Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 157

antioxidant Related Abstracts

157 Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cedrus deodara Roxb. Heartwood in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendar Kumar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory, Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic

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156 Effect of Hormones Priming on Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Seed under Accelerated Aging

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Fariborz Shekari, Seyed Bahman Mousavi

Abstract:

Seed aging during storage is a complex biochemical and physiological processes that can lead to reduce seed germination. This phenomenon associated with increasing of total antioxidant activity during aging. To study the effects of hormones on seed aging, aged wheat seeds (control, 90 and 80% viabilities) were treated with GA3, Salicylic Acid, and paclobutrazol and antioxidant system were investigated as molecular biomarkers for seed vigor. The results showed that, seed priming treatment significantly affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, H2O2, MDA, CAT, APX, and GPX activates. Maximum germination percentage achieve in GA3 priming in control treatment. Germination percentage and normal seedling percentage increased in other GA3 priming treatment compared with other hormones. Also aging increased MDA, H2O2 content. MDA is considered sensitive marker commonly used for assessing membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2result in toxicity to cellular membrane system and damages to plant cells. Amount of H2O2 and MDA declined in GA3 treatment. CAT, GPX and APX activities were reduced by increasing the aging time and at different levels of priming. The highest APX activity was observed in Salicylic Acid control treatment and the highest GPX and CAT activity was obtained in GA3 control treatment. The lowest MDA and H2O2 showed in GA3 control treatment, too. Hormone priming increased Antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased amount of reactive oxygen space and malondialdehyde (MDA) under aging treatment. Also, GA3 priming treatments have a significant effect on germination percentage and number of normal seedling. Generally aging seed, increase ROS and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant enzymes activity of aged seeds increased after hormone priming.

Keywords: Wheat, Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant, hormones priming, aging seed

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155 Antidiabetic Activity of Cedrus deodara Aqueous Extract and Its Relationship with Its Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendra Kumnar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract and its relationship in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory, Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic

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154 In vitro Biological Activity of Some Synthesized Monoazo Heterocycles Based On Thiophene and Thiazolyl-Thiophene Analogue

Authors: Mohamed E. Khalifa, Adil A. Gobouri

Abstract:

Potential synthesis of a series of 3-amino-4-arylazothiophene derivatives from reaction of 2-cyano-2-phenylthiocarbamoyl acetamide and the appropriate α-halogenated reagents, followed by coupling with different aryl diazonium salts (Japp-Klingemann reaction), and another series of 5-arylazo-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl-thiophene derivatives from base-catalyzed intramolecular condensation of 5-arylazo-2-(N-chloroacetyl)amino-thiazole with selected B-keto compounds (Thorpe-Ziegler reaction) was performed. The biological activity of the two series was studied in vitro. Their versatility for pharmaceutical purposes was reported, where they displayed remarkable activities against selected pathogenic microorganisms; Bacillus subtilize, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative bacteria) and Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans (fungi) with various degrees related to their chemical structures.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Compounds, antioxidant, thiophene, antitumor

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153 Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) Plant

Authors: Radhika S. Oke, Rebecca S. Thombre

Abstract:

Medicinal plants and herbs have a great history of their utility as remedy for treatment of variety of ailments. Secondary metabolites present in these plants are responsible for their medicinal activity. In the present investigation, phytochemical screening of aqueous and alcoholic leaf extract of Anethum graveolens L. was performed. Total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of the extracts was quantitatively estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method and DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method respectively. Qualitative tests suggested that Alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds were present in all the extracts of the plant. Aqueous extracts was found to have more phytochemicals as compared to alcoholic extracts. Extract of Anethum graveolens L. was found to contain good amount phenolics and exhibited antioxidant activity. The extracts also demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against selected gram positive and negative bacteria. The study revealed the potential application of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) in medicine and health.

Keywords: Medicine and Health, Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, Anethum graveolens L

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152 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: methanol, Cytotoxicity, antioxidant, petroleum ether

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151 The Possible Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic Effect and Antimicrobial Potential of Mangifera Indicia Leaves Aqueous Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: Sahar B. Ahmed, M. Mostafa Said, Mona I. Mohamed

Abstract:

Streptozotocin (STZ) caused a significant increase in blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum accompanied by a significant decrease in blood reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Also, ALT, AST, albumin and urea were markedly affected by STZ injection. The oral administration of Mango leaves extract (MLE) one hour before STZ injection was significantly improved the blood glucose level, ALT, AST activities, albumin and urea that associated with the regulation of MDA, GSH and SOD levels. The antimicrobial activity of MLE showed a significant inhibitory activity against multidrug resistant gram positive and gram negative bacteria isolated from patients in Egyptian hospitals especially Salmonella typhi and typhimurium. In conclusion, results revealed the antioxidant, hypoglycemic effect and antimicrobial potentials of MLE under investigation. Further studies will be needed to investigate the prolonged period of MLE administration and its possible side effects.

Keywords: STZ, antioxidant, aqueous extract of mango leaves, hypoglycemic effect, antimicrobial potentials

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150 Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Ethanolic Extract from Monascus purpureus

Authors: M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, F. Yazdian, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

Abstract:

Medicinal fungi are the new potential source of drugs to improve the treatment of diseases with association to oxidative agents such as cancers. Monascus purpureus contains functional components potentially effective in improving human health. In the present work, ethanolic extract of Monascus purpureus (EEM) was evaluated for health improving potential mainly focusing on antioxidant and anticancer activities. Ferric ion reducing power (FRAP), scavenging of DPPH radicals and determining viability of breast carcinoma MCF-7 and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells with MTT assay were evaluated. Our data showed a significant antioxidant activity of EEM with 142.45 µg/ml inhibition concentration of 50% DPPH radicals and 2112.33 µg eq.Fe2+/mg extract of FRAP assay. These results might be caused by antioxidant components such as pigments and phenolic compounds. Further, the results demonstrated that EEM caused significant reduction in the viability of MCF-7 with IC50 of 7 µg/ml but not have good effect against viability of HeLa cells. Accordingly, Monascus purpureus is presented as a strong potential of breast cancer treatment. In further study, the mechanistic studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of anticancer activity of EEM.

Keywords: Cancer, Monascus purpureus, antioxidant, ethanolic extract

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149 Investigation of Growth Yield and Antioxidant Activity of Monascus purpureus Extract Isolated from Stirred Tank Bioreactor

Authors: M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, F. Yazdian, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

Abstract:

Monascus purpureus is an antioxidant-producing fungus whose secondary metabolites can be used in drug industries. The growth yield and antioxidant activity of extract were investigated in 3-L liquid fermentation media in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor (STD) at 30°C, pH 5.93 and darkness for 4 days with 150 rpm agitation and 40% dissolved oxygen. Results were compared to extract isolated from Erlenmeyer flask with the same condition. The growth yield was 0.21 and 0.17 in STD condition and Erlenmeyer flask, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity was 256.32 µg/ml and 150.43 µg/ml for STD extract and flask extract, respectively. Our data demonstrated that transferring the growth condition into the STD caused an increase in growth yield but not in antioxidant activity. Accordingly, there is no relationship between growth rate and secondary metabolites formation. More studies are needed to determine the mass transfer coefficient and also evaluating the hydrodynamic condition have to be done in the future studies.

Keywords: bioreactor, Monascus purpureus, antioxidant, growth yield

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148 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Rice Paddy Herb (Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.)

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum

Abstract:

Free radicals are atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons. Many diseases are caused by free radicals. Normally, free radical formation is controlled naturally by various beneficial compounds known as antioxidants. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants, and each has its own specificity. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from the rice paddy herb (Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.) measured by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results showed that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 67.09± 4.99 and 15.55±4.82 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 21.08±1.25 and 10.14±3.94 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Keywords: antioxidant, free radical, rice paddy herb, Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr

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147 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum

Abstract:

At present, it is widely-known that free radicals are the causes of illness such as cancers, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and aging. One method of protection from free radical is the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods or herbs. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from cabbage (Brassicca oleracea L. var. capitata L.) measured by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results show that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 7.316 ± 0.715 and 4.66 ± 1.029 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 15.141 ± 2.092 and 4.955 ± 1.975 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Keywords: antioxidant, free radical, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L

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146 Antioxidant Responses and Malondialdehyde Levels in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Eleyele River in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye, Olajumoke Olufunlayo Alao, Philip Odigili

Abstract:

This study investigated the extent of pollution in Eleyele River in Oyo State, Nigeria by investigating the antioxidant status and malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) in the organs of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the river. Clarias gariepinus weighing between 250g-400g were collected from Eleyele River (a suspected polluted river) and Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm (Durantee fisheries) were used as the control. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione concentration (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in the post-mitochondrial fractions of the liver, kidney and gills of the fishes. From the results, there were increases in malondialdehyde level and GSH concentration in the liver, kidney and gills of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was induced in the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. However, the activity of this enzyme was depleted in the gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Also there was an induction in SOD activity in the liver of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control but there was a decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the kidney and gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Increase in lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant system in Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River show that the fishes were under oxidative stress. These suggest that the river is polluted probably as a result of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes frequently discharged into the river. This could pose serious health risks to consumers of water and aquatic organisms from the river.

Keywords: Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant, Clarias gariepinus, Eleyele River

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145 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Polyphenol Content in the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Flaczyk Ewa, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Kmiecik Dominik, Przeor Monika, Marcinkowska Agata

Abstract:

In recent years, proceed to the attractiveness of typical bakery products. Expanding the education and nutrition knowledge society will develop the production of functional foods, which has a positive impact on human health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of white mulberry fruit on the content of biologically active compounds in the new designed functional bread premixes designed for selected disease: anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. For flavonols and phenolic acids content UPLC was conducted, using an NovaPack C18 column and a gradient elution system. It was found that all attempts bread characterized by a high content of biologically active compounds: polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. The highest total content of polyphenolic compounds found in the samples of bread for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease both before and after storage. The analyzed sample differed in content of phenolic acids. The highest content of these compounds were found in samples of bread for anemia and diabetes. It was found that the analyzed sample contained phenolic acids that are derivatives of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid. The new designed bread contained significant amounts of flavonols, of which the dominant was routine.

Keywords: polyphenols, antioxidant, mulberry, phenolic acids, flavonols

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144 Designing of Food Products Enriched With Phytonutrients Assigned for Hypertension Suffering Consumers

Authors: Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Dominik Kmiecik, Justyna Bilon, Joanna Skręty, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak, Andrzej Sidor

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Background: Hypertension is one of the civilization diseases with a global scope. Many research showed that every day diet influences significantly our health, helping with the prophylaxis and diseases treatment. The key factor here is the presence of plant origin natural bio active components. Aim: The following research describes snack health-oriented products for hypertension sufferers enriched with selected plant ingredients. Various analytical methods have been applied to determine product’s basic composition and their antioxidant activity. Methods: Snack products was formulated from a composition of different flours, oil, yeast, plant particles and extracts. Basic composition of a product was evaluated as content of protein, lipids, fiber, ash and caloricity. Antioxidant capacity of snacks was evaluated with use radical scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS) and ORAC value. Proposed snacks as new product was also characterized with sensory analysis. Results and discussion: Results showed that addition of phyto nutrients allowed to improve nutritional and antioxidative value of examined products. Also the anti radical potential was significantly increased, with no loss of sensory value of a snacks. Conclusions: Designed snack is rich in polyphenolics, that express high antioxidant activity, helpful in hypertension and as low calories product obesity prophylaxis.

Keywords: Hypertension, Well-being, Bioactive Compounds, antioxidant

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143 Antioxidants Reveal Protection against the Biochemical Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Blood Profiles after Clindamycin/Ibuprofen Administration in Dental Patients

Authors: Gouda K. Helal, Marwa I. Shabayek, Heba A. El-Ramly, Heba A. Awida

Abstract:

The adverse effects of Clindamycin (Clind.) / Ibuprofen (Ibu.) combination on liver, kidney, blood elements and the significances of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and Zinc) against these effects were evaluated. The study includes: Group I; control n=30, Group II; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg twice daily for a week n=30, Group III; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+N-acetylcysteine 200mg twice daily for a week n=15 and Group IV; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Zinc50mg twice daily for a week n=15. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Applying one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey Kramer post test, Group II showed significant increase in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and decrease in Hb, RBCs, platelets than Group I. Group III showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN than Group II. Moreover, Group IV showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and increase in Hb, RBCs, and platelets than Group II. Conclusively, Adding Zinc or N-acetylcysteine buffer the oxidative stress and improve the therapeutic outcome of Clindamycin/Ibuprofen combination.

Keywords: Adverse Effects, antioxidant, zinc, clindamycin, ibuprofen, N-acetylcysteine

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142 Effects of Additives on Thermal Decompositions of Carbon Black/High Density Polyethylene Compounds

Authors: Orathai Pornsunthorntawee, Wareerom Polrut, Nopphawan Phonthammachai

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In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds—the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content—much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.

Keywords: Polyethylene, antioxidant, stearate, carbon black

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141 Biological Activities of Protease Inhibitors from Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus limensis

Authors: Tooba N. Shamsi, Romana Perveen, Sadaf Fatima

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Protease Inhibitors (PIs) are widespread in nature, produced by animals, plants and microorganisms. They play vital role in various biological activities by keeping a check on activity of proteases. Present study aims to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of PPI from Cajanus cajan (CCTI) and Phaseolus limensis (LBTI). PPI was purified from C. cajan (PUSA-992) by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. The anti-oxidant activity was analyzed by two most common radical scavenging assays of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Also, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay and membrane stabilization assay at different concentrations. Ascorbic acid and aspirin were used as a standards for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays respectively. The PPIs were also checked for antimicrobial activity against a number of bacterial strains. The CCTI and LBTI showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration–dependent manner with IC50 values 544 µg/ml and 506 µg/ml respectively comparative to ascorbic acid which was 258 µg/ml. Following FRAP assay, it was evaluated that LBTI had 87.5% and CCTI showed 84.4% antioxidant activity, taking value of standard ascorbic acid to be 100%. The PPIs also showed in-vitro anti‐inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation with IC50 values of 686 µg/ml and 615 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively compared to the standard (aspirin) which was 70.8 µg/ml. Red blood cells membrane stabilization with IC50 values of 641 µg/ml and 587 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively against aspirin which showed IC50 value of 70.4 µg/ml. PPIs showed antibacterial activity against 7 known strains while there was apparently no action against fungi.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Anti-Inflammatory, antioxidant, Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus limensis, Lima beans, protein protease inhibitor

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140 New Bioactive Compounds from Two Chrysanthemum Saharian Species (Asteraceae) Growing in Algeria

Authors: Zahia Kabouche, Ouissem Gherboudj, Naima Boutaghane, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko

Abstract:

Chrysanthemum herbs (Asteraceae) are extensively used as food additives and in folk medicine. Anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiproliferative activities as well as antioxidant effects have been reported for Chrysanthemum species. We report the isolation and identification of flavonoids and new and known terpenoids from the endemic species, C. macrocarpum and C. deserticolum “guertoufa”, used in Algerian Sahara as tea drinks and in “couscous” and soups “Chorba”. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1-D and 2-D homo and hetero-nuclear NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), mass spectrometry, UV and comparison with literature data. C. deserticolum extracts were tested by four methods to identify the antioxidant activity namely, ABTS•+, DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating activity methods. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of C. macrocarpum extracts and isolated compounds are also reported here.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Anti-Inflammatory, antioxidant, Chrysanthemum macrocarpum, C. deserticolum, terpenoids, anti-proliferative

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139 In vitro and invivo Antioxidant Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N.Ukwuani, A. K. Abdulfatah

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G. crenata is used locally for the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extracts of the leaves of G. crenata were assessed. The phytochemical analysis shows the presence of phenols, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An in vitro quantitative analysis of phenols, flavonoids and tannins respectively were (164±1.20, 199±0.88 and 88.67±0.88 mg/100g FW). In vivo studies of hydromethanolic extract demonstrated a dose dependent increase in hepatic superoxide dismutase (1.14±0.14, 2.13±0.11, 2.55±0.11 U/mg Protein) with improvement in hepatic glutathione (6.98±0.42, 8.91±0.37, 11.07±0.46 µM/mg Protein) and Catalase (4.47±0.05, 6.24±0.02, 7.17±0.04 U/mg Protein) and Total protein (6.18±0.08, 6.69±0.18, 7.27±0.16 mg/ml) respectively at 100-300mg/kg body weight Grewia crenata leaves when compared to the control and standard drug. It can be concluded from the present findings of that G. crenata leaves possess antioxidant potential.

Keywords: in vivo, In vitro, antioxidant, Grewia crenata, hydromethanolic extract

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138 Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Folk Medicine in Libya

Authors: Salmin Alshalmani, Ghazall M Benhusein, Ebtisam Alhadi Absomaha, Marwa I. Meshri, Hamdoon A. Mohammed, Jamal Mezogi

Abstract:

Eight wild medicinal plants used by Libyan and growing in Al-Jebel Al-Akhdar, Libya were suspected to estimate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl stable free radical (DPPH). Incidences of purple colour reduction of the DPPH by testing extracts in addition to quercetin and vitamin C as positive controls reflect its ability to scavenge free radicals. All testing plants extract showed noticeable strength as antioxidant regarding its abilities to scavenge DPPH with an especial regards to Sarcopoterium spinosum.

Keywords: antioxidant, folk medicine, scavenging activity, methanol extracts

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137 Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and N-Acetylcysteine on Myocardial Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Impaired Energy metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats

Authors: Nayira A. Abd Elbaky, Amal J. Fatani, Hazar Yaqub, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed, Naglaa El-Orabi, Mai Osman

Abstract:

The present work is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cystiene (NAC), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and their combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CCl4 treatment significantly elevated the levels of cardiac oxidative stress bio markers including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). A concomitant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of membrane bound enzyme, calcium-adenosine triphosphatase were observed in the hearts of rats exposed to CCl4 compared to respective values in normal group. Quantitative analysis of myocardial energy metabolism revealed a significant decrease in the glucose content coupled with depletion in the activities of myocardial glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after CCl4 treatment. In addition, a significant elevation in myocardial hydroxyproline level was observed in CCl4 intoxicated rats indicating interstitial collagen accumulation. Pretreatment with either NAC, CoQ10 or their combination successively alleviated the alterations in myocardial oxidative stress and antioxidant markers, as well as effectively up-regulated the decrease in cardiac energetic biomarkers in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Moreover, these antioxidants markedly reduced myocardial hydroxyproline level versus that of CCl4-treated animals. In conclusion, the present results illustrated that the prophylactic use of the current antioxidant resulted in a remarkable cardioprotective effect against CCl4 induced myocardial damage, which suggest that they may candidates as prophylactic agents against different cardio-toxins.

Keywords: energy metabolism, Lipid Peroxidation, carbon tetrachloride, antioxidant, hydroxyproline

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136 Phenolic Composition and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Borkh Fruit Cultivars

Authors: Raudone Lina, Raudonis Raimondas, Liaudanskas Mindaugas, Pukalskas Audrius, Viskelis Pranas, Janulis Valdimaras

Abstract:

Human health fortification, its protection and disease prophylaxis are the main problems of the health care systems. Plant origin materials and their preparations are applied for the prevention of the common diseases. Oxidative stress takes part in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune, neurodegenerative, tumor and ageing processes. The antioxidants are able to protect the human body from the free radicals and to stop the progression of numerous chronic diseases. The research of plant origin materials is relevant for the search of natural antioxidants. A group of compounds that gained scientific attention due to antioxidant properties and effects on human health are phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are widely abundant in various parts of plants, i.e. leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Most commonly consumed fruits all over the world are apples. It is very important to analyze the antioxidant activity of apples as they are extensively used in the prevention of various diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant profiles of Malus domestica Borkh fruit cultivars (Aldas, Auksis, Connel Red, Ligol, Lodel, Rajka) and to identify the phenolic compounds with potent contribution to antioxidant activity. Nineteen constituents were identified in apple cultivars using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC–QTOF–MS). Phytochemical profile was constituted of phenolic acids, procyanidins, quercetin derivatives and dihydrochalcones. Reducing and radical scavenging activities of individual constituents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to post-column FRAP and ABTS assay, respectively. Significant differences of total radical scavenging and reducing activity (expressed as trolox equivalents, TE µmol/g) were determined between the investigated cultivars. Chlorogenic acid and complex of procyanidins were the main contributors to antioxidant activity determining up to 35 % and 55 % of total TE values, respectively. Determined phenolic composition and antioxidant activity significantly depend on apple cultivars. It is important to determine the individual compounds that are significant for antioxidant activity and that could be investigated in vivo systems. The identification of the antioxidants provides information for the further research of standardized extracts that could be used for pharmaceutical preparations with specific phenolic traits.

Keywords: Chlorogenic Acid, antioxidant, phenolic, FRAP, ABTS, apples

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135 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan

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We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, soybean, Salt Stress, antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
134 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Sorbus L. Fruits and Leaves

Authors: Raudone Lina, Raudonis Raimondas, Gaivelyte Kristina, Pukalskas Audrius, Janulis Valdimaras, Viskelis Pranas

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Sorbus L. species are widely distributed in the Northern hemisphere and have been used for medicinal purposes in various traditional medicine systems and as food ingredients. Various Sorbus L. raw materials, fruits, leaves, inflorescences, barks, possess diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti-diarrheal and vasoprotective activities. Phenolics, to whom main pharmacological activities are attributed, are compounds of interest due to their notable antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant profiles of fruits and leaves of selected Sorbus L. species (S. anglica, S. aria f. latifolia, S. arranensis, S. aucuparia, S. austriaca, S. caucasica, S. commixta, S. discolor, S. gracilis, S. hostii, S. semi-incisa, S. tianschanica) and to identify the phenolic compounds with potent contribution to antioxidant activity. Twenty two constituents were identified in Sorbus L. species using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC–QTOF–MS). Reducing activity of individual constituents was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to post-column FRAP assay. Signicantly greatest trolox equivalent values corresponding up to 45% of contribution to antioxidant activity were assessed for neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, which were determined as markers of antioxidant activity in samples of leaves and fruits. Characteristic patterns of antioxidant profiles obtained using HPLC post-column FRAP assay significantly depend on specific Sorbus L. species and raw materials and are suitable for equivalency research of Sorbus L. fruits and leaves. Selecting species and target plant organs with richest phenolic composition and strongly expressed antioxidant power is the first step in further research of standardized extracts.

Keywords: Chlorogenic Acid, antioxidant, phenolic, FRAP, Sorbus L, neochlorogenic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
133 Antioxidant and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Some Thai Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Authors: Wararut Buncharoen, Kanokporn Saenphet, Supap Saenphet

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a reproductive problem, affecting elderly men worldwide. Several factors particularly free radical reaction and oxidative damage have been contributed to be key factors leading to the development of BPH. A number of medicinal plants with high antioxidant properties are extensively constituted in Thai herbal pharmacopoeia for treating BPH. These plants may prevent or delay the progression of BPH through an antioxidant mechanism. Thus, this study was to prove the antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation potential of medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of BPH such as Artabotrys harmandii Finet & Gagnep. Miq., Uvaria rufa Blume, Anomianthus dulcis (Dunal) J. Sinclair and Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Antioxidant parameters including free radical (2, 2-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and superoxide) scavenging, ferric reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activity were determined in different crude extracts from the stem of these four plants. Total phenolic and ascorbic contents were also investigated. The highest total phenolic content was shown in ethyl acetate crude extract of A. dulcis (510 ± 26.927 µg GAE/g extract) while the highest ascorbic content was found in ethanolic extract of U. rufa (234.727 ± 30.356 µg AAE/g extract). The strongest scavenging activity of ABTS•+ and DPPH• was found in ethyl acetate extract of C. sappan with the IC50 values of 0.469 and 0.255 mg/ml, respectively. The petroleum ether extracts of C. sappan and U. rufa at concentration of 1 mg/ml exhibited high scavenging activity toward superoxide radicals with the inhibition of 37.264 ± 8.672 and 34.434 ± 6.377 %, respectively. Ethyl acetate crude extract of C. sappan displayed the greatest reducing power. The IC50 value of water extract of A. dulcis was 1.326 mg/ml which indicated the strongest activity in the inhibition of lipid-peroxidation among all plant extracts whereas the IC50 value of the standard, butyl hydroxyl toluene was 1.472 µg/ml. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that the stem of A. dulcis, U. rufa and C. sappan are the potential natural antioxidants and could have an importance as therapeutic agents in the preventing free radicals and oxidative damage related diseases including BPH.

Keywords: antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation, benign prostatic hyperplasia, Thai medicinal plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
132 Deltamethrin-Induces Oxidative Stress to the Freshwater Ciliate Model: Paramecium tetraurelia

Authors: Amamra Ryma, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Moumeni Ouissem, Otmani Hadjer, Berrebbah Houria

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The problem of environmental contamination by the excessive use of organics cannot be neglected. Extensive application is usually companied with serious problems and health risk. It is established that many chemicals, in common use, can produce some toxic effects on biological systems through their mode of action or by production of free radicals that damage all cell compounds. Deltamethrin, a widely used type II pyrethroid pesticide, is one of the most common contaminants in freshwater aquatic system. In this study, we investigate the effects of deltamethrin exposure on the induction of oxidative stress to the freshwater ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. After the treatment of paramecium cells with increasing concentrations of insecticide, we followed up the growth kinetics, generation time and the percentage response. Also, we studied the variation in biomarkers of stress such as: GSH content, GST, GPX and CAT activities. Our results showed a significant decrease in the proliferation of cells correlated by the decrease in generation number and the increase in generation time. Also, we noted an inhibition in the percentage response. The monitoring of biomarkers revealed depletion in GSH content in a proportional and dose dependent manner accompanied by an increase in the GST activity. In parallel, a strong induction in the CAT and GPX activities was noted specially for the highest dose. In summary, under the current experimental conditions, deltamethrin is highly toxic to the freshwater ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Exposure to low concentrations showed significant adverse on growth accompanied with the induction of oxidative damage supported by the decrease in GSH content and the intensification of the antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Growth, Oxidative Stress, antioxidant, deltamethrin, Paramecium tetraurelia

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131 Antioxidant Activity of Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Uchegbu Nneka

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the antioxidant activity of germinated African Yam Bean (AYB) on oxidative stress markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic and germinated AYB–treated diabetic rats. The Total phenol and flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after germination were investigated. The glucose level, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione of the animals were also determined using the standard technique for four weeks. Germination increased the total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of AYB extract by 19.14%, 32.28%, and 57.25% respectively. The diabetic rats placed on germinated AYB diet had a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid peroxidation with a corresponding increase in glutathione (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that consumption of germinated AYB can be a good dietary supplement in inhibiting hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and the prevention of diabetic complication associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: Diabetes, antioxidant, African yam bean, total phenol

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130 Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Extract on Propanil-Induced Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Chiagoziem A. Otuechere, Ebenezer O. Farombi

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The protective effect of dichloromethane: methanol extract of Pterocarpus mildbraedii (PME), a widely consumed Nigerian leafy vegetable, on the toxicity of propanil was investigated in male rats. Animals were distributed into eight groups of five each. Group 1 served as control and received normal saline while rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 received 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg extract doses respectively. Group 5 rats were orally administered 200 mg/kg propanil while groups 6, 7, and 8 rats were given propanil plus extract. Oral administration of propanil elicited a 14.8%, 5%, 122%, and 78% increase in the activity of serum enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Alkaline phoshatase (ALP) and Gamma glutamyl transferase (ﻻGT). There were also increase in Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, direct bilirubin and lipid peroxidation levels. Furthermore, PME significantly attenuated the marked hepatic oxidative damage that accompanied propanil treatment. The extract significantly decreased LDH activity and bilirubin levels following propanil treatment. Furthermore, propanil-induced alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in these rats were modulated by the extract. The percentage DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of the extract was determined as 55% and compared to those of Gallic acid (49%). Hepatic histology examination further confirmed the damage to the liver as it revealed severe periportal cellular infiltration of the hepatocytes. These biochemical and morphological alterations were attenuated in rats pre-treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg doses of the extract. These results suggest that PME possesses protective effect against propanil-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: antioxidant, hepatoprotection, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, propanil

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
129 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Hamada A. Ahmed, Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha

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The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.

Keywords: Growth Performance, antioxidant, broiler, herbal additives, basil, chamomile

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
128 Propolis as Antioxidant Formulated in Nanoemulsion

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Irda Fidrianny, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Okti Alifiana

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Natural products such as propolis, green tea and corncob are containing several compounds called antioxidant. Antioxidant can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that the extract of propolis that has the highest antioxidant activity was ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). It is important to make a dosage form that could keep the stability and could protect the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of the extracts. In this research, nanoemulsion (NE) was chosen to formulate those natural products. NE is a dispersion system between oil phase and water phase that formed by mechanical force with a lot amount of surfactants and has globule size below 100 nm. In pharmaceutical industries, NE was preferable for its stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, its ease to be absorbed and eliminated, and for its use as carrier for lipophilic drugs. First, all of the natural products were extracted using reflux methods. Green tea and corncob were extracted using 96% ethanol while propolis using 70% ethanol. Then, the extracts were concentrated using rotavapor to obtain viscous extracts. The yield of EEP was 11.12%; green tea extract (GTE) was 23.37%; and corncob extract (CCE) was 17.23%. EEP contained steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid and saponin. GTE contained flavonoid, tannin, and quinone while CCE contained flavonoid, phenol and tannin. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were then measured using DPPH scavenging capacity methods. The values of DPPH scavenging capacity were 61.14% for EEP; 97.16% for GTE; and 78.28% for CCE. The value of IC50 for EEP was 0.41629 ppm. After the extracts were evaluated, NE was prepared. Several surfactants and co-surfactants were used in many combinations and ratios in order to form a NE. Tween 80 and Kolliphor RH40 were used as surfactants while glycerin and propylene glycol were used as co-surfactants. The best NE consists of 26.25% of Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% of glycerin; 5% of rice bran oil; 3% of extracts; and 57% of water. EEP NE had globule size around 23.72 nm; polydispersity index below 0.5; and did not cause any irritation on rabbits. EEP NE was proven to be stable after passing stability test within 63 days at room temperature and 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. Based on TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) test, EEP NE had spherical structure with most of its size below 50 nm. The antioxidant activity of EEP NE was monitored for 6 weeks and showed no significant difference. The value of DPPH scavenging capacity for EEP NE was around 58%; for GTE NE was 96.75%; and for CCE NE was 55.69%.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, propolis, antioxidant, corncob, green tea

Procedia PDF Downloads 215