Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Antioxidant properties Related Abstracts

10 Determination of Some Chemical Properties of Uncommon Flours

Authors: Sónia C. Andrade, Solange F. Oliveira, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia


Flours of wheat, chestnut, acorn and lupin were evaluated in relation to phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and oxalate content. At the chemical level the results show some variability between samples by type of flour, and the sample of chestnut flour presented the higher value of oxalate (0.00348 mg/100g) when compared to the other samples in the study. Considering the content of phenolic compounds, the sample that stood out was the acorn flour, having a high value of 0.812 g AGE/100 g. All the samples presented intermediate content of antioxidant activity and the sample that showed a slightly higher value was the wheat flour with a value of 0.746 mM TRE/g sample.

Keywords: Wheat, flour, Acorn, Lupin, Chestnut, Antioxidant properties, Oxalate

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9 Antioxidant Properties, Ascorbic Acid and Total Carotenoids Values of Sweet and Hot Red Pepper Paste: A Traditional Food in Turkish Diet

Authors: Kubra Sayin, Derya Arslan


Red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) has long been recognized as a good source of antioxidants, being rich in ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals. In Turkish cuisine red pepper is sometimes consumed raw in salads and baked as a garnish, but its most wide consumption type is red pepper paste. The processing of red pepper into pepper paste includes various thermal treatment steps such as heating and pasteurizing. There are reports demonstrating an enhancement or reduction in antioxidant activity of vegetables after thermal treatment. So this study was conducted to investigate the total phenolics, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids as well as free radical scavenging activity of raw red pepper and various red pepper pastes obtainable on the market. The samples were analyzed for radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and total polyphenol (TP) content using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. They were also evaluated for ascorbic acid content (AsA) by HPLC. Total carotenoids content was determined spectrophotometrically. Results suggest that there is no significant (P > 0.05) difference in RSA, TP, AsA and total carotenoids content between various red pepper paste products. However, red pepper paste showed marked differences (P < 0.05) in the RSA, TP and AsA contents compared with raw red pepper. It is concluded that the red pepper paste, that has a wide range of consumption in Turkish cuisine, presents a good dose of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and it should be regarded as a functional food.

Keywords: total phenolics, Antioxidant properties, red pepper paste, total carotenoids

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8 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Alkaline Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali


Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements, and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: proximate composition, Antioxidant properties, Mangosteen pericarp, yellow alkaline noodle

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7 Laccase Catalysed Conjugation of Tea Polyphenols for Enhanced Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Parikshit Gogo, N. N. Dutta


The oxidative enzymes specially laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, E.C. from bacteria, fungi and plants have been playing an important role in green technologies due to their specific advantageous properties. Laccase from different sources and in different forms was used as a biocatalyst in many oxidation and conjugation reactions starting from phenol to hydrocarbons. Tea polyphenols and its derivatives attract the scientific community because of their potential use as antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Conjugate of polyphenols emerged as a novel materials which shows better stability and antioxidant properties in applied fields. The conjugation reaction of catechin with poly (allylamine) has been studied using free, immobilized and cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLEC) of laccase from Trametes versicolor with particular emphasis on the effect of pertinent variables and kinetic aspects of the reaction. The stability and antioxidant property of the conjugated product was improved as compared to the unconjugated tea polyphenols. The reaction was studied in 11 different solvents in order to deduce the solvent effect through an attempt to correlate the initial reaction rate with solvent properties such as hydrophobicity (logP), water solubility (logSw), electron pair acceptance (ETN) and donation abilities (DNN), polarisibility and dielectric constant which exhibit reasonable correlations. The study revealed, in general that polar solvents favour the initial reaction rate. The kinetics of the conjugation reaction conformed to the so-called Ping-Pong-Bi-Bi mechanism with catechin inhibition. The stability as well as activity of the CLEC was better than the free enzymes and immobilized laccase for practical application. In case of immobilized laccase system marginal diffusional limitation could be inferred from the experimental data. The kinetic parameters estimated by non-linear regression analysis were found to be KmPAA(mM) = 0.75, 1.8967 and Kmcat (mM) = 11.769, 15.1816 for free and immobilized laccase respectively. An attempt has been made to assess the activity of the laccase for the conjugation reaction in relation to other reactions such as dimerisation of ferulic acids and develop a protocol to enhance polyphenol antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Antioxidant properties, laccase, catechin, conjugation reaction

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6 In vitro Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemistry of Some Philippine Creeping Medicinal Plants

Authors: Richard I. Licayan, Aisle Janne B. Dagpin, Romeo M. Del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes


Hiptage benghalensis, Antigonon leptopus, Macroptillium atropurpureum, and Dioscorea bulbifera L. are herbal weeds that have been used by traditional healers in rural communities in the Philippines as medicine. In this study, the basic pharmacological components of the crude secondary metabolites extracted from the four herbal weeds and their in vitro antioxidant properties was investigated to provide baseline data for the possible development of these metabolites in pharmaceutical products. Qualitative screening of the secondary metabolites showed that alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, and flavonoids were present in their leaf extracts. All of the plant extracts showed varied antioxidant activity. The greatest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in H. begnhalensis (84.64%), followed by A. leptopus (68.21%), M. atropurpureum (26.62%), and D. bulbifera L. (19.04%). The FRAP assay revealed that H. benghalensis had the highest antioxidant activity (8.32 mg/g) while ABTS assay showed that M. atropurpureum had the strongest scavenging ability of free radicals (0.0842 mg Trolox/g). The total flavonoid content (TFC) analysis showed that D. bulbifera L. had the highest TFC (420.35 mg quercetin per gram-dried material). The total phenolic content (TPC) of the four herbal weeds showed large variations, between 26.56±0.160 and 55.91±0.087 mg GAE/g dried material. The plant leaf extracts arranged in increasing values of TPC are H. benghalensis (26.565) < A. leptopus (37.29) < D. bulbifera L. (46.81) < M. atropurpureum (55.91). The obtained results may support their use in herbal medicine and as baseline data for the development of new drugs and standardized phytomedicines.

Keywords: total flavonoids, total phenolics, Antioxidant properties, creeping herbal weeds

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5 Physicochemical Investigation of Caffeic Acid and Caffeinates with Chosen Metals (Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ru, Os)

Authors: Włodzimierz Lewandowski, Renata Świsłocka, Aleksandra Golonko, Grzegorz Świderski, Monika Kalinowska


Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic) is distributed in a free form or as ester conjugates in many fruits, vegetables and seasonings including plants used for medical purpose. Caffeic acid is present in propolis – a substance with exceptional healing properties used in natural medicine since ancient times. The antioxidant, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of caffeic acid are widely described in the literature. The biological activity of chemical compounds can be modified by the synthesis of their derivatives or metal complexes. The structure of the compounds determines their biological properties. This work is a continuation of the broader topic concerning the investigation of the correlation between the electronic charge distribution and biological (anticancer and antioxidant) activity of the chosen phenolic acids and their metal complexes. In the framework of this study the synthesis of new metal complexes of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron (III) ruthenium (III) and osmium (III) with caffeic acid was performed. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were studied by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, ¹H and ¹³C NMR. The quantum-chemical calculations (at B3LYP/LAN L2DZ level) of caffeic acid and selected complexes were done. Moreover the antioxidant properties of synthesized complexes were studied in relation to selected stable radicals (method of reduction of DPPH and method of reduction of ABTS). On the basis of the differences in the number, intensity and locations of the bands from the IR, Raman, UV/Vis and NMR spectra of caffeic acid and its metal complexes the effect of metal cations on the electronic system of ligand was discussed. The geometry, theoretical spectra and electronic charge distribution were calculated by the use of Gaussian 09 programme. The geometric aromaticity indices (Aj – normalized function of the variance in bond lengths; BAC - bond alternation coefficient; HOMA – harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity and I₆ – Bird’s index) were calculated and the changes in the aromaticity of caffeic acid and its complexes was discussed. This work was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, under the research project number 2014/13/B/NZ7/02-352.

Keywords: Metal Complexes, Spectroscopic Methods, caffeic acid, Antioxidant properties

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4 Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: Asma Temagoult, Bariza Zitouni, Yassin Noui


Cactus fruit contains different nutritional and functional components, which are used because of their benefits to human health, such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamins C. It has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action, and antioxidant properties related to anticarcinogenic, antiulcerogenic and immunomodulatory effects. The antioxidant and nutritional properties have been characterized in cactus prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.), cultivar yellow, grown in Arris area; Eastern of Algeria. The antioxidant properties of this cactus cultivar were higher than the others cactus cultivar in the world. The amount of fruit phenolic compounds revealed contents between 20.65 and 45.70 mg / 100 g of FW for total polyphenols and 0.519 - 0.591 mg / 100 g of FW for the flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The average recorded to the potassium content is about 1070 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight; sodium is 60.7 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight and 80 mg / 100g for the calcium. According to the high value of this cactus, it was considered as a good nutrient and important pharmaceutical resource. It could be used as a natural additive or substituted food supplement in many foodstuffs production, to benefit from these benefits.

Keywords: DPPH, FRAP, Antioxidant properties, Opuntia ficus indica, nutritional properties

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3 Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Biological Activities of an Ethyl Acetate Extract from the Peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo

Authors: Silvia Di Giacomo, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Francesco Cacciagrano, Chiara Toniolo, Gabriela Mazzanti, Luisa Mannina, Stefania Cesa, Antonella Di Sotto


Hyperglycemia represents the main pathogenic factor in the development of diabetes complications and has been found associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which in turn increase cell dysfunction. Therefore, counteract oxidative species appears to be a suitable strategy for preventing the hyperglycemia-induce cell damage and support the pharmacotherapy of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Antidiabetic potential of many food sources has been linked to the presence of polyphenolic metabolites, particularly flavonoids such as quercetin and its glycosylated form rutin. In line with this evidence, in the present study, we assayed the potential anti-hyperglycemic activity of an ethyl acetate extract from the peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo (PGE), a fruit well known to traditional medicine for the beneficial properties of its edible juice. The effect of the extract on the glucidic metabolism has been evaluated by assessing its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, two digestive enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates: their inhibition can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce glucose absorption, thus representing an important strategy for the management of hyperglycemia. Also, the PGE ability to block the release of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), whose accumulation is known to be responsible for diabetic vascular complications, was studied. The iron-reducing and chelating activities, which are the primary mechanisms by which AGE inhibitors stop their metal-catalyzed formation, were evaluated as possible antioxidant mechanisms. At last, the phenolic content of PGE was characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Our results displayed the ability of PGE to inhibit α-amylase enzyme with a similar potency to the positive control: the IC₅₀ values were 52.2 (CL 27.7 - 101.2) µg/ml and 35.6 (CL 22.8 - 55.5) µg/ml for acarbose and PGE, respectively. PGE also inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with about a 25 higher potency than the positive controls of acarbose and quercetin. Furthermore, the extract exhibited ferrous and ferric ion chelating ability, with a maximum effect of 82.1% and 80.6% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml respectively, and reducing properties, reaching the maximum effect of 80.5% at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. At last, PGE was found able to inhibit the AGE production (maximum inhibition of 82.2% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml), although with lower potency with respect to the positive control rutin. The phytochemical analysis of PGE displayed the presence of high levels of total polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids, among which ellagic acid, gallic acid and catechin were identified. Altogether these data highlight the ability of PGE to control the carbohydrate metabolism at different levels, both by inhibiting the metabolic enzymes and by affecting the AGE formation likely by chelating mechanisms. It is also noteworthy that peel from pomegranate, although being a waste of juice production, can be reviewed as a nutraceutical source. In conclusion, present results suggest the possible role of PGE as a remedy for preventing hyperglycemia complications and encourage further in vivo studies.

Keywords: Nutraceuticals, polyphenols, pomegranate, Antioxidant properties, anti-hyperglycemic activity

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2 Antioxydant Properties and Gastroprotective Effect of Rosa canina Aqueous Extract against Alcohol-Induced Ulceration and Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

Authors: H. Sebai, M. A. Jabria, D. Wannes, H. Tounsi, L. Marzouki


We aimed in the present study to investigate the protective effects of Tunisian Rosa canina aqueous extract (RCAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and oxidative stress in a rat model. In this respect, adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH, EtOH plus various doses of RCAE, EtOH plus famotidine and EtOH + gallic acid. Phytochemical and biochemical analysis were performed using colorimetric methods. We found that RCAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins, and exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. In vivo, the results showed that oral administration of EtOH caused macroscopic and histological changes in gastric mucosa. These injuries are accompanied by an oxidative stress status as assessed by an increase of lipid peroxidation as well as a decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Alcohol intoxication also induced intracellular mediators deregulation as assessed by an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium and free iron levels in gastric mucosa. More, importantly, RCAE pretreatment reversed all macroscopic, histological and biochemical changes induced by EtOH administration. In conclusion, we suggest that RCAE has potent protective effects on acute ethanol-induced gastric ulceration related in part in part its antioxidant properties and its opposite effect on intracellular mediators. Indeed, Rosa canina can be offered as a food additive to protect against alcohol consumption-induced gastric and oxidative damage.

Keywords: Alcohol, Antioxidant properties, Rat Model, food additive, gastric ulceration, Rosa canina

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1 The Use of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Extracts for Increased Safety and Sustainability of Dairy Products

Authors: Loreta Serniene, Dalia Sekmokiene, Justina Tomkeviciute, Lina Lauciene, Vaida Andruleviciute, Ingrida Sinkeviciene, Kristina Kondrotiene, Neringa Kasetiene, Mindaugas Malakauskas


One of the most important areas of product development and research in the dairy industry is the product enrichment with active ingredients as well as leading to increased product safety and sustainability. The most expanding field of the active ingredients is the various plants' CO₂ extracts with aromatic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In this study, 15 plant extracts were evaluated based on their antioxidant, antimicrobial properties as well as sensory acceptance indicators for the development of new dairy products. In order to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the milk products, it was important to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of CO₂ extract. The total phenolic content of fifteen different commercial CO₂ extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and expressed as milligrams of the Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in gram of extract. The antioxidant activities were determined by 2.2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonate (ABTS) methods. The study revealed that the antioxidant activities of investigated CO₂ extract vary from 4.478-62.035 µmole Trolox/g, while the total phenolic content was in the range of 2.021-38.906 mg GAE/g of extract. For the example, the estimated antioxidant activity of Chinese cinnamon (Cinammonum aromaticum) CO₂ extract was 62.023 ± 0.15 µmole Trolox/g and the total flavonoid content reached 17.962 ± 0.35 mg GAE/g. These two parameters suggest that cinnamon could be a promising supplement for the development of new cheese. The inhibitory effects of these essential oils were tested by using agar disc diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria, most commonly found in dairy products. The obtained results showed that essential oil of lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, P. florescens, L. monocytogenes, Br. thermosphacta, P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium with the diameter of inhibition zones variation from 10 to 52 mm. The sensory taste acceptability of plant extracts in combination with a dairy product was evaluated by a group of sensory evaluation experts (31 individuals) by the criteria of overall taste acceptability in the scale of 0 (not acceptable) to 10 (very acceptable). Each of the tested samples included 200g grams of natural unsweetened greek yogurt without additives and 1 drop of single plant extract (essential oil). The highest average of overall taste acceptability was defined for the samples with essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis) - average score 6.67, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) – 6.62, elderberry flower (Sambucus nigra flos.) – 6.61, lemon (Citrus limon) – 5.75 and cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) – 5.41, respectively. The results of this study indicate plant extracts of Cinnamomum cassia and Backhousia citriodora as a promising additive not only to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the milk products and as alternative antibacterial agent to combat pathogenic bacteria commonly found in dairy products but also as a desirable flavour for the taste pallet of the consumers with expressed need for safe, sustainable and innovative dairy products. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by the European Regional Development Fund according to the supported activity 'Research Projects Implemented by World-class Researcher Groups' under Measure No. 01.2.2-LMT-K-718.

Keywords: Dairy Products, essential oils, Antioxidant properties, cinnamon, antimicrobial properties, CO₂ plant extracts, lemon myrtle

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