared between two groups. Paired T-test was used for statistical analysis. Result: There was statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) for anxiety score in patients who received video assisted procedural information compare with control group. Conclusion: Video-assisted procedural information should be given to patient who will have bronchoscopy to reduce anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Bronchoscopy, video compact disc (VCD)

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68 The Experience of Applying Multi-Sensory Stimulation ICU for Arousing a Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury in Intensive Care

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Tsai

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Motor vehicle accident is the first cause of head injury in the world; severe head injury cases may cause conscious disturbance and death. This is a report about a case of a young adult patient suffering from motor vehicle accident leading to severe head injury who passed through three time surgical procedures, and his mother (who is the informal caregiver). This case was followed from 28th January to 15th February 2011 by using Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns. Patient’s cognitive-perceptual and self-perception-self-concept patterns were altered. Anxiety was also noted on his informal caregiver due to patients’ condition. During the intensive care period, maintaining patient’s vital signs and cerebral perfusion pressure were essential to avoid secondary neuronal injury. Multi-sensory stimulation, caring accompanying, supporting, listening and encouraging patient’s family involved in patient care were very important to reduce informal caregiver anxiety. Finally, the patient consciousness improved from GCS 4 to GCS 11 before discharging from ICU. Patient’s primary informal caregiver, his mother, also showed anxiety improvement. This is was successful case with traumatic brain injury recovered from coma.

Keywords: Anxiety, traumatic brain injury, multi-sensory stimulation, reduce intracranial adaptive capacity

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67 Personality Profiles, Emotional Disturbance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Epilepsy

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad, Sara Alaie Khoraem

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Introduction: The association of epilepsy with several psychological disorders and reduced quality of life has long been recognized. The present study aimed at comparing the personality profiles, quality of life and symptomatology of anxiety and depression in patients with epilepsy and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty seven patients (29 men and 18 women) with diagnosed epilepsy participated in this study. Forty seven healthy controls who matched the patients in age and gender were also recruited. The participants’ personality and psychological profiles were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI). Scoring algorithms were applied to the SF-36 produce the physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS). Results: There were statistically significant differences in the total SF-36 score, anxiety, depression and stress scores of the DASS-21 between patients and controls. Anxiety, stress and depression scores significantly correlated inversely with the PCS and MCS. Data analysis showed that females had higher depression scores than males in both patients and controls, while males in both groups scored higher on stress. Patients’ personality scores were also different from those reported by controls on emotional, agreeableness and extroversion. Patients scored higher on emotionality, and lower on agreeableness and extraversion. Patients also scored lower on indices of quality of life. Regression analysis revealed that emotionality, anxiety, stress and MCS accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in severity of epileptic seizures. Conclusion: Stressful situations and psychological conditions as well as the personality trait of neuroticism were related to the occurrence of recurrent epileptic seizures.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Depression, Anxiety, Quality of Life, Personality, stress, neuroticism

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66 Anxieolytic Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Flowers Nerium indicum

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A. V. Chandewar

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Anxiety is defined as an exaggerated feeling of apprehension, uncertainty and fear. Nerium indicum is a well-known ornamental and medicinal plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae. A wide spectrum of biological activities has been reported with various constituents isolated from different parts of the plant. This study was conducted to investigate antianxiety activity of flower extract. Flowers were collected and dried in shade and coarsely powdered. Powdered mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate by maceration process. Extract of flowers obtained was subsequently dried in oven at 40-50 °C. This extract is then tested for antianxiety activity at low and high dose using Elevated Plus Maze and Light & dark Model. Rats shown increased open arm entries and time spent in open arm in elevated Plus maze with treatment low and high dose of extract of Nerium indicum flower as compared to their respective control groups. In Light & dark Model, light box entries and time spent in light box increased with treatment low and high dose of extract of Nerium indicum flower as compared to their respective control groups. From result it is concluded that Ethyl acetate extract of flower of Nerium indicum possess antianxiety activity at low and high dose.

Keywords: Anxiety, social isolation, kaner, nerium indicum, anxieolytic

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65 Depression among Housewives and Professional Women in Karachi: A Comparative Study

Authors: Naheed Khan

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A non-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in middle-class women in Karachi, a metropolitan city of Pakistan. The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was self -administered by a sample of 50 housewives and 50 professional women between the ages of 24 and 54 years. All the participants were at least graduates, married, had children, and were living in joint family systems. Results showed a 48% prevalence of anxiety and depression in housewives as compared to 34% in professional women. The data showed significant difference in mean of total scores on AKUADS and the calculated t-value of 1.957 with a df = 98 and α = 0.05. Two variables, that is, profession and a higher level of education were significantly related to the outcome. Hence acquiring higher education and taking up a job, even a part time one, may alleviate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in housewives. Other factors responsible for the relief of such symptoms, such as quality of relationship with husbands, may be investigated for both categories of women.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, housewives, professional women

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64 Perinatal Ethanol Exposure Modifies CART System in Rat Brain Anticipated for Development of Anxiety, Depression and Memory Deficits

Authors: M. P. Dandekar, A. P. Bharne, P. T. Borkar, D. M. Kokare, N. K. Subhedar

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Ethanol ingestion by the mother ensue adverse consequences for her offspring. Herein, we examine the behavioral phenotype and neural substrate of the offspring of the mother on ethanol. Female rats were fed with ethanol-containing liquid diet from 8 days prior of conception and continued till 25 days post-parturition to coincide with weaning. Behavioral changes associated with anxiety, depression and learning and memory were assessed in the offspring, after they attained adulthood (day 85), using elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST) and novel object recognition tests (NORT), respectively. The offspring of the alcoholic mother, compared to those of the pair-fed mother, spent significantly more time in closed arms of EPM and showed more immobility time in FST. Offspring at the age of 25 and 85 days failed to discriminate between novel versus familiar object in NORT, thus reflecting anxiogenic, depressive and amnesic phenotypes. Neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is known to be involved in central effects of ethanol and hence selected for the current study. Twenty-five days old pups of the alcoholic mother showed significant augmentation in CART-immunoreactivity in the cells of Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus and lateral hypothalamus. However, a significant decrease in CART-immunoreactivity was seen in nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), lateral part of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTl), locus coeruleus (LC), hippocampus (CA1, CA2 and CA3), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the pups and/or adults offspring. While no change in the CART-immunoreactive fibers of AcbSh and BNSTl, CA2 and CA3 was noticed in the 25 days old pups, the CART-immunoreactive cells in EW and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and fibers in the central nucleus of amygdala of 85 days old offspring remained unaffected. We suggest that the endogenous CART system in these discrete areas, among other factors, may be a causal to the abnormalities in the next generation of an alcoholic mother.

Keywords: Immunocytochemistry, Depression, Anxiety, Ethanol, CART

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63 In Search of the Chosen One: The Effectiveness of Video Games to Reduce the Intensity of Anxiety - State in College Students

Authors: Gerardo Hernández Sierra

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Today, we are exposed to different anxiogenic stimuli, some of those stimuli (such as traffic, noise, etc.) generates anxiety in people, being the anxiety a factor that can develop different disorders in people. Therefore, and to improve the quality of life of people it is necessary to find new and helpful tools according to the times we’re living to decrease their anxiety state. Moreover, video games are consolidated globally as a way of interactive entertainment characterized by being available to many people, being fun and easy to play. Even so, people reports that they like playing videogames because they decrease their stress (an anxiety detonator). This research will seek the effectiveness of some videogame genres to reduce the intensity of state anxiety in students. Using State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to do a monitoring of the levels of anxiety pre and post displayed the videogames.

Keywords: Anxiety, stress, videogames, state trait anxiety inventory (STAI)

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62 Comparison of Effect of Group Counseling with Cognitive Therapy Approach and Interactive Lectures on Anxiety during Pregnancy in Primiparas: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Fariba Salehi, Zohre Shahhosseini, Mehdi Pourasghar, AliReza Khalilian

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Objective: The prevalence of anxiety during pregnancy, particularly in developing countries, and its adverse effects on mother and baby, can make pregnancy unpleasant for pregnant women. The effect of anxiety during pregnancy on birth outcomes and children can be a justification for screening of anxious pregnant women in periodic pregnancy care and helping them. In this study, researchers have investigated effects and comparison of group counseling (Cognitive therapy) and interactive lectures on anxiety during pregnancy of primiparas. Methods: The population studied in this semi-experimental trail was nulliparous pregnant women with backgrounds in health care centers in Sari city .They were studied during a period of 3 months from early March to end May 2016. Sample size in this study was 91 patients, who were randomly assigned to three groups: group counseling, interactive lecture, and control group. Demographic questionnaire and Speilberger State –Trait Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) was completed for all three groups after obtaining letter of consent and completing the initial checklist. Then interventions included 4 sessions for group counseling and 4 sessions for interactive lecture which were implemented in two sessions a week. 4 weeks after interventions, Speilberger State – Trait Anxiety Inventory (SPAI), completed by both group counseling and interactive lectures groups again. In control group, the second questionnaire was also completed 4 weeks after completing the initial questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using spss software version 18. At first, the Kalmogorov-Smiranov test was carried out and then chi square tests, Independent t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA test, and Dunnett's post hoc test were applied. Results: Findings show that group counseling and interactive lecture with reducing state and trait anxiety in significant level of P=0/000 contribute to reduction of anxiety in nulliparous pregnant mothers. However, in this study, group counseling was more effective than an interactive lecture in reducing participants' anxiety, but this difference was not significant (P≥0/05). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it is suggested that by screening of psychological - mental problems of pregnant women in periodic care during pregnancy be considered by revised prenatal care plans and creation of counseling and training units at health centers. Besides owing to the fact that both interactive lecture and group counseling method were effective in reducing anxiety, these methods should be used proportionate to situations and facilities.

Keywords: Anxiety, Cognitive Therapy, group counseling, interactive lecture, nulliparous

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61 Prevalence of Anxiety among End Stage Renal Disease Patients and Its Association with Patient Compliance to Hemodialysis and Physician Instructions

Authors: Mohammed Asiri, Saleh Alsuwayt, Mohammed Bin Mugren, Abdulmalik Almufarrih, Tariq Alotaibi, Saad Almodameg

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Background: End-stage renal disease is a major public health concern with high incidence and mortality rate. Most of ESRD patients are on hemodialysis therapy which is a long-term treatment that disturbs patients’ lifestyle. As a result, he will be susceptible to develop psychiatric disorders like anxiety that may direct him to non-compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. Although there are studies conducted on psychiatric issues in hemodialysis patients, but few studies focused on the effect of anxiety disorder and the patient’s compliance. Hence, we are interested in determining the prevalence of anxiety disorder among hemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia, as well as in defining the correlation between anxiety disorder and compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. We hypothesize that our study will show a higher prevalence of anxiety in hemodialysis patients than in general population. Also, we expect the anxiety to have a negative impact on their compliance. Methodology: We used a cross-sectional study design carried out at dialysis unit of four major hospitals in Riyadh, KSA. We interviewed 235 End Stage Renal Disease male and female patients who are on hemodialysis. We divided the patients into two categories according to their compliance. we used modified general questionnaire to get their demographic data, then we used a psychometric response scale called visual analog scale (VAS) to assess patient’s compliance to hemodialysis and physician’s instructions. Also, we used the Arabic validated version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD scale) used mainly for anxiety assessment. Results: The overall response rate was 54%. Respondents included 147 (62.6%) males and 88 (37.4%) females. The prevalence of anxiety among hemodialysis patients is 13.3%. According to visual analog scale, we found that 189 compliant patients and 45 non-compliant patients. For HAD scale, the mean ± standard deviation of the total score for females was (4.44 ± 4.7) and it’s higher than males which was 2.65 ± 3.08 (P-value= 0.002). The mean ± standard deviation of HAD score in the non-compliant group was (5.88  4.88) and it was higher than the compliant group (2.7  3.32) (P-value= 0.004). Among non-complaint group, 33.3% of anxious patients were males and 66.6% were females. There was a negative correlation between HAD score of anxiety and visual analog scale (R= - 0.285). Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of anxiety among patients with End Stage Renal Disease that was higher in females with association of non-compliance to physician’s instructions and hemodialysis therapy.

Keywords: Renal Failure, Anxiety, end-stage renal disease, anxiety disorder

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60 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer

Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera

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The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.

Keywords: Cancer, Depression, Anxiety, Uganda, carer, cross-sectional design

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59 ELF in the Classroom: Use of ELF and Its Effects on Speaking Anxiety in Turkish Tertiary Level EFL Setting

Authors: Baki Dursun, Kemal Benk

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English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) has become an increasingly hot topic in many of the developing countries including Turkey. Likewise, in most of these expanding circle countries the way of teaching English has been redesigned in accordance with Lingua Franca Core. Admittedly, the focus was on Grammar-based teaching formerly; however, with the introduction of the ELF, the shift is now more on teaching speaking abilities and strategies of negotiation of meaning. However, there are several reasons for this shift, one of the major contributions stems from the teacher training programs offered by Turkish universities as M.A. programs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the similarities and divergences among the instructors who have taken ELF classes in their teacher-training program and those who have not. With a longitudinal design, for five months, classes of two different groups of teachers (ELF Group vs. Traditional Group) have been observed and three teachers have been selected for each group. During the observations, principles of Lingua Franca Core offered by Jenkins have been taken into account and used to form the rubric for the observations. After the five-month period, a Likert scale type questionnaire has been given to the students to explore their level of anxiety while speaking. Independent samples t-test have been administered to see the groups differences statistically. The results of the study will be presented during the conference.

Keywords: Teacher Training, Anxiety, speaking, ELF

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58 Effectiveness of Laughter Yoga in Reducing Anxiety among Pre-Operative Patients for Scheduled Major Surgery

Authors: Denise Allison D. Garcia, Camille C. Garcia, Keanu Raphael Garrido, Crestita B. Tan

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Introduction: Anxiety is a common problem among pre-operative patients. Several methods or interventions are being applied in order to relieve anxiety. Laughter yoga, however, is a method that has been used to relieve anxiety but has not yet been tested to pre-operative patients. Therefore, this study determined the effectiveness of laughter yoga in reducing anxiety among pre-operative middle-aged patients scheduled for major surgery. Methods: After Ethics Review Board approval, a quasi-experimental study was conducted among 40 purposely-selected pre-operative patients in two tertiary hospitals. Anxiety level was measured prior to administration of laughter yoga using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory with a Cronbach alpha of 0.83. After Laughter yoga, anxiety level was then measured again. Gathered data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 using paired and independent t-test and ANCOVA. Results: After analysis of the data gathered, the results showed that there was a significant decrease in the anxiety level of patients in the experimental group. From an anxiety level of 44.00, the rating went down to 36.85. Meanwhile in the control group, the anxiety level at the pretest at 41.25 went up to 42.50. Laughter yoga was an effective non-pharmacologic intervention for reducing anxiety of pre-operative patients. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that laughter yoga causes a significant decrease in the anxiety level of patients.

Keywords: Anxiety, laughter yoga, non-pharmacologic, pre-operative

Procedia PDF Downloads 158