Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Antioxidant Capacity Related Abstracts

10 Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Capacities of Pre-Germinated and Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Superjami and Superhongmi)

Authors: Lara Marie Pangan Lo, Soo Im Chung, Yao Cheng Zhang, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang, Su Jin Nam


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most widely consumed grains. Due to the growing number of demand as a potential functional food and nutraceutical source and the increasing awareness of people towards healthy diet and good quality of living, more researches dwell upon the development of new rice cultivars for population consumption. However, studies on the antioxidant capacities of newly developed rice were limited as well as the effects of germination in these rice cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to focus on analysis of the antioxidant potential of pre-germinated and germinated pigmented rice cultivars in South Korea such as purple cultivar Superjami (SJ) and red cultivar Super hongmi (SH) in comparison with the non-pigmented Normal Brown (NB) Rice. The powdered rice grain samples were extracted with 80% methanol and their antioxidant activities were determined. The Results showed that pre-germinated pigmented rice cultivars have higher Fe2+ Chelating Ability (Fe2+), Reducing Power (RP), 2,2´-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and Superoxide Dismutase activity than the control NB rice. Moreover, it is revealed that germination process induced a significant increased in the antioxidant activities of all the rice samples regardless of their strains. Purple rice SJ showed greater Fe2+ (88.82 + 0.53%), RP (0.82 + 0.01) , ABTS (143.63 + 2.38 mg VCEAC/100 g) and SOD (59.31 + 0.48%) activities than the red grain SH and the control NB having the lowest antioxidant potential among the three (3) rice samples examined. The Effective concentration at 50% (EC50) of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Hydroxyradical (-OH) Scavenging activity for the rice samples were also obtained. SJ showed lower EC50 in terms of its DPPH (3.81 + 0.15 mg/mL) and –OH (5.19 + 0.08 mg/mL) radical scavenging activities than the red grain SH and control NB rice indicating that at lower concentrations, it can readily exhibit antioxidant effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results clearly suggest the higher antioxidant potential of pigmented rice varieties as compared with the widely consumed NB rice. Also, it is revealed in the study that even at lower concentrations, pigmented rice varieties can exhibit their antioxidant activities. Germination process further enhanced the antioxidant capacities of the rice samples regardless of their types. With these results at hand, these new rice varieties can be further developed as a good source of bio functional elements that can help alleviate the growing number of cases of metabolic disorders.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, germinated rice, superjami, pigmented rice, super hongmi

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9 Impact of Zinc on Heavy Metals Content, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Faba Bean in Milk Ripeness

Authors: M. Timoracká, A. Vollmannová., D.S. Ismael, J. Musilová


We investigated the effect of targeted contaminated soil by Zn model conditions. The soil used in the pot trial was uncontaminated. Faba beans (cvs Saturn, Zobor) were harvested in milk ripeness. With increased doses applied into the soil the strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and Zn amount in seeds of both of faba bean cultivars was confirmed. Despite the high Zn doses applied into the soil in model conditions, in all variants the determined Zn amount in faba bean cv. Saturn was just below the maximal allowed content in foodstuffs given by the legislative. In cv. Zobor the determined Zn content was higher than maximal allowed amount (by 2% and 12%, respectively). Faba bean cvs. Saturn and Zobor accumulated (in all variants higher than hygienic limits) high amounts of Pb and Cd. The contents of all other heavy metals were lower than hygienic limits. With increased Zn doses applied into the soil the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity determined in seeds of both cultivars Saturn and Zobor were increased. The strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity in seeds of faba bean cultivars was confirmed.

Keywords: polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity, zinc, faba bean

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8 Determination of Antioxidant Activity in Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Authors: Esma Hande Alıcı, Gülnur Arabacı


Antioxidants are compounds or systems that can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. The anti-oxidative effectiveness of these compounds depends on their chemical characteristics and physical location within a food (proximity to membrane phospholipids, emulsion interfaces, or in the aqueous phase). Antioxidants (e.g., flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, vitamin C, vitamin E) have diverse biological properties, such as antiinflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, reduce the incidence of coronary diseases and contribute to the maintenance of gut health by the modulation of the gut microbial balance. Plants are excellent sources of antioxidants especially with their high content of phenolic compounds. Raphanus raphanistrum L., the wild radish, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It grows in Asia and Mediterranean region. It has been introduced into most parts of the world. It spreads rapidly, and is often found growing on roadsides or in other places where the ground has been disturbed. It is an edible plant, in Turkey its fresh aerial parts are mostly consumed as a salad with olive oil and lemon juice after boiled. The leaves of the plant are also used as anti-rheumatic in traditional medicine. In this study, we determined the antioxidant capacity of two different solvent fractions (methanol and ethyl acetate) obtained from Raphanus raphanistrum L. plant leaves. Antioxidant capacity of the plant was introduced by using three different methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) activity and Reducing power activity.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, antioxidant activity, Raphanis raphanistrum L, wild radish

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7 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) Fruits

Authors: Ngoc Minh Quynh Pham, Quan V. Vuong, Michael C. Bowyer, Christopher J. Scarlett


Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) is an Australian native plant and is grown in the coastal regions in New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. Its fruits have been eaten by birds; however there is no information on phytochemical and antioxidant capacity of these fruits. This study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPro) and antioxidant capacity in the whole or different parts of tuckeroo fruit including skin, flesh and seed. Whole and partly tuckeroo fruits were collected and immediately freeze dried to constant weight and then ground to small particle sizes (<1mm mesh). Samples were extracted in 50% methanol using an ultrasonic bath set at temperature 40 °C for 30 minutes. TPC, TFC, TPro and antioxidant capacity were measured by spectrophotometric analysis. The results showed that the whole fruits contained 106.23 mg GAE/g of TPC, 67.67 mg CAE/g of TFC and 56.74 mg CAE/g of TPro. These fruits also possessed high antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 263.78 mg TroE/g, ABTS: 346.98 mg TroE/g, CUPRAC: 370.12 mg TroE/g and FRAP: 176.30 mg TroE/g), revealing that these fruits are rich source of antioxidants. The results also showed that distribution of the antioxidants was varied in different parts of the fruits. Skin had the highest levels of TPC, TFC, and TPro as well as antioxidant properties, followed by the seed and flesh had the lowest levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Of note, levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of the skin were significantly higher than those of the whole fruits. Therefore, the skin of tuckeroo fruits is recommended as a starting material for extraction and purification of phenolic compounds as potential antioxidants for further utilisation in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, Cupaniopsis anacardioides, tuckeroo fruit

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6 Comparison of Oven and Microwave Drying on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Gokcen Izli


Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food. Drying is one of the oldest methods known for the preservation of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Drying of agricultural products enhances their storage life, minimizes losses during storage, and save shipping and transportation costs. Apples are considered excellent candidates for drying. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of microwave and oven processing on the quality of selected apple products. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were washed, peeled, and sliced. Drying experiments were performed in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C and in a microwave at 140 W and 210 W. Quality attributes such as color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of dried samples with different methods were compared with the fresh sample. A Minolta CR-300 Chroma Meter was used to examine color changes in the apples. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It was found that the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of dried samples under all drying conditions were decreased compared to the fresh samples. The phenolic contents of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W for both red and golden delicious apples were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C. Similarly, the antioxidant activities of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C for both types of apples. All color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were changed significantly depending on the drying methods and temperatures. The closest color values to the fresh sample were found for the microwave dried samples at 140 W. Microwave drying was proven to be more effective than oven drying.

Keywords: Microwave, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, total phenolic content, golden delicious, red delicious

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5 Saco Sweet Cherry from Fundão Region, Portugal: Chemical Profile and Health-Promoting Properties

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Catarina Bento, Ana C. Gonçalves, Fábio Jesus, Branca M. Silva


Prunus avium Linnaeus, more known as sweet cherry, is one of the most appreciated fruit worldwide. Most of these quantities are produced in Fundão region, being Saco the cultivar most produced. Saco is very rich in bioactive compounds, especially phenolics, and presents great antioxidant capacity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chemical profile and biological potential, concerning antioxidant, anti-diabetic activity and protective effects towards erythrocytes by Saco sweet cherry collected from Fundão region (Portugal). The hydroethanolic extracts were prepared and passed through a C18 solid-phase extraction column. The phenolic profile analyzed by LC-DAD method allowed to the identification of 22 phenolic compounds, being 16 non-phenolics and 6 anthocyanins. In respect to non-coloured phenolics, 3-O-caffeoylquinic and ρ-coumaroylquinic acids were the main ones. Concerning to anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was found in higher amounts. Relatively to biological potential, Saco showed great antioxidant potential, through DPPH and NO radical assays, with IC50 =16.24 ± 0.46 µg/mL and IC50 = 176.69 ± 3.35 µg/mL for DPPH and NO, respectively. These results were similar to those obtained for ascorbic acid control (IC50 = 16.92 ± 0.69 and IC50 = 162.66 ± 1.31 μg/mL for DPPH and NO, respectively). In respect to antidiabetic potential, Saco revealed capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.79 ± 0.40 µg/mL), being much active than positive control acarbose (IC50 = 306.66 ± 0.84 μg/mL). Additionally, Saco extracts revealed protective effects against ROO•-mediated toxicity generated by AAPH in human blood erythrocytes, inhibiting hemoglobin oxidation (IC50 = 38.57 ± 0.96 μg/mL) and hemolysis (IC50 = 73.03 ± 1.48 μg/mL), in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Saco extracts were less effective than quercetin control (IC50 = 3.10 μg/mL and IC50 = 0.7 μg/mL for inhibition of hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis, respectively). The results obtained showed that Saco is an excellent source of phenolic compounds. These ones are natural antioxidant substances, which easily capture reactive species. This work presents new insights regarding sweet cherry antioxidant properties which may be useful for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for preventing or attenuating oxidative-related disorders.

Keywords: Health Benefits, Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, saco

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4 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao, Jyoti Kumari


Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs

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3 Characterization of Onion Peels Extracts and Its Utilization in a Deep Fried Snack

Authors: Abid Hasnain, Nabia Siddiqui, Tahira Mohsin Ali, Tanveer Abbas


The present study proposed the use of different onion peel extracts in a South Asian snacks called ‘sew’. The polyphenols extracted from peels were initially analyzed for their antimicrobial potential and bioactive components following three different extraction systems. A relatively higher level of total phenolic content (TP), total flavonoid (TF) and antioxidant activity was observed for EWE (ethanol and water based) extracts followed by EAAE (ethanol and acetic acid) and WE (water extract) sample. Onion extracts showed ability to inhibit gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria. The incorporation of onion peel extracts in sew showed a marked increase in bioactive components. Besides bioactivity, sensory attributes, textural characteristics and storage stability of these snacks containing onion peel extract also significantly improved during the shelf study at ambient temperature for up to two months. Thus, these results justify the utilization of these plant polyphenols in fried snacks.

Keywords: Bioactivity, Antioxidant Capacity, onion peels extract, South Asian snacks

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2 Determination of Physicochemical Properties, Bioaccessibility of Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mineral Enriched Linden Herbal Tea Beverage

Authors: Senem Suna, Canan Ece Tamer, Ömer Utku Çopur


In this research, dried linden (Tilia argentea) leaves and blossoms were used as a raw material for mineral enriched herbal tea beverage production. For this aim, %1 dried linden was infused with boiling water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. After cooling, sucrose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, natural lemon flavor and natural mineral water were added. Beverage samples were plate filtered, filled into 200-mL glass bottles, capped then pasteurized at 98 °C for 15 minutes. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH, minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na), color (L*, a*, b*), turbidity, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, and ascorbic were determined as 7.66±0.28 g/100 g, 0.13±0.00 g/100 mL, and 19.42±0.62 mg/100 mL, respectively. pH was measured as 3.69. Fe, Ca, Mg, K and Na contents of the beverage were determined as 0.12±0.00, 115.48±0.05, 34.72±0.14, 48.67±0.43 and 85.72±1.01 mg/L, respectively. Color was measured as 13.63±0.05, -4.33±0.05, and 3.06±0.05 for L*, a*, and b* values. Turbidity was determined as 0.69±0.07 NTU. Bioaccessible phenolics were determined as 312.82±5.91 mg GAE/100 mL. Antioxidant capacities of chemical (MetOH:H2O:HCl) and physiological extracts (in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction) with DPPH (27.59±0.53 and 0.17±0.02 μmol trolox/mL), FRAP (21.01±0.97 and 13.27±0.19 μmol trolox/mL) and CUPRAC (44.71±9.42 and 2.80±0.64 μmol trolox/mL) methods were also evaluated. As a result, enrichment with natural mineral water was proposed for the development of functional and nutritional values together with a good potential for commercialization.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, bioaccessibility, linden, herbal tea beverage

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1 Quality Evaluation of Grape Seed Oils of the Ionian Islands Based on GC-MS and Other Spectroscopic Techniques

Authors: I. Oikonomou, I. Lappa, D. Daferera, C. Kanakis, L. Kiokakis, K. Skordilis, A. Avramouli, E. Kalli, C. Pappas, P. A. Tarantilis, E. Skotti


Grape seeds are waste products of wineries and often referred to as an important agricultural and industrial waste product with the potential to be used in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. In this study, grape seed oil from traditional Ionian varieties was examined for the determination of the quality and the characteristics of each variety. Initially, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, after transesterification. Furthermore, other quality parameters of the grape seed oils were determined by Spectroscopy techniques, UV-Vis and Raman included. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and their antioxidant capacity expressed in Trolox equivalents. K and ΔΚ indices were measured in 232, 268, 270 nm, as an oil quality index. The results indicate that the air-dried grape seed total oil content ranged from 5.26 to 8.77% w/w, which is in accordance with the other grape seed varieties tested in similar studies. The composition of grape seed oil is predominated with linoleic and oleic fatty acids, with the linoleic fatty acid ranging from 53.68 to 69.95% and both the linoleic and oleic fatty acids totaling 78-82% of FAMEs, which is analogous to the fatty acid composition of safflower oil. The antioxidant assays ABTS and DPPH scored high, exhibiting that the oils have potential in the cosmetic and culinary businesses. Above that, our results demonstrate that Ionian grape seed oils have prospects that can go further than cosmetic or culinary use, into the pharmaceuticals industry. Finally, the reclamation of grape seeds from wineries waste stream is in accordance with the bio-economy strategic framework and contributes to environmental protection.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, GC-MS, fatty acid methyl esters, grape seed oil

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