Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Antimicrobial Related Abstracts

70 In vitro Biological Activity of Some Synthesized Monoazo Heterocycles Based On Thiophene and Thiazolyl-Thiophene Analogue

Authors: Mohamed E. Khalifa, Adil A. Gobouri


Potential synthesis of a series of 3-amino-4-arylazothiophene derivatives from reaction of 2-cyano-2-phenylthiocarbamoyl acetamide and the appropriate α-halogenated reagents, followed by coupling with different aryl diazonium salts (Japp-Klingemann reaction), and another series of 5-arylazo-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl-thiophene derivatives from base-catalyzed intramolecular condensation of 5-arylazo-2-(N-chloroacetyl)amino-thiazole with selected B-keto compounds (Thorpe-Ziegler reaction) was performed. The biological activity of the two series was studied in vitro. Their versatility for pharmaceutical purposes was reported, where they displayed remarkable activities against selected pathogenic microorganisms; Bacillus subtilize, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative bacteria) and Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans (fungi) with various degrees related to their chemical structures.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Compounds, antioxidant, thiophene, antitumor

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69 Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition of Inorganic-Fluoropolymer Nano-Coatings for Real-Life Applications

Authors: M. Valentini, D. Melisi, M. A. Nitti, R A. Picca, M. C. Sportelli, E. Bonerba, G. Casamassima, N. Cioffi, L. Sabbatini, G. Tantillo, A. Valentini


In recent years antimicrobial coatings are receiving increasing attention due to their high demand in medical applications as well as in healthcare and hygiene. Research and technology are constantly involved to develop advanced finishing which can provide bacteriostatic growth without compromising the other typical properties of a textile as durability and non-toxicity, just to cite a few. Here we report on the antimicrobial coatings obtained, at room temperature and without the use of solvents, by means of the ion beam co-sputtering technique of an Ag target and a polytetrafluoroethylene one. In particular, such method allows to conjugate the well-known antimicrobial action of silver with the anti-stain and water-repellent properties of the fluoropolymer. Moreover, different Ag nanoparticle loadings (φ) were prepared by tuning the material deposition conditions achieving a fine control on film thickness and their antimicrobial/anti-stain properties.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Nanocoatings, ion beam sputtering, anti-stain

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68 Preparation and in vitro Bactericidal and Fungicidal Efficiency of NanoSilver/Methylcellulose Hydrogel

Authors: A. Panacek, M. Kilianova, R. Prucek, V. Husickova, R. Vecerova, M. Kolar, L. Kvitek, R. Zboril


In this work we describe the preparation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) for topical bactericidal applications. Highly concentrated dispersion of silver NPs as high as of 5g/L of silver with diameter of 10nm was prepared by reduction of AgNO3 via strong reducing agent NaBH4. Silver NPs were stabilized by addition of sodium polyacrylate in order to prevent their aggregation at such high concentration. This way synthesized silver NPs were subsequently incorporated into methylcellulose suspension at elevated temperature resulting in formation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel when temperature cooled down to laboratory conditions. In vitro antibacterial activity assay proved high bactericidal and fungicidal efficiency of silver NPs alone in the form of dispersion as well as in the form of hydrogel against broad spectrum of bacteria and yeasts including highly multiresistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A very low concentrations of silver as low as 0.84mg/L Ag in as-prepared dispersion gave antibacterial performance. NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel showed antibacterial action at the lowest used silver concentration equal to 25mg/L. Such prepared NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel represent promising topical antimicrobial formulation for treatment of burns and wounds.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Hydrogel, burn, silver NPs

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67 Isolation of Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua

Authors: Haitham Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbudin Saad, Deny Susanti, Osama Althunibat


This study was carried out to isolate the active antimicrobial compounds from Neopetrosia exigua using bio-guided assay isolation against Staphylococcus aureus. N. exigua was extracted using methanol and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with different polarity (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, n-butanol and water). Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions was done using Sephadex LH-20 and reverse phase chromatography. Based on the biological guided fractionation results, dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions yielded three compounds. The structure of the isolated compounds were elucidated and found to be 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester, cyclo-1`-demethylcystalgerone and avarol derivative. Avarol was showed potent bactericidal effect against S. aureus. N. exigua appears to be rich source of natural antimicrobial agents. Further studies are needed to investigate the mode of action of these compounds.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Staphylococcus aureus, avarol, Neopetrosia exigua

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66 A Prospective Audit to Look into Antimicrobial Prescribing in the Clinical Setting: In a Teaching Hospital in the UK

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Richa Sinha, Mohammad Irfan Javed


Introduction: Good antimicrobial prescribing reduces length of stay in hospital, risk of adverse events, antimicrobial resistance, and unnecessary hospital expenditure. The aim of this prospective audit was to identify any problems with antimicrobial prescribing including documentation of the relevant aspects as well as appropriateness of antibiotics use. The audit was conducted on the surgical wards in a teaching hospital in the UK. Methods: Standards included the indication, duration, choice, and prescription of antibiotic should be in line with current Regional Guidelines and should be clearly documented on the prescription chart. There should be an entry in each patients’ medical record of the diagnosis and indication for each acute antibiotic prescription issued. All prescriptions should clearly document the route, frequency and dose of antibiotic. Data collection was done for 2 weeks in the month of March 2014. A proforma including all the questions above was completed for all the patients. The results were analysed using Excel. Results: 35 patients in total were selected for the audit. 85.7% of patients had indication of antibiotic documented on the prescription chart and 68.5% of patients had indication documented in the notes. The antibiotic used was in line with hospital guidelines in 45.7% of patients, however, in a further 28.5% of patients the reason for the antibiotic prescription was microbiology approved. Therefore, in total 74.2% of patients had been prescribed appropriate antibiotics. The duration of antibiotic was documented in 68.6% of patients and the antibiotic was reviewed in 37.1% of patients. The dose, frequency and route was documented clearly in 100% of patients. Conclusion: Overall, prescribing can be improved on the surgical wards in this hospital. Only 37.1% of patients had clear documentation of a review of antibiotics. It may be that antibiotics have been reviewed but this should be clearly highlighted on the prescription chart or the notes. Failure to review antibiotics can lead to poor patient care and antimicrobial resistance and therefore it is important to address this. It is also important to address the appropriateness of antibiotics as inappropriate antibiotic prescription can lead to failure of treatment as well as antimicrobial resistance. The good points from the audit was that all patients had clear documentation of dose, route and frequency which is extremely important in the administration of antibiotics. Recommendations from this audit included to emphasize good antimicrobial prescribing at induction (twice yearly), an antimicrobial handbook for junior doctors, and re-audit in 6 months time.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Duration, prescribing, indication

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65 Inhibitory Effect of Helichrysum arenarium Essential Oil on the Growth of Food Contaminated Microorganisms

Authors: Ali Mohamadi Sani


The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of Helichrysum arenarium L. essential oil in "in-vitro" condition on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration (MBC, MFC) were determined for the essential oil at ten concentrations. Finally, the sensitivity of tested microbes to the essential oil of H. arenarium was investigated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis (MIC=781.25 and MBC=6250 µg/ml) was more resistance than two other bacterial species. Among the tested yeasts, Saccharomyces cereviciae (MIC=97.65 and MFC=781.25 µg/ml) was more sensitive than Candida albicans, while among the fungal species, growth of Aspergillus parasiticus inhibited at lower concentration of oil than the Aspergillus flavus. The extracted essential oil exhibited the same MIC value in the liquid medium against all fungal strains (48.82 µg/ml), while different activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus was observed in this medium with MFC values of 6250 and 390.625µg/ml, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Helichrysum arenarium L essential oil had significant (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity; therefore, it can be used as a natural preservation to increase the shelf life of food products.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Mic, Essential Oil, Helichrysum arenarium

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64 Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Escherichia coli sp. and Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Thailand Fermented Foods

Authors: Phanwipa Pangsri, Yawariyah Weahayee


The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 10 samples of fermented foods (Sa-tor-dong and Bodo) in South locality of Thailand. The 23 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were selected, which were exhibited a clear zone and growth on MRS agar supplemented with CaCO3. All of lactic acid bacteria were tested on morphological and biochemical. The result showed that all isolates were Gram’s positive, non-spore forming but only 10 isolates displayed catalase negative. The 10 isolates including BD 1.1, BD 1.2, BD 2.1, BD2.2, BD 2.3, BD 3.1, BD 4.1, BD 5.2, ST4.1, and ST 5.2 were selected for inhibition activity determination. Only 2 strains (ST 4.1 and BD 2.3) showed inhibition zone on agar, when using Escherichia coli sp. as target strain. The ST 4.1 showed highest inhibition zone on agar, which was selected for probiotic property testing. The ST4.1 isolate could grow in MRS broth containing a high concentration of sodium chloride 6%, bile salts 7%, pH 4-10 and vary temperature at 15-45^oC.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Lactic Acid Bacteria, probiotic, probiotic property testing

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63 Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Screening of Extract of Sunflower Chrysanthlum indicum

Authors: I. Ibrahim, A. Mann


Phytochemical screening of crude Chrysanthlum Indicum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkanoids, steroidal nucleus and cardiac glycosides. The extract was evaluated against some pathogenic organisms by agar dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the active extract of Chrysanthlum Indicum shows that its extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Phytochemicals, extract, Chrysanthlum indicum

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62 Phytochemistry and Biological Activity of Extracts of the Red Raspberry Rubus rosifolius

Authors: Theresa Campbell, Camille Bowen-Forbes, William Aalbersberg


Differences in the sensory properties of two subtly distinct varieties of Rubus rosifolius lead to the examination of their anthocyanin, essential oil and polyphenol profiles. In both cases, notable differences were identified. Pelargonidin-3-rhutinoside (17.2 mg/100 g FW) and Cyanidin-3-glucoside (66.2 mg/100g FW) proved to be the dominant anthocyanins in the red and wine red varieties respectively. Linalool and terpineol were the major constituents of the essential oil from the red variety; however, those of the wine red variety are unidentified. In regard to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and quercetin were in a higher concentration in the red variety (1.85 and 0.73 mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 1.22 and 0.34 mg/100g FW respectively in the wine red fruits); while ellagic acid and ferulic acid were of a higher concentration in the wine red variety (0.92 and 0.84mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 0.15 and 0.48 mg/100g FW respectively in the red variety). The methanol extract of both fruit varieties showed great antioxidant activity. Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts against the growth of drug resistant pathogens revealed that they are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), rifampicin resistant S. aureus (RRSA), wild-type S. aureus (WTSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Activity was also reported against several food-borne pathogens including two strains of E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes. The cytotoxicity of the various extracts was assessed and the essential oil extracts exhibited superior activity. The phenolic composition and biological activity of the fruits indicate that their consumption is beneficial to health and also that their incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals should be considered.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals, cytotoxic, Rubus rosifolius

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61 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Profile of Newer Schiff Bases and Thiazolidinone Derivatives

Authors: N. K. Fuloria, S. Fuloria, R. Gupta


Esterification of p-bromo-m-cresol offered 2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetate (1), which was hydrazinated to yield 2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)aceto hydrazide (2). Compound (2) was reacted with different aromatic aldehydes to yield N-(substituted benzylidiene)-2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetamide(3a-c). Cyclization of compound (3a-c) with thioglycolic acid yielded 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-arylthiazolidin-3-yl) acetamide (4a-c). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral studies and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, thiazolidinone, schiff base, imines

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60 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Six Eucalyptus Species

Authors: Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, Rasha M. Bashatwah


Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antioxidants, essential (volatile) oil, Eucalyptus

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59 Quinazolino-Thiazoles: Fused Pharmacophores as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Sanjay Bari, Vinod Ugale, Kamalkishor Patil


Over the past several years the emergence of micro-organisms resistant to nearly all the class of antimicrobial agents has become a serious public health concern. In the present research, we report the synthesis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of a new series of novel quinazolino-thiadiazoles 3 (a-j). The synthesized compounds were confirmed by melting point, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. In general, the results of the in-vitro antibacterial activity are encouraging, as out of 10 compounds tested, Compound 3f and 3i with a 4-chloro phenyl and 4-nitro phenyl at C-2 of thiadiazolyl of quinazolino-thiadiazoles, displayed the excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the tested microorganisms (Bacterial and Fungal strain) with MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL. It is worth to mention that the combination of two biologically active moieties quinazoline and thiadiazole profoundly influences the biological activity. While evaluating the antimicrobial activity, it was observed that compounds having electron withdrawing groups on thiazole has shown profound activity in comparison to compounds having electron releasing groups. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that halogen substituent on thiazole ring increases antimicrobial activity. Possible improvements in the antimicrobial activity can be further achieved by slight modifications in the substituent’s and/or additional structural activity investigations to have good antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Synthesis, Antimicrobial, Antifungal, quinazolino-thiazoles

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58 Chemical Composition and Biological Investigation of Halpophyllum tuberculatum A. Juss (Rutaceae) Essential Oils Growing in Libya

Authors: O. M. M. Sabry, Abeer M. El Sayed


The essential oils from the aerial parts and flowers of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forsskal) Adr. Juss (Rutaceae) growing in Libya were obtained separately by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oils yield were (0.4, 1.5w/w%) respectively based on the dry weight of the plant. The oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty four constituents, amounting to 96.6%, were identified in the oil of the aerial parts. The predominant compounds were among the non oxygenated terpenoids (82.4%) as monoterpene hydrocarbons, represented by sabinen (26.4 %), δ-terpinen (26 %), β-phellandrene (10.4%) and 3-carene (3.86%). Zingiberine (0.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (0.12%) were the major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes were represented by eucalyptol (5.5%) and piperitone (5.55%). Twenty six constituents, equivalent to 99.5%, were identified in the oil of the flowers. The dominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons in the flowers oil can be attributed to the high percentage of γ-terpinen (38.44%), β-phellandrene (10.0%), α- phellandrene (2.33%), 3,4-dimethyl-1,5-cyclooctadiene (6.67%), β-myrecene (6.04%), 3-carene (5.43%) and α-pinene (1.3%).While the oxygenated monoterpenes can be contributed to the trans-piperitol (4.67%) and piperitone (2.07%). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were not identified in the oil of the flower of H. tuberculatum. Variation in constitution between oils of Libyan H. tuberculatum and that obtained from other countries can be due to both environmental and genetic factors. The essential oils have demonstrated variable antimicrobial activities against certain micro-organisms. Also have revealed marked in vitro cytotoxicity against lung (H1299), liver (HEPG2) carcinoma cell line and variably effective as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Essential Oil, Libya, antioxidant, antitumor, rutaceae, Halpophyllum tuberculatum

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57 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species from Medicinal Plants and Their Antimicrobial Potential

Authors: Mahendra Rai, Gauravi Agarkar


Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are important source of numerous pharmacologically important compounds. In the present investigation, the endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal plants; Andrographis paniculata, Rauwolfia serpentina and Tridax procumbens. Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. were identified on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated against seven different human pathogenic bacteria and six Candida sp. The extracts were effective and showed significant activity against all the test pathogens. In case of yeast Candida, the combined effect of extracts and standard antibiotic was enhanced greatly showing synergistic activity. Further, the extracts were assayed for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) where, MIC values were in the range of 100-250 μg/ml. These results suggest that the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. isolated from the medicinal plants are capable of producing promising antimicrobial metabolites.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Medicinal Plants, endophytic fungi, colletotrichum

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56 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Nidhi Gadura, Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu


For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing inEscherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference inloss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Copper, gram positive, gram negative

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55 Sustainability and Awareness with Natural Dyes in Textile

Authors: Recep Karadag


Natural dyeing had started since pre-historical times for dyeing of textile materials. The natural dyeing had continued to beginning of 20th century. At the end of 19th century some synthetic dyes were synthesized. Although development of dyeing technologies and methods, natural dyeing was not developed in recent years. Despite rapid advances of synthetic dyestuff industries, natural dye processes have not developed. Therefore natural dyeing was not competed against synthetic dyes. At the same time, it was very difficult that large quantities of coloured textile was dyed with natural dyes And it was very difficult to get reproducible results in the natural dyeing using classical and traditional processes. However, natural dyeing has used slightly in the textile handicraft up to now. It is very important view that re-using of natural dyes to create awareness in textiles in recent years. Natural dyes have got many awareness and sustainability properties. Natural dyes are more eco-friendly than synthetic dyes. A lot of natural dyes have got antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti –UV properties. It had been known that were obtained limited numbers colours with natural dyes in the past. On the contrary, colour scale is too wide with natural dyes. Except fluorescent colours, numerous colours can be obtained with natural dyes. Fastnesses of dyed textiles with natural dyes are good that there are light, washing, rubbing, etc. The fastness values can be improved depend on dyeing processes. Thanks to these properties mass production can be made with natural dyes in textiles. Therefore fabric dyeing machine was designed. This machine is too suitable for natural dyeing and mass production. Also any dyeing machine can be modified for natural dyeing. Although dye extraction and dyeing are made separately in the traditional natural dyeing processes and these procedures are become by designed this machine. Firstly, colouring compounds are extracted from natural dye resources, then dyeing is made with extracted colouring compounds. The colouring compounds are moderately dissolved in water. Less water is used in the extraction of colouring compounds from dye resources and dyeing with this new technique on the contrary much quantity water needs to use for dissolve of the colouring compounds in the traditional dyeing. This dyeing technique is very useful method for mass productions with natural dyes in traditional natural dyeing that use less energy, less dye materials, less water, etc. than traditional natural dyeing techniques. In this work, cotton, silk, linen and wool fabrics were dyed with some natural dye plants by the technique. According to the analysis very good results were obtained by this new technique. These results are shown sustainability and awareness of natural dyes for textiles.

Keywords: Sustainability, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Natural Dyes

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54 Antimicrobial Potential of Calendula officinalis Extracts on Flavobacterium columnare of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Authors: Nelson Rotimi Osungbemiro, Sanni Rafiu Olugbenga, Abayomi Olufemi Olajuyigbe


Ninety Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were exposed to the pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare a Gram Negative bacteria responsible for high mortality in fish pond raised young fish (fries and fingerlings) of Clarias sp. in Southwestern Nigeria. After feeding with 40% crude protein pelletized fish feed for 5 days, the fishes were divided into two groups, one group was treated with extracts from Calendula officinalis flowers, while the second group was not treated (control). The results indicated that, at day 5, colony formation had been manifesting and at day 7, skin lesion occurred and at the 8th day, first mortality of fish occurred, and this continued steadily on the 9th-12th day when all the fishes were dead. Whereas, in the group that was treated with Calendula sp., no single mortality was recorded. This research shows that plant extract from Calendula flowers is an effective antimicrobial agent against the virulent pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare disease.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Fish, Clarias gariepinus, Flavobacterium columnare

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53 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pyridine Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Dagim Ali Hussen, Adnan A. Bekhit, Ariaya Hymete


In this study, several pyridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. Cereus), gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and fungus (C. albican and A niger). The intermediate chalcone derivative 2a,b was synthesized by condensation of pyrazole aldehydes 1a,b with acetophenone in alcoholic KOH. Cyclization of 2a,b with ethyl cyanoacetate ad ammonium acetate resulted in pyridine carbonitrile derivatives 3a,b. Furthermore, condensation of pyridine-4-carboxaldeyhe with different amino-derivatives gave rise to pyridine derivatives 5a,b, 6a,b. The oxadiazole derivative 7a was prepared by cyclization of 6a with acetic anhydride. Characterization of the synthesized compound was performed using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental microanalyses. The antimicrobial results revealed that compounds 5a, 6b and 7a exhibited half fold antibacterial activity compared to ampicillin, against B. cereus. On the other hand, compound 3b showed an equivalent activity compared to miconazole against candida albican (CANDAL 03) and to clotrimazole against the clinical isolate candida albican 6647. Moreover, this compound 3b was further tested for its acute toxicity profile. The results showed that oral LD50 is more that 300 mg/kg and parentral LD50 is more than 100 mg/kg. Compound 3b is a good candidate for antifungal agent with good toxicity profile, and deserves more chemical derivatization and clinical study.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antifungal, pyridine, Candida albican

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52 Antifungal Activity of Commiphora myrrha L. against Some Air Fungi

Authors: Sarfaraz Hadi, Ahmed E. Al-Sabri, Mohamed A. Moslem


To avoid the harmful effects of the chemical fungicides on the human and minimize the environmental pollution, an alternative eco-friendly control strategies should be developed. The extract of Commiphora myhrra L. was tested against twenty fungal genera isolated from the indoor air collected from different rooms in King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Disc diffusion test was modified for use in this study and the collected data was statistically analyzed. Variable antifungal efficacy of different myrrh extract was recorded against the investigated fungal genera. The efficacy of the extract was increased as the concentration increased. The highest growth inhibition (74.6%) was against Acremonium strictum followed by Trichoderma psuedokoningii (70.6%). On contrast, the lowest efficacy (12.7%) was against Ulocladium consortiale. It could be concluded that myrrh extract is promised as a source of substances from which of safer and eco-friendly could be used as antimicrobial agents against a number of pathogenic fungi.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antifungal, medicinal plant, myrrh

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51 A Review of Antimicrobial Strategy for Cotton Textile

Authors: C. W. Kan, Y. L. Lam


Cotton textile has large specific surfaces with good adhesion and water-storage properties which provide conditions for the growth and settlement of biological organisms. In addition, the soil, dust and solutes from sweat can also be the sources of nutrients for microorganisms [236]. Generally speaking, algae can grow on textiles under very moist conditions, providing nutrients for fungi and bacteria growth. Fungi cause multiple problems to textiles including discolouration, coloured stains and fibre damage. Bacteria can damage fibre and cause unpleasant odours with a slick and slimy feel. In addition, microbes can disrupt the manufacturing processes such as textile dyeing, printing and finishing operations through the reduction of viscosity, fermentation and mold formation. Therefore, a large demand exists for the anti-microbially finished textiles capable of avoiding or limiting microbial fibre degradation or bio fouling, bacterial incidence, odour generation and spreading or transfer of pathogens. In this review, the main strategy for cotton textile will be reviewed. In the beginning, the classification of bacteria and germs which are commonly found with cotton textiles will be introduced. The chemistry of antimicrobial finishing will be discussed. In addition, the types of antimicrobial treatment will be summarized. Finally, the application and evaluation of antimicrobial treatment on cotton textile will be discussed.

Keywords: Textile, Antimicrobial, Cotton, review

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50 Antmicrobial Packaging, a Step Towards Safe Food: A Review

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, Hafiz A. Sakandar, M. Afzaal, U. Khan


Food is the primary concern of living organisms, provision of diet for maintenance of good physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of apprehension since ancient times. Healthy and fresh food always demanded by the consumers. Modern research has find out many alternatives of traditional packaging. Now the consumer knows that good packaging system is that which protects the food from the contaminants and increases shelf life of food product. While in Pakistan about 40% of fruits and vegetables lost due to spoilage caused by poor handling, transportation, and poor packaging interaction with other environmental conditions. So it is crucial for developing countries like Pakistan to pay attention to these exacerbating situations for economy losses by considering food packaging an ultimate solution to the problem.

Keywords: Food Safety, packaging, Antimicrobial, food losses

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49 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Polyacrylic Acid / Ag-nanoparticles Composite Membranes

Authors: Abdel-Mohdy, A. Abou-Okeil, S. El-Sabagh, S. M. El-Sawy


Chitosan polyacrylic acid composite membranes were prepared by a bulk polymerization method in the presence of N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (crosslinker) and ammonium persulphate as initiator. Membranes prepared from this copolymer in presence and absence of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by measuring mechanical and physical properties, water up-take and antibacterial properties. The results obtained indicated that the prepared membranes have antibacterial properties which increases with adding Ag nanoparticles.

Keywords: Composites, Antimicrobial, Physical Properties, Mechanical Properties, Membrane, Ag nanoparticles

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48 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Screening of Five Species from Acacia Used in Sudanese Ethnomedicine

Authors: I. Adam, Ismail, J. Ali, Ahmed, Hajir, B. Abdllha, Alaa, I. Mohamed, Khansa, A. Almoniem, Naga, Wdeea, Alhaadi, A. Elshikh, G. Makuar, Anas, M. Elnazeer, Nagat, A. Elrofaei, Samir, F. Abdoelftah, Monier, N. Hemidan


The present study was designed to investigate antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of five species from Acacia (Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var.seyal and Acacia tortilis). Phytochemical study was piloted to detect the bioactive compounds, which have been responsible from the biological activities. The ethanol, chloroform and acetone plant extracts were seasoned against standard bacteria strains of gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) ,Gram -ve bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and standard fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), using cup-plate method. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. Prospective activity against the five species was observed in acetone extract. Ethanol extract showed highest activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Potential antioxidant activity was presented by ethanol. Cholorophorm and acetone extracts via DPPH, the radical scavenging activities were found to be 91±0.03, 88±0.01 and 85±0.04 respectively. The results of phytochemical screening showed that all extracts of studied plant contain flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. This study give rise to antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of studied plant, and showed interesting correlation with the phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, acacia nubica, acacia seyal var.seyal, Acacia tortilis

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47 Application of Fatty Acid Salts for Antimicrobial Agents in Koji-Muro

Authors: Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita, Aya Tanaka, Shiho Sakai


Objectives: Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji) was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. So this study examined antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus and Bacillus spp. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro as antimicrobial agents. Materials & Methods: A. niger NBRC 31628, A. oryzae NBRC 5238, A. oryzae (Akita Konno store) and Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 were chosen as tested. Nine fatty acid salts including potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K) and linolenate (C18:3K) at 350 mM and pH 10.5 were used as antimicrobial activity. FASs and spore suspension were prepared in plastic tubes. The spore suspension of each fungus (3.0×104 spores/mL) or the bacterial suspension (3.0×105 CFU/mL) was mixed with each of the fatty acid salts (final concentration of 175 mM). The mixtures were incubated at 25 ℃. Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, and 180 min by plating (100 µL) on potato dextrose agar. Fungal and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation for 1 or 2 days at 30 ℃. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) is defined as the lowest concentration of drug sufficient for inhibiting visible growth of spore after 10 min of incubation. MICs against fungi and bacteria were determined using the two-fold dilution method. Each fatty acid salt was separately inoculated with 400 µL of Aspergillus spp. or B. subtilis NBRC 3335 at 3.0 × 104 spores/mL or 3.0 × 105 CFU/mL. Results: No obvious change was observed in tested fatty acid salts against A. niger and A. oryzae. However, C12K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. Thus, C12K suppressed 99.999 % of bacterial growth. Besides, C10K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 180 min against B. subtilis. C18:1K, C18:2K and C18:3K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. However, compared to saturated fatty acid salts to unsaturated fatty acid salts, saturated fatty acid salts are lower cost. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro. It is necessary to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against other fungi and bacteria, in the future.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, aspergillus, Fatty acid salts, koji-muro

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46 Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Microalgal Strain, Cymbella

Authors: S. Beekrum, B. Odhav, R. Lalloo, E. O. Amonsou


Marine microalgae are rich sources of the novel and biologically active metabolites; therefore, they may be used in the food industry as natural food ingredients and functional foods. They have several biological applications related with health benefits, among others. In the past decades, food scientists have been searching for natural alternatives to replace synthetic antioxidants. The use of synthetic antioxidants has decreased due to their suspected activity as promoters of carcinogenesis, as well as consumer rejection of synthetic food additives. The aim of the study focused on screening of phytochemicals from Cymbella biomass extracts, and to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Cymbella biomass was obtained from CSIR (South Africa), and four different solvents namely methanol, acetone, n-hexane and water were used for extraction. To take into account different antioxidant mechanisms, seven different antioxidant assays were carried out. These include free radical scavenging (DPPH assay), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay), radical cation (ABTS assay), superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as gallic acid equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. The in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts were tested against some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans), using the disc diffusion assay. Qualitative analyses of phytochemicals were conducted by chemical tests to screen for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, steroids, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids. The present investigation revealed that all extracts showed relatively strong antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacteria. The methanolic extract of the biomass contained a significantly high phenolic content of 111.46 mg GAE/g, and the hexane extract contained 65.279 mg GAE/g. Results of the DPPH assay showed that the biomass contained strong antioxidant capacity, 79% in the methanolic extract and 85% in the hexane extract. Extracts have displayed effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Results of this study have highlighted potential antioxidant activity in the methanol and hexane extracts. The obtained results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. The use of Cymbella as a natural antioxidant source and a potential source of antibacterial compounds and phytochemicals in the food industry appears promising and should be investigated further.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, Microalgae, Cymbella

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45 Electrospun TiO2/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Mat: Improved Hydrophilicity Properties

Authors: Roshank Haghighat, Laleh Maleknia


In this study, electrospun TiO2/nylon-6 nanofiber mats were successfully prepared. The nanofiber mats were characterized by SEM, FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, WCA, and EDX analyses. The results revealed that fibers in different distinct sizes (nano and subnano scale) were obtained with the electrospinning parameters. The presence of a small amount of TiO2 in nylon-6 solution was found to improve the hydrophilicity (antifouling effect), mechanical strength, antimicrobial and UV protecting ability of electrospun mats. The resultant nylon-6/TiO2 antimicrobial spider-net like composite mat with antifouling effect may be a potential candidate for future water filter applications, and its improved UV blocking ability will also make it a potential candidate for protective clothing.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, nanocomposite, Electrospinning, hydrophilicity, nylon-6/TiO2

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44 Biological Activities of Species in the Genus Tulbaghia: A Review

Authors: M. Pillay, S. Takaidza, F. Mtunzi


Since time immemorial, plants have been used by several communities to treat a large number of diseases. Numerous studies on the pharmacology of medicinal plants have been done. Medicinal plants constitute a potential source for the production of new medicines and may complement conventional antimicrobials and probably decrease health costs. Phytochemical compounds in plants are known to be biologically active aiding, for example, as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The overwhelming challenge of drug resistance has resulted in an increasing trend towards using medicinal plants to treat various diseases, especially in developing countries. Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from current literature that T. violacea is the most promising species. The other species of Tulbaghia still require further studies to ascertain their medicinal potential.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals, Biological Activities, antioxidant, tulbaghia

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43 Biomedical Application of Green Biosynthesis Magnetic Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed (Sargassum muticum) Aqueous Extract

Authors: Farideh Namvar, Rosfarizan Mohamed


In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. This use of biological entities to create nanoparticles has designated as “Green” synthesis and it is considered to be far more beneficial due to being economical, eco-friendly and applicable for large-scale synthesis as it operates on low pressure, less input of energy and low temperatures. The lack of toxic byproducts and consequent decrease in degradation of the product renders this technique more preferable over physical and classical chemical methods. The variety of biomass having reduction properties to produce nanoparticles makes them an ideal candidate for fabrication. Metal oxide nanoparticles have been said to represent a "fundamental cornerstone of nanoscience and nanotechnology" due to their variety of properties and potential applications. However, this also provides evidence of the fact that metal oxides include many diverse types of nanoparticles with large differences in chemical composition and behaviour. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) were synthesized using a rapid, single step and completely green biosynthetic method by reduction of ferric chloride solution with brown seaweed (Sargassum muticum) water extract containing polysaccharides as a main factor which acts as reducing agent and efficient stabilizer. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method. The resulting S-IONPs are crystalline in nature, with a cubic shape. The average particle diameter, as determined by TEM, was found to be 18.01 nm. The S-IONPs were efficiently inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida species. Our favorable results suggest that S-IONPs could be a promising candidate for development of future antimicrobial therapies. The nature of biosynthesis and the therapeutic potential by S-IONPs could pave the way for further research on design of green synthesis therapeutic agents, particularly nanomedicine, to deal with treatment of infections. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial activity of these particles. Antioxidant activity of S-IONPs synthesized by green method was measured by ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (IC50= 1000µg) radical scavenging activity. Also, with the increasing concentration of S-IONPs, catalase gene expression compared to control gene GAPDH increased. For anti-angiogenesis study the Ross fertilized eggs were divided into four groups; the control and three experimental groups. The gelatin sponges containing albumin were placed on the chorioalantoic membrane and soaked with different concentrations of S-IONPs. All the cases were photographed using a photo stereomicroscope. The number and the lengths of the vessels were measured using Image J software. The crown rump (CR) and weight of the embryo were also recorded. According to the data analysis, the number and length of the blood vessels, as well as the CR and weight of the embryos reduced significantly compared to the control (p < 0.05), dose dependently. The total hemoglobin was quantified as an indicator of the blood vessel formation, and in the treated samples decreased, which showed its inhibitory effect on angiogenesis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Biosynthesis, Seaweed, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, iron oxide (fe3o4) nanoparticles, sargassum muticum

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42 Excavation of Phylogenetically Diverse Bioactive Actinobacteria from Unexplored Regions of Sundarbans Mangrove Ecosystem for Mining of Economically Important Antimicrobial Compounds

Authors: Sohan Sengupta, Arnab Pramanik, Abhrajyoti Ghosh, Maitree Bhattacharyya


Newly emerged phyto-pathogens and multi drug resistance have been threating the world for last few decades. Actinomycetes, the most endowed group of microorganisms isolated from unexplored regions of the world may be the ultimate solution to these problems. Thus the aim of this study was to isolate several bioactive actinomycetes strains capable of producing antimicrobial secondary metabolite from Sundarbans, the only mangrove tiger land of the world. Fifty four actinomycetes were isolated and analyzed for antimicrobial activity against fifteen test organisms including three phytopathogens. Nine morphologically distinct and biologically active isolates were subjected to polyphasic identification study. 16s rDNA sequencing indicated eight isolates to reveal maximum similarity to the genus streptomyces, whereas one isolate presented only 93.57% similarity with Streptomyces albogriseolus NRRL B-1305T. Seventy-one carbon sources and twenty-three chemical sources utilization assay revealed their metabolic relatedness. Among these nine isolates three specific strains were found to have notably higher degree of antimicrobial potential effective in a broader range including phyto-pathogenic fungus. PCR base whole genome screen for PKS and NRPS genes, confirmed the occurrence of bio-synthetic gene cluster in some of the isolates for novel antibiotic production. Finally the strain SMS_SU21, which showed antimicrobial activity with MIC value of 0.05 mg ml-1and antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.242±0.33 mg ml-1 was detected to be the most potential one. True prospective of this strain was evaluated utilizing GC-MS and the bioactive compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was purified and characterized. Rare bioactive actinomycetes were isolated from unexplored heritage site. Diversity of the biosynthetic gene cluster for antimicrobial compound production has also been evaluated. Antimicrobial compound SU21-C has been identified and purified which is active against a broad range of pathogens.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Actinomycetes, GC-MS, sundarbans, pks nrps, phyto-pathogens

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41 Phytochemical Profile and in Vitro Bioactivity Studies on Two Underutilized Vegetables in Nigeria

Authors: Borokini Funmilayo Boede


B. alba L., commonly called ‘Amunututu’ and Solanecio biafrae called ‘Worowo’ among the Yoruba tribe in the southwest part of Nigeria are reported to be of great ethnomedicinal importance but are among many underutilized green leafy vegetables in the country. Many studies have established the nutritional values of these vegetables, utilization are very poor and indepth information on their chemical profiles is scarce. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of these vegetables were subjected to phytochemical screening and phenolic profiles of the alcoholic extracts were characterized by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined, antioxidant activities were evaluated using five in vitro assays to assess DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging abilities, as well as reducing power with ferric reducing antioxidant assay and phosphomolybdate method. The antibacterial activities of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi were evaluated by using agar well diffusion method and the antifungal activity evaluated against food-associated filamentous fungi by using poisoned food technique with the aim of assessing their nutraceutical potentials to encourage their production and utilization. The results revealed the presence of saponnin, steroids, tannin, terpenoid and flavonoid as well as phenolic compounds: gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumarin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaemferol. The vegetables showed varying concentration dependent reducing and radical scavenging abilities from weak to strong compared with gallic acid, rutin, trolox and ascorbic acid used as positive controls; the aqueous extracts which gave higher concentrations of total phenol displayed higher ability to reduce Fe (lll) to Fe (ll) and stronger inhibiting power against hydroxyl radical than the alcoholic extracts and in most cases exhibited more potency than the ascorbic acids used as positive controls, at the same concentrations, whereas, methanol and / or ethanol extracts were found to be more effective in scavenging 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical and showed higher ability to reduce Mo (VI) to Mo (V) in total antioxidant assay than the aqueous extracts. However, the inhibition abilities of all the extracts against nitric oxide were comparable with the ascorbic acid control at the same concentrations. There were strong positive correlations with total phenol (mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid (mg RE/g) contents in the range TFC (r=0.857- 0999 and r= 0.904-1.000) and TPC (r= 0.844- 0.992 and r= 0.900 -0.999) for Basella alba and Senecio biafrae respectively. Inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50) for each extract to scavenge DPPH, OH and NO radicals ranged from 32.73 to 1.52 compared with control (0.846 - -6.42) mg/ml. At 0.05g/ml, the vegetables were found to exhibit mild antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi compared with streptomycin sulphate used as control but appreciable antifungi activities against (Trichoderma rubrum and Aspergillus fumigates) compared with bonlate antibiotic positive control. The vegetables possess appreciable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for promoting good health, their cultivation and utilization should be encouraged especially in the face of increasing health and economic challenges and food insecurity in many parts of the world.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, extracts

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