Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

antidiabetic Related Abstracts

11 Evaluation of the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenol Content of the Wild and Cultivated Variety of Aegle Marmelos (L) Correa Leaves Used in the Treatment of Diabetes

Authors: V. Nigam, V. Nambiar


Aegle Marmelos leaf has been used as a remedy for various gastrointestinal infections and lowering blood sugar level in traditional system of medicine in India due to the presence of various constituents such as flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids (eg. Aegelin, Marmelosin, Luvangetin).The objective of the present study was to evaluate the total antioxidant activity, total and individual phenol content of the wild and cultivated variety of Aegle marmelos leaves to assess the role of this plant in ethanomedicine in India. The methanolic extracts of the leaves were screened for total antioxidant capacity through Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay; Total Phenol content (TPC) through spectrophotometric technique based on Folin Ciocalteau assay and for qualitative estimation of phenols, High performance Liquid Chromatography was used. The TPC of wild and cultivated variety was 7.6% and 6.5% respectively whereas HPLC analysis for quantification of individual polyphenol revealed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and Ferullic acid in wild variety whereas gallic acid, Ferullic acid and pyrocatechol in cultivated variety. FRAP values and IC 50 value (DPPH) for wild and cultivated variety was 14.65 μmol/l and 11.80μmol/l; 437 μg/ml and 620μg/ml respectively and thus it can be used as potential inhibitor of free radicals. The wild variety was having more antioxidant capacity than the cultivated one it can be exploited further for its therapeutic application. As Aegle marmelos is rich in antioxidant, it can be used as food additives to delay the oxidative deterioration of foods and as nutraceutical in medicinal formulation against degenerative diseases like diabetes.

Keywords: Nutraceutical, antioxidant activity, aegle marmelos, antidiabetic

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10 Synthesis, Molecular-Docking, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolopyrimidine Carboxylates as Potential Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Iram Batool, Aamer Saeed, Irfan Zia Qureshi, Ayesha Razzaq, Saima Kalsoom


Heterocyclic compounds analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. A series of new thiazolopyrimidine carboxylates were conveniently synthesized by one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, 2-aminothiazole and benzaldehyde substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups in order to find some more potent antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. An in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated in adult male BALB/c mice and antibacterial activities were tested against Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli. Some of the tested compounds proved to possess good to excellent activities more than the reference drugs. An in silico molecular docking was also performed on synthesized compounds. The current study is expected to provide useful insights into the design of antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs and understanding the mechanism by which such drugs interact with RNA and diabetes target and exert their biochemical action.

Keywords: Antibacterial, antidiabetic, MOE docking, thiazolopyrimidine

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9 Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Leaves and Stems of Hippophae Salicifolia

Authors: Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Sadhana Amatya, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha, Bharatmani Pokhrel, Mohan Prasad Amatya


Background: H. salicifolia is a dense, branched, multipurpose, deciduous, nitrogen fixing, thorny willow-like small to moderate tree, restricted to the Himalaya. Among the two species of Nepal (Hippophae salicifolia and H. tibetana), it has been traditionally used as food additive, anticancer (bark), and treating toothache, tooth inflammation (anti-inflammatory) and radiation injury; while people of Western Nepal have largely undermined its veiled treasure by using it for fuel, wood and soil stabilization only. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore biological properties (analgesic, antidiabetic, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant. Methodology: The transverse section of leaves and stems were viewed under microscope. Extracts obtained from soxhlation subjected to tests for phytochemical and biological studies. Rats (used to study antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties) and mice (used to study analgesic, CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor properties) were assumed to be normally distributed; then ANOVA and post hoc tukey test was used to find significance. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS 17 and Excel 2007. Results and Conclusion: Pharmacognostical analysis revealed the presence of long stellate trichomes, double layered vascular bundle 5-6 in number and double layered compact sclerenchyma. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was found to exhibit the positive reaction tests for glycoside, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, coumarin and reducing sugar. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay tested in 1000, 100 and 10 ppm revealed cytotoxic activity inherent in methanol, water, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 (μg/ml) values of 61.42, 99.77, 292.72 and 277.84 respectively. The cytotoxic activity may be due to presence of tannins in the constituents. Antimicrobial screening of the extracts by cup diffusion method using Staphylococcus aereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa against standard antibiotics (oxacillin, gentamycin and amikacin respectively) portrayed no activity against the microorganisms tested. The methanol extract of the stems and leaves showed various pharmacological properties: and antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic [chemical writhing method], CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor activities in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating the possibility of the presence of different constituents in the stems and leaves responsible for these biological activities. All the effects when analyzed by post hoc tukey test were found to be significant at 95% confidence level. The antidiabetic activity was presumed to be due to flavonoids present in extract. Therefore, it can be concluded that this plant’s secondary metabolites possessed strong antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity which could be isolated for further investigation.

Keywords: Inflammatory, antidiabetic, Hippophae salicifolia, constituents, brine shrimp

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8 Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Derris scandens

Authors: Devarakonda Ramadevi, Dasari Rambabu, K. Suresh Babu, Battu Ganga Rao, Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi


The phytochemical and biological evaluation of the whole plant of Derris scandens is belonging to the family fabaceae. The dried plant of D.scandens was procured from the tirumala. The completely dried powder of the whole plant was taken and ground to a coarse powder which was then subjected to Soxhlet extraction with hexane and chloroform successively for 36 hrs. Chloroform extract was filtered and concentrated by using rotary evaporator an about 100g extract was obtained. The chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatographed over silicagel. From the column chromatography seven compounds were isolated named as osajin, scandinone, scandenone, 4,5,7-tri hydroxy biprenyl isoflavone, derris isoflavone-A, scandenin and isoscandinone. D.scandens resulting in the isolation of seven compounds in the plant was confirmed by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and FTIR). The isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, α-glucosidase (inhibitory activity) and anti-bacterial activity. The isolated seven compounds were tested for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. All the seven compounds showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, phytochemical, antidiabetic, Derris scandens, antioxident

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7 Cedrela Toona Roxb.: An Exploratory Study Describing Its Antidiabetic Property

Authors: Kinjal H. Shah, Piyush M. Patel


Diabetes mellitus is considered to be a serious endocrine syndrome. Synthetic hypoglycemic agents can produce serious side effects including hematological effects, coma, and disturbances of the liver and kidney. In addition, they are not suitable for use during pregnancy. In recent years, there have been relatively few reports of short-term side effects or toxicity due to sulphonylureas. Published figures and frequency of side effects in large series of patient range from about 1 to 5%, with symptoms severe enough to lead to the withdrawal of the drug in less than 1 to 2%. Adverse effects, in general, have been of the following type: allergic skin reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances, blood dyscrasias, hepatic dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. The associated disadvantages with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents have led to stimulation in the research for locating natural resources showing antidiabetic activity and to explore the possibilities of using traditional medicines with proper chemical and pharmacological profiles. Literature survey reveals that the inhabitants of Abbottabad district of Pakistan use the dried leaf powder along with table salt and water orally for treating diabetes, skin allergy, wounds and as a blood purifier, where they pronounced the plant locally as ‘Nem.' The detailed phytochemical investigation of the Cedrela toona Roxb. leaves for antidiabetic activity has not been documented. Hence, there is a need for phytochemical investigation of the leaves for antidiabetic activity. The collection of fresh leaves and authentification followed by successive extraction, phytochemical screening, and testing of antidiabetic activity. The blood glucose level was reduced maximum in ethanol extract at 5th and 7th h after treatment. Blood glucose was depressed by 8.2% and 10.06% in alloxan – induced diabetic rats after treatment which was comparable to the standard drug, Glibenclamide. This may be due to the activation of the existing pancreatic cells in diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract.

Keywords: blood glucose, phytochemical screening, antidiabetic, Cedrela toona Roxb

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6 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Bark Wight and Arn

Authors: H. M. El-Rafie, A. H. Abou Zeid, R. S. Mohammed, A. A. Sleem


Acrocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae which considered as a large and economically important family. This study aimed to investigate the phytoconstituents of the petroleum ether extract (PEE) of Acrocarpus fraxinofolius bark by Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of its fractions (fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter). Concerning this, identification of 52 compounds constituting 97.03 % of the total composition of the unsaponifiable matter fraction. Cycloeucalenol was found to be the major compound representing 32.52% followed by 4a, 14a-dimethyl-A8~24(28)-ergostadien (26.50%) and ß-sitosterol(13.74%), furthermore Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the sterol fraction revealed the identification of cholesterol (7.22 %), campesterol (13.30 %), stigmasterol (10.00 %) and β - sitosterol (69.48 %). Meanwhile, the identification of 33 fatty acids representing 90.71% of the total fatty acid constituents. Methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate (40.39%) followed by methyl hexadecanoate (23.64%) were found to be the major compounds. On the other hand, column chromatography and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) fractionation of PEE separate the triterpenoid: 21β-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one and β- amyrin which were structurally identified by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS and IR). PEE has been biologically evaluated for 1: management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats 2: cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines (Cervix carcinoma cell line[HELA], Breast carcinoma cell line [MCF7], Liver carcinoma cell line[HEPG2] and Colon carcinoma cell line[HCT-116] 3: hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the activity was studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like AST, ALT, and ALP. Concerning this, the anti-diabetic activity exhibited by 100mg of PEE extract was 74.38% relative to metformin (100% potency). It also showed a significant anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 (IC50= 2.35µg), Hela(IC50=3.85µg) and HEPG-2 (IC50= 9.54µg) compared with Doxorubicin as reference drug. The hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by significant decrease in liver function enzymes, i.e. AST, ALT and ALP by (29.18%, 28.26%, and 34.11%, respectively using silymarin as the reference drug, compared to their concentration levels in an untreated group with liver damage induced by CCl₄. This study was performed for the first time on the bark of this species.

Keywords: hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, Acrocarpus fraxinofolius

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5 Study of the Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Common Fig in the Region of the El Amra (Ain Defla), Algeria

Authors: Meliani Samiha, Hassaine Sarah


Figs are so much consumed in the Mediterranean region; they present a high nutritional value and also multiple therapeutic virtues. Our work contributes to the study of the antidiabetic activity of the common fig of the region of El Amra (AinDefla) Algeria. To do this, 20 Wistar rats female, divided into 4 lots, were used: Lot 1: 5 normal controls; Lot 2: 5 normal controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%; Lot 3: 5 diabetic controls; Lot 4: 5 diabetic controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%. The rats are rendered diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of a streptozotocin solution. The blood glucose is measured after 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and after 4 hours of the administration of the fig juice; it’s measured also on the 5th day, 8th day and 9th day of the beginning of the experiment. The determination of cholesterol and triglycerides blood is carried out at the beginning and the end of the study. On the 9th day, we recorded a very significant decrease of the blood sugar level of diabetic rats treated with dry fig juice. This blood glucose level normalized for 3 rats/5rats, we also recorded a decrease, but not significant, of cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels. In the short term (for 4 hours), an increase of blood sugar level, one hour after administration, for normal and diabetic rats. This increase is probably due to the high level of sugar content in the preparation. The blood glucose level is then corrected, four hours later. This may be the result of anti hyperglycemic effect of the active ingredients contained in the figs.

Keywords: hypoglycemia, streptozotocin, antidiabetic, figs

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4 A Comparative Study of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Artemisia absinthium and Combination with Difference Ratio

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb, Ustina Saeed Barsoumbolice


Cinnamomum zeylanicum belong to the family Lauraceae and Artemisia absinthium belong to the family Asteraceae. Both were traditionally used as antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. In Sudan, the mixtures of the two plants were traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. It is mainly classified into two major groups, type-1 and type-2. Type-2 is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. The treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with synthetic drugs have many side effects so many researches were conducted to overcome or reduce this side effects by using alternative medicine. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the anti-diabetic activity of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium and their combination with difference ratio. C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. Thirty-two rats were divided into eight groups; each group contains four rats. 1st group was administered with distilled water at dose of 10ml/kg, 2nd group had received glucose only at dose of 2g/kg intraperitoneal, the standard group (3rd group) had received Glibenclamide orally at dose of 0.45mg/kg, 4th group received 100 mg C. zeylanicum + 300 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (25:75), 5th group received 300 mg C. zeylanicum + 100 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (75:25), 6th group received 200 mg C. zeylanicum + 200 mg A. absinthiumwith a ratio of (50:50), 7th group received 400 mg of A. absinthium, 8th group received 400 mg of C. zeylanicum. Then the blood samples were taken Retro-orbitally at 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours and the glucose level was measured. Each plant alone and their combination with different ratios shows antidiabetic effect. The significant activity was shown by A. absinthium extract (400 mg/kg), combination of ratio of (75:25) A. absinthium: C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) and then C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) with p-value 0.001, 0.022, 0.030 respectively, the activity was found to be increased with time. The other combinations showed less activity with p-value > 0.05. The result concludes that the good antidiabetic activity was performed by A. absinthium alone and its activity decreased by increase combination ratio with C. zeylanicum. Which maybe explains by the antagonistic effect between the compounds of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium.

Keywords: Artemisia absinthium, combination, antidiabetic, Cinnamomum zeylanicum

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3 In vivo Antidiabetic and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Myricaceae) Root Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

Authors: Yohannes Kelifa, Gomathi Periasamy, Aman Karim


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health and economical problem across the globe. Modern antidiabetic drugs have a number of limitations, and scientific investigation of traditional herbal remedies used for diabetes may provide novel leads for the development of new antidiabetic drugs that can be used as alternative or complementary to available antidiabetic allopathic medications. Though Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. is used for the management of diabetes in Ethiopian traditional medicine, there was no previous scientific evidence about its antidiabetic effect to the authors’ knowledge. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic activity the root extracts of Myrica salicifolia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (150 mg/kg) in male mice. Diabetic mice were treated with oral doses of M. salicifolia root extracts at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) at a dose of 400 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was measured at 0, 5th,10th, and 15th day. The free radical scavenging activity of the crude extract was determined using in vitro by DPPH assay. The statistical significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: Daily administration of the M. salicifolia 80% methanol root extracts (at three different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) reduced fasting BGL compared with diabetic control. The aqueous and butanol fractions at a dose of 400 mg/kg resulted in maximum reduction of fasting BGL by 42.39%, and 52.13%, respectively at the 15th day in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Free radical scavenging activity of the 80% methanol extract of M. salicifolia was comparable to ascorbic acid. The IC50 values of the crude extract and ascorbic acid (a reference compound) were found to be 4.54 μg/ml and 4.39 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the methanolic extracts of M. salicifolia root and its fractions (n-butanol and aqueous) exhibit a significant antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the result of the present study indicates that M. salicifolia root extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Keywords: mice, diabetes mellitus, DPPH, streptozotocin, antidiabetic, Myrica salicifolia

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2 Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential of Fruit and Vegetable Peels

Authors: E. Chiam, E. Koh, W. Teh, M. Prabhakaran


Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are widely eaten for their nutritional value and associated health benefits being an immense source of bioactive compounds. However, F&V peels are often discarded, and it accounts for a higher proportion of food waste. Incorporation of F&V peels as functional ingredients can add more value to food due to the higher amounts of phytochemicals present in them. In this research, methanolic extracts of different F&V peels, namely apple, orange, kiwi, grapefruit, dragon fruit, pomelo, and pumpkin are investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) assay and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdenum assay using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was carried out during this study to determine the antidiabetic potential of F&V peels. Results of our study showed that grapefruit peels contained the highest total phenolic content of 477.81 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight of the sample, and kiwi peel had the highest antioxidant capacity (90.51 ± 0.10 % inhibition of DPPH radical) among the different F&V peels studied. Fruit peels exhibited high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Comparing fruit peels with vegetable peels, it was found that fruit peels had high total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and anti-diabetic potential compared to vegetable peels.

Keywords: antioxidant, polyphenolics, antidiabetic, fruit peels

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1 Effect of Zingerone on High-Fructose Diet-Indeuced Metabolic Derangements in Growing Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Nondumiso Lushozi, Busisani Lembede, Eliton Chivandi


Consumption of fructose increases the risk of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome in children. Zingerone which is found in ginger has antidiabetic and antiobesogenic properties. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential of orally administered zingerone to protect growing Sprague-Dawley rats (mimicking growing children) against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic derangements. Forty, 21-day old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated and administered the following four treatments for 12 weeks: group I: standard rat chow (SR) + plain water (PW) + plain gelatine cube (PC). group II: SR + 20% (w/v) fructose solution (FS) + PC. group III: SR + FS + 100 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate in gelatine cube. group IV: SR+ FS + 20 mg/kg/day of zingerone in gelatine cube. The rats’ triglyceride, cholesterol, insulin & adiponectin concentration, visceral fat liver lipid content, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ability to handle glucose were determined. Oral administration of zingerone significantly increased (P<0.001) visceral fat and liver lipid content (P<0.001), respectively. Results from the study revealed that administration of 20% fructose solution did not induce metabolic dysfunction, however the zingerone treatment increased visceral fat and liver lipid content, all these lipid abnormalities are typical features of the metabolic syndrome, therefore the current study suggests that zingerone has no effect on metabolic dysfunction in adolescent females.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, antidiabetic, zingerone, antiobesogenic

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