Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

antioxidant enzyme Related Abstracts

5 Evaluation of Hepatic Antioxidant Changes in Ovine Dicrocoeliosis

Authors: Arash Jafari, Somaye Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali

Abstract:

Dicrocoeliosis, caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a hepatic parasitic disease of clinical and financial significance in ruminant breeding, which causes direct losses due to condemnation of parasitized livers. The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of natural dicrocoeliosis on the antioxidant defense capability of the liver in sheep. For this purpose, livers of 40 infected sheep with D. dendriticumalong with livers of 20 healthy (control) sheep were collected from animals slaughtered in Khuzestan province, Iran. An increase in malondialdehyde concentrations accompanied by decreased activities of SOD and GPX of infected liver was noticed when com-pared with control values. Our data indicate that through dicrocoeliosis insufficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species takes place and caused oxidative liver damage.

Keywords: Liver, Lipid Peroxidation, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, antioxidant enzyme

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4 In Vitro Propagation of Aloe vera and Aloe littoralis Plants: Gamma Radiation, Biochemical and Genetic Changes

Authors: M. Shaker, Z. Nourmohammadi, F. Farahani

Abstract:

Aloe is an important commercial crop available in a wide range of species and varieties in international markets. The applications of this plant have been recorded in the ancient cultures of India, Egypt, Greece, Rome and China. Aloe has been used for centuries and is currently being actively studied for medicinal purposes. Aloe is propagated through lateral buds, which is slow, very expensive and low income practice. Nowadays, it has been cultured by in vitro propagation for rapid multiplication of plants, genetic improvement of crops, obtaining disease-free clones and for progressive valuable germplasm. The present study focused on the influence of different phytohormones on rapid in vitro propagation of Aloe plants. We also investigated the effect of gamma radiation on biochemical characters as well as genetic changes. Shoot tip of 2-3 cm were collected from offshoot of Aloe barbadensis and Aloe littoralis, and were inoculated with MS medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l), IAA (0.5, 1 mg/l). The best treatment for a highest shoot number and bud proliferation was MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IAA in A. barbadensis and A. littoralis. Maximum percentage of proliferated shoot buds (90% and 95%) from a single explant were obtained in MS medium after 4-5 weeks of the second and the first subcultures, respectively. Different genome sizes were also indicated among treatments and subcultures. The mixoploids identified in flow cytometery histograms in different treatments. The effect of gamma radiation on A. littoralis showed that by increasing the dose of gamma radiation, amounts of chlorophyll A, B, carotenoids, total protein content and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased compared to control plants. Genetic variation analysis also revealed significant genetic differences between control and gamma radiation treated regenerated plants by AMOVA test. Higher genetic heterozygocity was observed in radiation treated plants. Our findings may provide useful method for improving of Aloe plant proliferation with increasing of useful material such as antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Genetic Variation, Gamma Radiation, Micropropagation, antioxidant enzyme, aloe

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3 Ethylene Response Factor BnERF from Brassica napus L. Enhances Submergence Tolerance and Alleviates the Oxidative Damage Caused by Submergence in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors: Wei Zhang, Sanxiong Fu, Yanyan Lv, Song Chen, Cunkou Qi

Abstract:

Ethylene response factor proteins are known to play an important role in regulating a variety of stress responses in plants, but their exact functions in submergence stress are not completely understood. In this study, we isolated BnERF from Brassica napus L. to study the function of BnERF in submergence tolerance. The expression of BnERF gene in Brassica napus L. and the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in transgenic Arabidopsis were analyzed by Quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that expression of BnERF is apparently induced by submergence in Brassica napus L. and overexpression of BnERF in Arabidopsis increases the tolerance level to submergence and oxidative stress. Histochemical method detected lower level of H2O2, O2•− and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Compared to wild type, transgenic lines also have higher soluble sugar content and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, which helps protect the plants against the oxidative damage caused by submergence. It was concluded that BnERF can increase the tolerance of plants to submergence stress and BnERF might be involved in regulating soluble sugar content and the antioxidant system in the defense against submergence stress.

Keywords: Submergence, Arabidopsis, antioxidant enzyme, ethylene response factor

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2 Biochemical Efficacy, Molecular Docking and Inhibitory Effect of 2,3-Dimethylmaleic Anhydride on Acetylcholinesterases

Authors: Yallappa Rajashekar, Kabrambam D. Singh, Dinabandhu Sahoo

Abstract:

Evolution has caused many insects to develop resistance to several synthetic insecticides. This problem along with the persisting concern regarding the health and environmental safety issues of the existing synthetic insecticides has urged the scientific fraternity to look for a new plant-based natural insecticide with inherent eco-friendly nature. Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae family) is widely grown throughout the South- East Asian Countries for its edible corms and leaves. Various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass) were used for the isolation and characterization of isolated bioactive molecule named 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione). This compound was found to be highly toxic, even at low concentration, against several storage grain pests when used as biofumigant. Experimental studies on the mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride revealed that the biofumigant act as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in cockroach and stored grain insects. The knockdown activity of bioactive compound is concurrent with in vivo inhibition of AChE; at KD99 dosage of bioactive molecule showed more than 90% inhibition of AChE activity in test insects. The molecule proved to affect the antioxidant enzyme system; superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and also found to decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the treated insects. The above results indicate involvement of inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance as the potential mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride. In addition, the study reveals computational docking programs elaborate the possible interaction of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride with enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Periplaneta americana. Finally, the results represent that toxicity of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride might be associated with inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, antioxidant enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott, Biofumigant

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1 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Deniz Eki̇nci̇, Hakan Arslan, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Drought, antioxidant enzyme, carrot, irrigation interval

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