Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

antimicrobial activities Related Abstracts

6 Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Three Eryngium L. Species

Authors: R. Mickiene, A. Friese, U. Rosler, A. Maruska, O. Ragazinskiene

Abstract:

This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from three species of Eryngium. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Eryngiumplanum L., Eryngium maritimum L., Eryngium campestre L. grown in Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances, originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was described by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Preliminary results show that the minimal inhibitory concentration range between 8.0 % and 17.0 % for the different Eryngium extracts and bacterial species.The total amounts ofphenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. Identification and evaluation of the phenolic compounds were performed by liquid chromatography. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Keywords: essential oils, antimicrobial activities, Eryngium L. species, gas chromatography mass spectrometry

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5 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Thymus lanceolatus Desf. an Endemic Thyme from Algeria

Authors: Tahar Dob, Ahmed Nouasri, Toumi Mohamed, Dahmane Dahmane, Soumioa Krimat, Lynda Lamari, Chabane Chelghom

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition for the first time, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil (EO) of Thymus lanceolatus Desf., an endemic thyme from Tiaret province of Algeria. The chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from flowering aerial parts has been analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques, the antimicrobial activity was realised by agar disc diffusion method and MIC was determined in solid medium by direct contact. Essential oil of T. lanceolataus has been yielded of 2.336 (w/w) based on dry weight, the analyses cited above, led to the identification of 29 components, which accounted for 97.34% of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes was the main fraction (88.31%) dominated by thymol (80.2%) as major component of this oil, followed by carvacrol (6.25%). The oil was found effective against all tested strains especially fungus, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa were low activity observed, in addition Gram (+) bacteria found to be more sensitive to the EO than Gram (-) bacteria. This activity was ranging from12±2.65mm to 60.00±0.00mm Ø, with the lowest MIC value of under 0.06mg/ml to 12.53mg/ml. This results provided the evidence that the studied plant might indeed be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents

Keywords: Chemical Composition, Essential Oil, antimicrobial activities, Thymus lanceolatus Desf

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4 Antimicrobial Value of Olax subscorpioidea and Bridelia ferruginea on Micro-Organism Isolates of Dental Infection

Authors: I. C. Orabueze, A. A. Amudalat, S. A. Adesegun, A. A. Usman

Abstract:

Dental and associated oral diseases are increasingly affecting a considerable portion of the population and are considered some of the major causes of tooth loss, discomfort, mouth odor and loss of confidence. This study focused on the ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in oral therapy and evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of two selected plants from the survey for their efficacy against dental microorganisms. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out in six herbal markets in Lagos State, Nigeria by oral interviewing and information obtained from an old family manually complied herbal medication book. Methanolic extracts of Olax subscorpioidea (stem bark) and Bridelia ferruginea (stem bark) were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against clinical oral isolates (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In vitro microbial technique (agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay) were employed for the assay. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as the reference drug for comparison with the extract results. And the preliminary phytochemical screening of the constituents of the plants were done. The ethnobotanical survey produced plants (28) of diverse family. Different parts of plants (seed, fruit, leaf, root, bark) were mentioned but 60% mentioned were either the stem or the bark. O. subscorpioidea showed considerable antifungal activity with zone of inhibition ranging from 2.650 – 2.000 cm against Aspergillus fumigatus but no such encouraging inhibitory activity was observed in the other assayed organisms. B. ferruginea showed antibacterial sensitivity against Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone of inhibitions ranging from 3.400 - 2.500, 2.250 - 1.600, 2.700 - 1.950, 2.225 – 1.525 cm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of O. subscorpioidea against Aspergillus fumigatus was 51.2 mg ml-1 while that of B. ferruginea against Streptococcus spp was 0.1mg ml-1 and for Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 25.6 mg ml-1. A phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, phenols and terpenoids in both plants, with steroids only in B. ferruginea. No toxicity was observed among mice given the two methanolic extracts (1000 mg Kg-1) after 21 days. The barks of both plants exhibited antimicrobial properties against periodontal diseases causing organisms assayed, thus up-holding their folkloric use in oral disorder management. Further research could be done viewing these extracts as combination therapy, checking for possible synergistic value in toothpaste and oral rinse formulations for reducing oral bacterial flora and fungi load.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, ethnobotanical survey, methanolic extract, Bridelia ferruginea, dental disinfection, Olax subscorpioidea

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3 Ethnobotanical and Laboratory Investigations of Plants Used for the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Bello Usman, Alhassan Muhammad Gani, Kolo Ibrahim

Abstract:

The use of botanical raw materials to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In Nigeria and other developing countries, the indigenous knowledge on the uses of plants lies with the older generation and the traditional healers. However, these custodians are decreasing in number due to death and other unforeseen occurrences. An Ethno-botanical survey was carried out to obtain information on the ethno medical values of wide range of plants used by the people of Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria, in the practice of healing and cure of typhoid (enteric) fever. Oral interviews were conducted so as to consider those with low literacy level who are involved in the practice of traditional medicine and thirty four (34) informants availed themselves for the interview and were consulted. All relevant information obtained from the respondents was recorded. A recent and valid nomenclature, along with local names, family names, part of the plant(s) used, methods of preparation and administration and fifty four (54) plant species belonging to 27 families as well as 7 unidentified species that are commonly used by the people of the state in ethnomedical treatment of the ailment were tabulated. Those interviewed included traditional practitioners, local herb sellers, traditional rulers, hunters, farmers and patients. Specific questions were asked and information supplied by informants was promptly documented. Results showed that the people of Gombe State are knowledgeable on herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases and ailments. Furthermore, the aqueous leaf extracts of Senna siamea, the plant species with the highest PPK (percentage of people who have knowledge about the use of a species for treating typhoid fever) in this ethnobotanical survey, was tested for its activity against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi using the agar well diffusion method. The aqueous extracts showed some activity (zones of inhibition 11, 9, 7.5, 3.5, 1.3 mm) at 2000, 1800, 1600, 1400, 1200 µg/ml concentrations respectively. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the aqueous leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. Though a large number of traditionally used plants for the treatment of enteric fever were identified, further scientific validation of the traditional claims of anti-typhoid properties is imperative. This would establish their candidature for any possible future research for active principles and the possible development of new cheaper and more effective anti-typhoid drugs, as well as in the conservation of this rich diversity of medicinal plants.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, antimicrobial activities, phytochemical screening, gombe state, north-eastern Nigeria, senna siamea, typhoid fever

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2 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Pyrazole Derivatives

Authors: Afifa Hafidh, Hedia Chaabane

Abstract:

This work mainly focused on the synthetic strategies and biological activities associated with pyrazoles. Pyrazole derivatives have been successfully synthesized by simple and facile method and studied for their antibacterial activity. These compounds were prepared from pyrazolic difunctional compounds as starting materials, by reaction with salicylic acid, paracetamol and thiosemicarbazide respectively. Structure of all the prepared compounds confirmation were proved using (FT-IR), (1H-NMR) and (13C-NMR) spectra in addition to melting points. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of the pyrazolic derivatives was examined against different microorganisms in the present study. They were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans. The synthesized compounds were found to exhibit high antibacterial and antifungal efficiency against several tested bacterial strains, using agar diffusion method and filter paper disc-diffusion method. Ampicillin was used as positive control for all strains except Candida albicans for which Nystatin was used. The obtained results reveal that the antibacterial activity of some pyrazolic derivatives is comparable to that observed for the control samples (Ampicilin and Nystatin), suggesting a strong antibacterial activity. The analysis of these results shows that synthesized products react on the surfaces cell walls that are disrupted. When these products are in contact with the bacteria, they damage the membrane, leading to the perturbation of different cellular processes and then leakage of cytoplasm, resulting in the death of the cells. The results will be presented in details. The obtained products constitute effective antibacterial agents and important compounds for biological systems.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, thiosemicarbazide, paracetamol, antimicrobial activities, salicylic acid, pyrazole

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1 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Babatunde Oluwole Ogunsile, Omosola Monisola Fasoranti

Abstract:

High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, antimicrobial activities, Tithonia diversifolia

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