Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

antiepileptic Related Abstracts

3 Capsaicin Derivatives Enhanced Activity of α1β2γ2S-Aminobutyric Acid Type a Receptor Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

Authors: Jia H. Wong, Jingli Zhang, Habsah Mohamad, Iswatun H. Abdullah Ripain, Muhammad Bilal, Amelia J. Lloyd, Abdul A. Mohamed Yusoff, Jafri M. Abdullah

Abstract:

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases affecting more than 50 million of people worldwide. Epilepsy is a state of recurrent, spontaneous seizures with multiple syndromes and symptoms of different causes of brain dysfunction, prognosis, and treatments; characterized by transient, occasional and stereotyped interruptions of behavior whereby the excitatory-inhibitory activities within the central nervous system (CNS) are thrown out of balance due to various kinds of interferences. The goal of antiepileptic treatment is to enable patients to be free from seizures or to achieve control of seizures through surgical treatment and/or pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy through AED plays an important role especially in countries with epilepsy treatment gap due to costs and availability of health facilities, skills and resources, yet there are about one-third of the people with epilepsy have drug-resistant seizures. Hence, this poses considerable challenges to the healthcare system and the effort in providing cost-effective treatment as well as the search for alternatives to treatment and management of epilepsy. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission is one of the key mechanisms of actions of antiepileptic drugs. GABA type > a receptors (GABAAR) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate rapid inhibitory neurotransmission upon the binding of GABA with a heteropentameric structure forming a central pore that is permeable to the influx of chloride ions in its activated state. The major isoform of GABAA receptors consists of two α1, two β2, and one γ2 subunit. It is the most abundantly expressed combinations in the brain and the most commonly researched through Xenopus laevis oocytes. With the advancing studies on ethnomedicine and traditional treatments using medicinal plants, increasing evidence reveal that spice and herb plants with medicinal properties play an important role in the treatment of ailments within communities across different cultures. Capsaicin is the primary natural capsaicinoid in hot peppers of plant genus Capsicum, consist of an aromatic ring, an amide linkage and a hydrophobic side chain. The study showed that capsaicins conferred neuroprotection in status epilepticus mouse models through anti-ictogenic, hypothermic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic actions in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, five capsaicin derivatives were tested for their ability to increase the GABA-induced chloride current on α1β2γ2S of GABAAR expressed on Xenopus laevis oocytes using the method of two-microelectrode voltage clamp. Two of the capsaicin derivatives, IS5 (N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-methylbutyramide) and IS10 (N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-decanamide) at a concentration of 30µM were able to significantly increase the GABA-induced chloride current with p=0.002 and p=0.026 respectively. This study were able to show the enhancement effect of two capsaicin derivatives with moderate length of hydrocarbon chain on this receptor subtype, revealing the promising inhibitory activity of capsaicin derivatives through enhancement of GABA-induced chloride current and further investigations should be carried out to verify its antiepileptic effects in animal models.

Keywords: α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors, α1β2γ2S, antiepileptic, capsaicin derivatives, two-microelectrode voltage clamp, Xenopus laevis oocytes

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2 The Response of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid on Kv1.4 Potassium Channel Subunit Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

Authors: Fatin H. Mohamad, Jia H. Wong, Muhammad Bilal, Abdul A. Mohamed Yusoff, Jafri M. Abdullah, Jingli Zhang

Abstract:

Kv1.4 is a Shaker-related member of voltage-gated potassium channel which can be associated with cardiac action potential but can also be found in Schaffer collateral and dentate gyrus. It has two inactivation mechanisms; the fast N-type and slow C-type. Kv1.4 produces rapid current inactivation. This A type potential of Kv1.4 makes it as a target in antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) selection. In this study, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which can be naturally found in bamboo shoots, were tested on its enhancement effect on potassium current of Kv1.4 channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp method. Current obtained were recorded and analyzed with pClamp software whereas statistical analysis were done by student t-test. The ratio of final / peak amplitude is an index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channel. The less the ratio, the greater the function of Kv1.4. The decrease of ratio of which by 1µM 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (n= 7), compared with 0.1% DMSO (vehicle), was mean= 47.62%, SE= 13.76%, P= 0.026 (statistically significant). It indicated more opening of Kv1.4 channels under 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In conclusion, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid can enhance the function of Kv1.4 potassium channels, which is regarded as one of the mechanisms of antiepileptic treatment.

Keywords: antiepileptic, two-microelectrode voltage clamp, Xenopus laevis oocytes, Kv1.4 potassium channel

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1 Enhancement Effect of Compound 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid from Petung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus Asper) Shoots on α1β2γ2S of GABA (A) Receptor Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes- Preliminary Study on Its Anti-Epileptic Potential

Authors: Muhammad Bilal, Amelia Jane Llyod, Habsah Mohamad, Jia Hui Wong, Abdul Aziz Mohamed Yusoff, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Jingli Zhang

Abstract:

Epilepsy is one of the major brain afflictions occurs with uncontrolled excitation of cortex; disturbed 50 million of world’s population. About 25 percent of patients subjected to adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as depression, nausea, tremors, gastrointestinal symptoms, osteoporosis, dizziness, weight change, drowsiness, fatigue are commonly observed indications; therefore, new drugs are required to cure epilepsy. GABA is principle inhibitory neurotransmitter, control excitation of the brain. Mutation or dysfunction of GABA receptor is one of the primary causes of epilepsy, which is confirmed from many acquired models of epilepsy like traumatic brain injury, kindling, and status epilepticus models of epilepsy. GABA receptor has 3 distinct types such as GABA (A), GABA (B), GABA(C).GABA (A) receptor has 20 different subunits, α1β2γ2 subunits composition of GABA (A) receptor is the most used combination of subunits for screening of compounds against epilepsy. We expressed α1β2γ2s subunits of GABA (A) Receptor in Xenopus leavis oocytes and examined the enhancement potential of 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid compound on GABA (A) receptor via two-electrode voltage clamp current recording technique. Bamboo shoots are the young, tender offspring of bamboo, which are usually harvested after a cultivating period of 2 weeks. Proteins, acids, fat, starch, carbohydrate, fatty acid, vitamin, dietary fiber, and minerals are the major constituent found systematically in bamboo shoots. These shoots reported to have anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial activity, also possess antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Student t-test analysis suggested that 4- hydroxybenzoic acid positively allosteric GABA (A) receptor, increased normalized current amplitude to 1.0304±0.0464(p value 0.032) compared with vehicle. 4-Hydrobenzoic acid, a compound from Dendrocalamus Asper bamboo shoot gives new insights for future studies on bamboo shoots with motivation for extraction of more compounds to investigate their effects on human and rodents against epilepsy, insomnia, and anxiety.

Keywords: α1β2γ2S, antiepileptic, two-microelectrode voltage clamp, Xenopus laevis oocytes, bamboo shoots, epilepsy GABA (A) receptor

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