Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

antimicrobial agent Related Abstracts

5 Green Production of Chitosan Nanoparticles and their Potential as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: L. P. Gomes, G. F. Araújo, Y. M. L. Cordeiro, C. T. Andrade, E. M. Del Aguila, V. M. F. Paschoalin


The application of nanoscale materials and nanostructures is an emerging area, these since materials may provide solutions to technological and environmental challenges in order to preserve the environment and natural resources. To reach this goal, the increasing demand must be accompanied by 'green' synthesis methods. Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, biopolymer derived by the deacetylation of chitin and has great potential for a wide range of applications in the biological and biomedical areas, due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity and versatile chemical and physical properties. Chitosan also presents high antimicrobial activities against a wide variety of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Ultrasonication is a common tool for the preparation and processing of polymer nanoparticles. It is particularly effective in breaking up aggregates and in reducing the size and polydispersity of nanoparticles. High-intensity ultrasonication has the potential to modify chitosan molecular weight and, thus, alter or improve chitosan functional properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sonication intensity and time on the changes of commercial chitosan characteristics, such as molecular weight and its potential antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The nanoparticles (NPs) were produced from two commercial chitosans, of medium molecular weight (CS-MMW) and low molecular weight (CS-LMW) from Sigma-Aldrich®. These samples (2%) were solubilized in 100 mM sodium acetate pH 4.0, placed on ice and irradiated with an ultrasound SONIC ultrasonic probe (model 750 W), equipped with a 1/2" microtip during 30 min at 4°C. It was used on constant duty cycle and 40% amplitude with 1/1s intervals. The ultrasonic degradation of CS-MMW and CS-LMW were followed up by means of ζ-potential (Brookhaven Instruments, model 90Plus) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. After sonication, the concentrated samples were diluted 100 times and placed in fluorescence quartz cuvettes (Hellma 111-QS, 10 mm light path). The distributions of the colloidal particles were calculated from the DLS and ζ-potential are measurements taken for the CS-MMW and CS-LMW solutions before and after (CS-MMW30 and CS-LMW30) sonication for 30 min. Regarding the results for the chitosan sample, the major bands can be distinguished centered at Radius hydrodynamic (Rh), showed different distributions for CS-MMW (Rh=690.0 nm, ζ=26.52±2.4), CS-LMW (Rh=607.4 and 2805.4 nm, ζ=24.51±1.29), CS-MMW30 (Rh=201.5 and 1064.1 nm, ζ=24.78±2.4) and CS-LMW30 (Rh=492.5, ζ=26.12±0.85). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using different chitosan samples concentrations. MIC values were determined against to E. coli (106 cells) harvested from an LB medium (Luria-Bertani BD™) after 18h growth at 37 ºC. Subsequently, the cell suspension was serially diluted in saline solution (0.8% NaCl) and plated on solid LB at 37°C for 18 h. Colony-forming units were counted. The samples showed different MICs against E. coli for CS-LMW (1.5mg), CS-MMW30 (1.5 mg/mL) and CS-LMW30 (1.0 mg/mL). The results demonstrate that the production of nanoparticles by modification of their molecular weight by ultrasonication is simple to be performed and dispense acid solvent addition. Molecular weight modifications are enough to provoke changes in the antimicrobial potential of the nanoparticles produced in this way.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Green Production, chitosan, antimicrobial agent

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4 Control of Microbial Pollution Using Biodegradable Polymer

Authors: Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa, Mahmoud H. Abu Elella


Introduction: Microbial pollution is global problem threatening the human health. It is resulted by pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and other pathogenic strains. They cause a dangerous effect on human health, so great efforts have been exerted to produce new and effective antimicrobial agents. Nowadays, natural polysaccharides, such as chitosan and its derivatives are used as antimicrobial agents. The aim of our work is to synthesize of a biodegradable polymer such as N-quaternized chitosan (NQC) then Characterization of NQC by using different analysis techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and using it as an antibacterial agent against different pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Synthesis of NQC using dimethylsulphate. Results: FTIR technique exhibited absorption peaks of NQC, SEM images illustrated that surface of NQC was smooth and antibacterial results showed that NQC had a high antibacterial effect. Discussion: NQC was prepared and it was proved by FTIR technique and SEM images antibacterial results exhibited that NQC was an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: sodium polyacrylate, antimicrobial agent, N-quaternized chitosan chloride, silver nanocomposites

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3 Production of Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the Biocatalysis of Vegetable Oils

Authors: Hak-Ryul Kim, Hyung-Geun Lee, Qi Long, Ching Hou


Structural modification of natural lipids via chemical reaction or microbial bioconversion can change their properties or even create novel functionalities. Enzymatic oxidation of lipids leading to formation of oxylipin is one of those modifications. Hydroxy fatty acids, one of those oxylipins have gained important attentions because of their structural and functional properties compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Recently 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) was produced with high yield from lipid-containing oleic acid by microbial conversion, and the further study confirmed that DOD contained strong antimicrobial activities against a broad range of microorganisms. In this study, we tried to modify DOD molecules by the enzymatic or physical reaction to create new functionality or to enhance the antimicrobial activity of DOD. After modification of DOD molecules by different ways, we confirmed that the antimicrobial activity of DOD was highly enhanced and presented strong antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that DOD and its derivatives can be used as efficient antimicrobial agents for medical and industrial applications.

Keywords: Biocatalysis, vegetable oil, multidrug-resistant bacteria, antimicrobial agent

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2 The Chewing Gum Confectionary Development for Oral Hygiene with Nine Hour Oral Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Ashish Dabade, Yogesh Bacchaw


Nowadays oral health is raising concern in society. Acid producing microorganisms changes the oral pH and creates a favorable environment for microbial growth. This growth not only promotes dental decay but also bad breath. Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) listed component was incorporated in chewing gum as an antimicrobial agent. The chewing gum produced exhibited up to 9 hours of antimicrobial activity against oral microflora. The toxicity of GRAS component per RACC value of chewing gum was negligible as compared to actual toxicity level of GRAS component. The antibacterial efficiency of chewing gum was tested by using total plate count (TPC) and colony forming unit (CFU). Nine hours were required to microflora to reach TPC/CFU of before chewing gum consumption. This chewing gum not only provides mouth freshening activity but also helps in lowering dental decay, bad breath, and enamel whitening.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Oral health, microbial growth, antimicrobial agent, colony forming unit (CFU), chewing gum, generally recognized as safe (GRAS), RACC, total plate count (TPC), enamel whitening, oral pH

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1 Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization and Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorobutanol

Authors: N. Hadhoum, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul, L. R. Mekacher, B. Guerfi, T. M. Sider, Z. Yassa, T. Djerboua, M. Boursouti, M. Mamou


Introduction and objectives: Chlorobutanol is a raw material, mainly used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial preservative in injectable and ophthalmic preparations. The main objective of our study was the synthesis and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of chlorobutanol hemihydrates. Material and methods: Chlorobutanol was synthesized according to the nucleophilic addition reaction of chloroform to acetone, identified by an infrared absorption using Spectrum One FTIR spectrometer, melting point, Scanning electron microscopy and colorimetric reactions. The dosage of carvedilol active substance was carried out by assaying the degradation products of chlorobutanol in a basic solution. The chlorobutanol obtained was subjected to bacteriological tests in order to study its antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against strains such as Escherichia coli (ATCC 25 922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25 923) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (ATCC = American type culture collection). The antifungal activity was evaluated against human pathogenic fungal strains, such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger provided by the parasitology laboratory of the Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. Results and discussion: Chlorobutanol was obtained in an acceptable yield. The characterization tests of the product obtained showed a white and crystalline appearance (confirmed by scanning electron microscopy), solubilities (in water, ethanol and glycerol), and a melting temperature in accordance with the requirements of the European pharmacopoeia. The colorimetric reactions were directed towards the presence of a trihalogenated carbon and an alcohol function. The spectral identification (IR) showed the presence of characteristic chlorobutanol peaks and confirmed the structure of the latter. The microbiological study revealed an antimicrobial effect on all strains tested (Sataphylococcus aureus (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), E. coli (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Candida albicans (MIC =2500 µg/ml), Aspergillus niger (MIC =2500 µg/ml)) with MIC values close to literature data. Conclusion: Thus, on the whole, the synthesized chlorobutanol satisfied the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia, and possesses antibacterial and antifungal activity; nevertheless, it is necessary to insist on the purification step of the product in order to eliminate the maximum impurities.

Keywords: Mic, minimum inhibitory concentration, antimicrobial agent, bacterial and fungal strains, chlorobutanol

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