Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Antibacterial Related Abstracts

55 Synthesis, Investigation, DFT Study and Biologically Activity of Zirconium (IV) Complexes with Diammie Complexes

Authors: Salem El Ashoor, Fathia M. El-Meheishi, Ibtisam M. Diab

Abstract:

Zirconium diammin and triammin complexes can be possess biological activities, these complexes were synthesized via the reaction equimolar quantity of (1:10-phenanthroline){NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3} (L1) or 4-4-amino phenazone {ONC6H5(NH)CH(NH2} (L2) or diphenyl carbizon {HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)} (L3) with Zirconium Salt {ZrOCl2} in ratio (1:1) to form complexes [{NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3}ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L1], [{(O2NC6H4(NH)(NH2)}ZrOCl2] [ZrOCl2L2] and [{HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L3] respectively. The characterization of these complexes were follow by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Also a variable temperature study of these complexes has been followed by using UV-Visible spectroscopy to follow electronic transform behaviors under temperature control also DFT study calculation was follow these complexes via the information from FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. A coordination number of these complexes of types five and six of the geometry can be suggested. These complexes were found to shown deferent inhibition to the growth of bacterial strains of Bacillus spp & Klebsiella spp & E.coli & proteus spp & pseudomona spp) while all complexes were in deferent's concentration (0.001, 0.2 and 1M) and the result as evidenced from the presence. For better understanding these complexes were examined by using Density functional theory (DFT) calculation.

Keywords: Antibacterial, (1:10-phenanthroline) (L1), diphenyl carbizon (L3), DFT study

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
54 Effect of Nano-Copper Oxide Synthesized by Solution-Based Chemical Precipitation Method on Antibacterial Polyester Nanocopper Oxide Composite

Authors: Jordy Herfandi, Faris Naufal, Anne Zulfia Syahrial

Abstract:

Antibacterial materials have become future textile materials due to the escalation of people’s awareness regarding the importance of maintaining health. Textile materials with antibacterial properties are examples in application which has positive results in various aspects. In this research polyester nano-copper oxide composite with nanoparticle is synthesized by solution-based chemical precipitation method from Cu(NO3)2 solution. Parameters such as precursor concentration is varied to determine which composition would result in effective properties of antibacterial composite. The antibacterial property is observed using disk diffusion method and SEM observation is conducted on each specimen. The composites produced are able to inhibit the growth of both positive gram bacteria (i.e. S. aureus) and negative gram bacteria (i.e. E. coli), thus, highly capable of helping to prevent the spread of disease.

Keywords: Antibacterial, copper oxide nanoparticle, solution-based chemical precipitation, polyester composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
53 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils from Bunium alpinum and Bunium incrassatum

Authors: Hayet El Kolli, Hocine Laouer

Abstract:

Bunium in the world comprises about 50 to 100 species, mostly distributed in: Algeria, Italy, Pakistan, Iran, and South Africa. Bunium species have several uses like: Bunium persicum which is commonly used as antispasmodic, carminative, anti-obesity and lactogage. This plant have been widely used as an additive in food stuff such as in bread cooking, rice and yoghurt for its carminative, anti-dyspepsia and antispasmodic effect. The B. paucifolium oil has a wide spectrum of action against moulds, yeast and bacteria. The chemical compositions of Bunium incrassatum and Bunium alpinum essential oils were carry out by GC and GC/MS. Therefore, antibacterial activity of two oils was investigated by disk diffusion method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 1331, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Lysteria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659. A moderate antibacterial activity was found. In conclusion, it is found that essential oils of the two species are rich in sesquiterpens and other oxygenated compounds. These compounds have been reported to show bactericidal activity and the presence of phenolic compounds makes them useful antioxidants so that results confirm some ethnopharmacologique applications of these two oils of Bunium.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Phenols, Essential Oil, Bunium alpinum, Bunium incrassatum, apiaceae, sesquiterpens, antioxidant activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
52 Innovative Textile Design Using in-situ Ag NPs incorporation into Natural Fabric Matrix

Authors: M. Rehan, H. Mashaly, H. Emam, A. Abou El-Kheir and S. Mowafi

Abstract:

In this work, we will study a simple highly efficient technique to impart multi functional properties to different fabric substrates by in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix. Ag NPs as a coloration and antimicrobial agent were prepared in situ incorporation into fabric matrix (Cotton and Wool) by using trisodium citrate as reducing and stabilizing agent. The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) showed different color because of localized surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of Ag NPs. The formation of Ag NPs was confirmed by UV/Vis spectra for the supernatant solutions and The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The dependence of color properties characterized by colorimetric, fastness and antibacterial properties evaluated by Escherichia coli using counting method and the reaction parameters were studied. The results indicate that, the in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix approach can simultaneously impart colorant and antimicrobial properties into different fabric substrates.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Coloration, Wool, Ag NPs, cotton fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
51 Physiochemical and Antibacterial Assessment of Iranian Propolis Gathering in Qazvin Province

Authors: Nematollah Gheibi, Nader Divan Khosroshahi, Mahdi Mohammadi Ghanbarlou

Abstract:

Introduction: Nowadays, the phenomenon of bacterial resistance is one of the most important challenge of the health community in the world. Propolis is most important production of bee colonies that collected from of various plants. So far, a lot of investigations carried out about its antibacterial effects. Material and methods: Thirty gram of propolis prepared as ethanolic extract and after different process of purification, 7.5 gr of its pure form were obtained. Propolis compounds identification was performed by TLC and VLC methods. The HPLC spectrum obtaining from propolis ethanolic extract was compared with some purified standard phenolic and flavonoid substances. Antibacterial effects of ethanol extract of purified propolis were evaluated on two strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their MIC was determined by the microdillution assay. Results: Ethanolic propolis extraction analyzed by TLC were resulted to confirm several phenolic and flavonoid compounds in this extract and some of the confirmed by HPLC technique. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for standard Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853) strains were obtained 2.5 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively. Conclusion: Bee Propolis is a mix organic compound that has a lot of beneficial effects such as anti-bacterial that emphasized in this investigation. It is proposed as a rich source of natural phenolic and flavonoids compounds in designing of new biological resources for hygienic and medical applications.

Keywords: Antibacterial, propolis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
50 Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica Extracts against Oral Cavity Bacteria

Authors: Abd El-Latif Hesham, Sulaiman A. Alrumman

Abstract:

Despite medical progress worldwide, dental caries are still widespread. Miswak is derived from the plant arak (Salvadora persica). It is used by Muslim people as a natural product for the cleansing of teeth, to ensure oral and dental hygiene. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of ethanol, methanol, and ethanol/methanol extracts of miswak against three bacterial pathogens of the oral cavity. The pathogens were isolated from the oral cavity of volunteers/patients and were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification data. Sequence comparisons were made with 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the GenBank database. The results of sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified the three pathogens as being Staphylococcus aureus strain KKU-020, Enterococcus faecalis strain KKU-021 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain KKU-022. All miswak extracts showed powerful antimicrobial activity against the three pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition (40.67±0.88 mm) was observed against E. faecalis with ethanolic extracts whilst methanolic extracts showed the minimum zone of inhibition (10.33±0.88 mm) against K. pneumonia KKU-022. Based on the significant effects of the miswak extracts against the oral cavity pathogens in our study, we recommend that miswak is to be used as a dental hygiene method to prevent tooth caries.

Keywords: Antibacterial, miswak, Salvadora persica, oral cavity pathogens

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
49 Antibacterial Activity of Calendula officinalis Extract Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Swati Jaiswal, Prashant Mishra

Abstract:

Nanoparticle based formulations of drug delivery systems have shown their potential in improving the performance of existing drugs and have opened avenues for new therapies. Calendula extract is a low cost, wide spectrum bioactive material that has been used for a long term therapy of various infections. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop Calendula officinalis extract based nanoformulations and to study the antibacterial activity of either Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles or Calendula extract coated silver nanoparticles for increased bioavailability and their long term effect. Methods: Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the process of ionotropic gelation, based on interaction between the negative groups of tri polyphosphate (TPP) and positively charged amino groups of chitosan. The size of the Calendula extract-loaded chitosan particles was determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Antibacterial activities of these formulations were determined based on minimum inhibitory concentration and time kill studies. In addition, silver nanoparticles were also synthesized in the presence of Calendula extract and characterized by UV visible spectrum, DLS and XRD. Experiments were conducted on 96-plates against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis two Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Results demonstrated time dependent antibacterial activity against different microbes studied. Both Calendula extract and Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles have shown good antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles and calendula extract coated silver nanoparticles are potential antibacterial for their long term antibacterial effects.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Silver Nanoparticles, Calendula extract, chitosan nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
48 Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Screening of Extract of Sunflower Chrysanthlum indicum

Authors: I. Ibrahim, A. Mann

Abstract:

Phytochemical screening of crude Chrysanthlum Indicum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkanoids, steroidal nucleus and cardiac glycosides. The extract was evaluated against some pathogenic organisms by agar dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the active extract of Chrysanthlum Indicum shows that its extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Phytochemicals, extract, Chrysanthlum indicum

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
47 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil and in vitro Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of the Hydroalcolic Extract from Coronilla varia

Authors: A. A. Dehpour, B. Eslami, S. Rezaie, S. F. Hashemian, F. Shafie, M. Kiaie

Abstract:

The aims of study were investigation on chemical composition essential oil and the effect of extract of Coronilla varia on antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activity. The essential oils of Coronilla varia is obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by (GC/MS) for determining their chemical composition and identification of their components. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was determined by disc diffusion method. The effect of hydroalcolic extracts from Cornilla varia investigated on MCF7 cancer cell line by MTT assay. The major components were Caryophyllene Oxide (60.19%), Alphacadinol (4.13%) and Homoadantaneca Robexylic Acid (3.31%). The extracts from Coronilla varia had interesting activity against Proteus mirabilis in the concentration of 700 µg/disc and did not show any activity against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Entrobacter cloacae. The positive control, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Cenphalothin had shown zone of inhibition resistant all bacteria. Corohilla varia ethanol extract could inhibit the proliferation of MCF7 cell line in RPMI 1640 medium. IC50 5(mg/ml) was the optimum concentration of extract from Coronilla varia inhibition of cell line growth. The MCF7 cancer cell line and Proteus mirabilis were more sensitive to Coronilla varia ethanol extract.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Essential Oil, anticancer, Coronilla varia, hela cell line

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
46 The Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Marine Actinomycete Strain HP411 Isolated in the Northern Coast of Vietnam

Authors: Huyen T. Pham, Nhue P. Nguyen, Tien Q. Phi, Phuong T. Dang, Hy G. Le

Abstract:

Since the marine environmental conditions are extremely different from the other ones, so that marine actinomycetes might produce novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, actinomycete strains were screened from marine water and sediment samples collected from the coastal areas of Northern Vietnam. Ninety-nine actinomycete strains were obtained on starch-casein agar media by dilution technique, only seven strains, named HP112, HP12, HP411, HPN11, HP 11, HPT13 and HPX12, showed significant antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus epidemidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 11105). Further studies were carried out with the most active HP411strain against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. This strain could grow rapidly on starch casein agar and other media with high salt containing 7-10% NaCl at 28-30oC. Spore-chain of HP411 showed an elongated and circular shape with 10 to 30 spores/chain. Identification of the strain was carried out by employing the taxonomical studies including the 16S rRNA sequence. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is proposed that HP411 to be belongs to species Streptomyces variabilis. The potent of the crude extract of fermentation broth of HP411that are effective against wide range of pathogens: both gram-positive, gram-negative and fungi. Further studies revealed that the crude extract HP411 could obtain the anticancer activity for cancer cell lines: Hep-G2 (liver cancer cell line); RD (cardiac and skeletal muscle letters cell line); FL (membrane of the uterus cancer cell line). However, the actinomycetes from marine ecosystem will be useful for the discovery of new drugs in the furture.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Marine Actinomycetes, anticancer, Streptomyces variabilis

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
45 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

Abstract:

Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
44 Is [email protected] Core-Shell Nanoparticles Superior to Ag Surface Doped TiO2 Nanostructures?

Authors: Xiaohong Yang, Haitao Fu, Xizhong An, Aibing Yu

Abstract:

[email protected] dioxide ([email protected]) core-shell nanostructures and Ag surface doped TiO2 particles ([email protected]) have been designed and synthesized by sol-gel and hydrothermal methods under mild conditions. These two types of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized in terms of their properties by various techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Specifically, the photocatalystic performance and antibacterial behavior of such nanocomposites have been investigated and compared. It was found that The [email protected] core-shell nanostructures exhibit superior photocatalytic property to the Ag surface doped TiO2 particles under the reported conditions. While with UV pre-irradiation, the [email protected] core-shell composites exhibit better bactericidal performance. This is probably because the Ag cores tend to facilitate charge separation for TiO2, producing greater hydroxyl radicals on the surface of the TiO2 particles. These findings would be useful for the design and synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites with desirable photocatalystic and antimicrobial activity for environmental applications.

Keywords: Antibacterial, photocatalysis, [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles, Ag surface doped TiO2 nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
43 Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Extract of Punica Granatum Linn. (Punnicaceae) Fruit Peel Against Selected Bacterial Species

Authors: Afzan Mahmad, Santibuana Abd Rahman, Gouri Kumar Dash, Mohd. Syafiq Bin Abdullah

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn (Family: Punicaceae) was evaluated against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria. The Gram positive bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram negative organisms included Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The culture media used for antibacterial assay was Mueller Hinton agar for the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The media used for the growth of S. pneumoniae was Mueller Hinton blood agar. The antibacterial assay was performed through Disc diffusion technique. The methanol extract was tested at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/ml). Standard antibiotic discs containing vancomycin (30 μg) for S. pneumoniae, penicillin (10 units) for S. aureus, ceftriaxone (30 μg) for E. coli and ciprofloxacin (5 μg) for P. aeruginosa were used for the activity comparison. The results of the study revealed that the extract possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa at all tested concentrations. The maximum zone of inhibition of 19 mm of the extract at 200 mg/ml was observed against S. pneumoniae. However, no zone of inhibition was observed against E. coli at the tested concentrations of the extract. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be concluded that the fruit peel of P. granatum possess broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against a number bacteria.

Keywords: Antibacterial, methanol extract, Punica granatum Linn, zone of inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
42 Zingiberaceous Plants as a Source of Anti-Bacterial Activity: Targeting Bacterial Cell Division Protein (FtsZ)

Authors: S. Reshma Reghu, Shiburaj Sugathan, T. G. Nandu, K. B. Ramesh Kumar, Mathew Dan

Abstract:

Bacterial diseases are considered to be one of the most prevalent health hazards in the developing world and many bacteria are becoming resistant to existing antibiotics making the treatment ineffective. Thus, it is necessary to find novel targets and develop new antibacterial drugs with a novel mechanism of action. The process of bacterial cell division is a novel and attractive target for new antibacterial drug discovery. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the major protein of the bacterial cell division machinery and is considered as an important antibacterial drug target. Zingiberaceae, the Ginger family consists of aromatic herbs with creeping rhizomes. Many of these plants have antimicrobial properties.This study aimed to determine the anti-bacterial activity of selected Zingiberaceous plants by targeting bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ. Essential oils and methanol extracts of Amomum ghaticum, Alpinia galanga, Kaempferia galanga, K. rotunda, and Zingiber officinale were tested to find its antibacterial efficiency using disc diffusion method against authentic bacterial strains obtained from MTCC (India). Essential oil isolated from A.galanga and Z.officinale were further assayed for FtsZ inhibition assay following non-radioactive malachite green-phosphomolybdate assay using E. coli FtsZ protein obtained from Cytoskelton Inc., USA. Z.officinale essential oil possess FtsZ inhibitory property. A molecular docking study was conducted with the known bioactive compounds of Z. officinale as ligands with the E. coli FtsZ protein homology model. Some of the major constituents of this plant like catechin, epicatechin, and gingerol possess agreeable docking scores. The results of this study revealed that several chemical constituents in Ginger plants can be utilised as potential source of antibacterial activity and it can warrant further investigation through drug discovery studies.

Keywords: Antibacterial, docking, FtsZ, zingiberaceae

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
41 Antibacterial Studies on Cellulolytic Bacteria for Termite Control

Authors: Mashitah M. Yusoff, Essam A. Makky, Chan Cai Wen, Muna Jalal

Abstract:

Termites are considered as important pests that could cause severe wood damage and economic losses in urban, agriculture and forest of Malaysia. The ability of termites to degrade cellulose depends on association of gut cellulolytic microflora or better known as mutual symbionts. With the idea of disrupting the mutual symbiotic association, better pest control practices can be attained. This study is aimed to isolate cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of termites and carry out antibacterial studies for the termite. Confirmation of cellulase activity is done by qualitative and quantitative methods. Impacts of antibiotics and their combinations, as well as heavy metals and disinfectants, are conducted by using disc diffusion method. Effective antibacterial agents are then subjected for termite treatment to study the effectiveness of the agents as termiticides. 24 cellulolytic bacteria are isolated, purified and screened from the gut of termites. All isolates were identified as Gram-negative with either rod or cocci in shape. For antibacterial studies result, isolates were found to be 100% sensitive to 4 antibiotics (rifampicin, tetracycline, gentamycin, and neomycin), 2 heavy metals (cadmium and mercury) and 3 disinfectants (lactic acid, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide). 22 out of 36 antibiotic combinations showed synergistic effect while 15 antibiotic combinations showed an antagonistic effect on isolates. The 2 heavy metals and 3 disinfectants that showed 100% effectiveness, as well as 22 antibiotic combinations, that showed synergistic effect were used for termite control. Among the 27 selected antibacterial agents, 12 of them were found to be effective to kill all the termites within 1 to 6 days. Mercury, lactic acid, formalin and hydrogen peroxide were found to be the most effective termiticides in which all termites were killed within 1 day only. These effective antibacterial agents possess a great potential to be a new application to control the termite pest species in the future.

Keywords: Antibacterial, cellulase, termites, termicide

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
40 Synthesis, Molecular-Docking, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolopyrimidine Carboxylates as Potential Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Aamer Saeed, Iram Batool, Irfan Zia Qureshi, Ayesha Razzaq, Saima Kalsoom

Abstract:

Heterocyclic compounds analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. A series of new thiazolopyrimidine carboxylates were conveniently synthesized by one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, 2-aminothiazole and benzaldehyde substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups in order to find some more potent antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. An in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated in adult male BALB/c mice and antibacterial activities were tested against Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli. Some of the tested compounds proved to possess good to excellent activities more than the reference drugs. An in silico molecular docking was also performed on synthesized compounds. The current study is expected to provide useful insights into the design of antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs and understanding the mechanism by which such drugs interact with RNA and diabetes target and exert their biochemical action.

Keywords: Antibacterial, antidiabetic, MOE docking, thiazolopyrimidine

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
39 Sustainability and Awareness with Natural Dyes in Textile

Authors: Recep Karadag

Abstract:

Natural dyeing had started since pre-historical times for dyeing of textile materials. The natural dyeing had continued to beginning of 20th century. At the end of 19th century some synthetic dyes were synthesized. Although development of dyeing technologies and methods, natural dyeing was not developed in recent years. Despite rapid advances of synthetic dyestuff industries, natural dye processes have not developed. Therefore natural dyeing was not competed against synthetic dyes. At the same time, it was very difficult that large quantities of coloured textile was dyed with natural dyes And it was very difficult to get reproducible results in the natural dyeing using classical and traditional processes. However, natural dyeing has used slightly in the textile handicraft up to now. It is very important view that re-using of natural dyes to create awareness in textiles in recent years. Natural dyes have got many awareness and sustainability properties. Natural dyes are more eco-friendly than synthetic dyes. A lot of natural dyes have got antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti –UV properties. It had been known that were obtained limited numbers colours with natural dyes in the past. On the contrary, colour scale is too wide with natural dyes. Except fluorescent colours, numerous colours can be obtained with natural dyes. Fastnesses of dyed textiles with natural dyes are good that there are light, washing, rubbing, etc. The fastness values can be improved depend on dyeing processes. Thanks to these properties mass production can be made with natural dyes in textiles. Therefore fabric dyeing machine was designed. This machine is too suitable for natural dyeing and mass production. Also any dyeing machine can be modified for natural dyeing. Although dye extraction and dyeing are made separately in the traditional natural dyeing processes and these procedures are become by designed this machine. Firstly, colouring compounds are extracted from natural dye resources, then dyeing is made with extracted colouring compounds. The colouring compounds are moderately dissolved in water. Less water is used in the extraction of colouring compounds from dye resources and dyeing with this new technique on the contrary much quantity water needs to use for dissolve of the colouring compounds in the traditional dyeing. This dyeing technique is very useful method for mass productions with natural dyes in traditional natural dyeing that use less energy, less dye materials, less water, etc. than traditional natural dyeing techniques. In this work, cotton, silk, linen and wool fabrics were dyed with some natural dye plants by the technique. According to the analysis very good results were obtained by this new technique. These results are shown sustainability and awareness of natural dyes for textiles.

Keywords: Sustainability, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Natural Dyes

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
38 Microbiological Examination and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Salt Mining Site in Ebonyi State

Authors: U. C. C. Egbule, J. O. Orji, C. J. Aneke, Anyimc, O. Nworie

Abstract:

The microbial examination and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of microorganism isolated from the salt mining site in Ebonyi state were evaluated in the present study using a standard microbiological technique. A total of 300 samples were randomly collected in three sample groups (A, B, and C) of 100 each. Isolation, Identification and characterization of organization present on the soil samples were determined by culturing, gram-staining and biochemical technique. The result showed the following organisms were isolated with their frequency as follow: Bacillus species (37.3%) and Staphylococcus species(23.5%) had the highest frequency in the whole Sample group A and B while Klebsiella specie (15.7%), Pseudomonas species(13.7%), and Erwinia species (9.8%) had the least. Rhizopus species (42.0%) and Aspergillus species (26.0%) were the highest fungi isolated, followed by Penicillum species (20.0%) while Mucor species (4.0%), and Fusarium species (8.0%) recorded the least. Sample group C showed high microbial population of all the microbial isolates when compared to sample group A and B. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated bacteria to various antibiotics (oxfloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprorex, augumentin, gentamycin, ciproflox, septrin, ampicillin), while agar well diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated fungi to some antifungal drugs (metronidazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole fluconazole). The antibacterial activity of the antibiotics used showed that ciproflux has the best inhibitory effect on all the test bacteria. Ketoconazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on the fungal isolates, followed by itraconazole, while metronidazole and fluconazole showed the least inhibitory effect on the entire test fungal isolates. Hence, the multiple drug resistance of most isolates to appropriate drugs of choice are of great public health concern and cells for periodic monitoring of antibiograms to detect possible changing patterns. Microbes isolated in the salt mining site can also be used as a source of gene(s) that can increase salt tolerance in different crop species through genetic engineering.

Keywords: Resistance, Antibacterial, Microorganisms, Antifungal, salt mining site, Ebonyi State

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
37 Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Analysis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives by Linear Multivariate Method

Authors: Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac Kuzmanović

Abstract:

The relationship between antibacterial activity of eighteen different substituted benzimidazole derivatives and their molecular characteristics was studied using chemometric QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships) approach. QSAR analysis has been carried out on inhibitory activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, by using molecular descriptors, as well as minimal inhibitory activity (MIC). Molecular descriptors were calculated from the optimized structures. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) was performed in order to select molecular descriptors that best describe the antibacterial behavior of the compounds investigated, and to determine the similarities between molecules. The HCA grouped the molecules in separated clusters which have the similar inhibitory activity. PCA showed very similar classification of molecules as the HCA, and displayed which descriptors contribute to that classification. MLR equations, that represent MIC as a function of the in silico molecular descriptors were established. The statistical significance of the estimated models was confirmed by standard statistical measures and cross-validation parameters (SD = 0.0816, F = 46.27, R = 0.9791, R2CV = 0.8266, R2adj = 0.9379, PRESS = 0.1116). These parameters indicate the possibility of application of the established chemometric models in prediction of the antibacterial behaviour of studied derivatives and structurally very similar compounds.

Keywords: Antibacterial, QSAR, benzimidazole, molecular descriptors

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
36 Essential Oils of Polygonum L. Plants Growing in Kazakhstan and Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitry Yu. Korulkin

Abstract:

Bioactive substances of plant origin can be one of the advanced means of solution to the issue of combined therapy to inflammation. The main advantages of medical plants are softness and width of their therapeutic effect on an organism, the absence of side effects and complications even if the used continuously, high tolerability by patients. Moreover, medial plants are often the only and (or) cost-effective sources of natural biologically active substances and medicines. Along with other biologically active groups of chemical compounds, essential oils with wide range of pharmacological effects became very ingrained in medical practice. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Polygonum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Qualitative composition of essential oils was analyzed by chromatography-mass-spectrometry method using Agilent 6890N apparatus. The qualitative analysis is based on the comparison of retention time and full mass-spectra with respective data on components of reference oils and pure compounds, if there were any, and with the data of libraries of mass-spectra Wiley 7th edition and NIST 02. The main components of essential oil are for: Polygonum amphibium L. - γ-terpinene, borneol, piperitol, 1,8-cyneole, α-pinene, linalool, terpinolene and sabinene; Polygonum minus Huds. Fl. Angl. – linalool, terpinolene, camphene, borneol, 1,8-cyneole, α-pinene, 4-terpineol and 1-octen-3-ol; Polygonum alpinum All. – camphene, sabinene, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-carene, p- and o-cymol, γ-terpinene, borneol, -terpineol; Polygonum persicaria L. - α-pinene, sabinene, -terpinene, 4-carene, 1,8-cyneole, borneol, 4-terpineol. Antibacterial activity was researched relating to strains of gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus agalacticae, relating to gram-negative strain Escherichia coli and to yeast fungus Сandida albicans using agar diffusion method. The medicines of comparison were gentamicin for bacteria and nystatin for yeast fungus Сandida albicans. It has been shown that Polygonum L. essential oils has moderate antibacterial effect to gram-positive microorganisms and weak antifungal activity to Candida albicans yeast fungus. At the second stage of our researches wound healing properties of ointment form of 3% essential oil was researched on the model of flat dermal wounds. To assess the influence of essential oil on healing processes the model of flat dermal wound. The speed of wound healing on rats of different groups was judged based on assessment the area of a wound from time to time. During research of wound healing properties disturbance of integral in neither group: general condition and behavior of animals, food intake, and excretion. Wound healing action of 3% ointment on base of Polygonum L. essential oil and polyethyleneglycol is comparable with the action of reference substances. As more favorable healing dynamics was observed in the experimental group than in control group, the tested ointment can be deemed more promising for further detailed study as wound healing means.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Isolation, essential oils, Antifungal, Bioactive Substances, Polygonum L

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
35 Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids from Corn Silk (Zea mays L.) in Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Authors: Suparmi, Fitri Ayu, Nadia, Tanti, Putri, Fatkhan, Pasid Harlisa

Abstract:

Acne is a skin abnormal conditions experienced by many teens, this is caused by various factors such as the climate is hot, humid and excessive sun exposure can aggravate acne because it will lead to excess oil production. Flavonoids form complex compounds against extracellular proteins that disrupt the integrity of bacterial cell membrane in a way denature bacterial cell proteins and bacterial cell membrane damage. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of corn silk extract with a concentration of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % in vitro by measuring the inhibition of the growth of bacteria Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis then compared with the standard antibiotic clindamycin. Extracts tested by Disk Diffusion Method, in which the blank disc soaked with their respective corn silk extract concentration for 15-30 minutes and then the medium of bacteria that have been planted with Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis in the given disk that already contains extracts with various concentration. Incubated for 24 hours and then measured the growth inhibition zone Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Corn silk contains flavonoids, is shown by the test of flavonoids in corn silk extract by using a tube heating and without heating. Flavonoid in corn silk potentially as anti acne by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause acne. Corn silk extract concentration which has the highest antibacterial activity is then performed in a cream formulation and evaluation test of physical and chemical properties of the resulting cream preparation.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Acne, flavonoid, corn silk

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
34 Ointment of Rosella Flower Petals Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa): Pharmaceutical Preparations Formulation Development of Herbs for Antibacterial S. aureus

Authors: Muslihatus Syarifah

Abstract:

Introduction: Rosella flower petals can be used as an antibacterial because it contains alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and terpenoids) for the . Bacteria activity is S. aureus can cause skin infections and pengobatanya most appropriate use of topical preparations. Ointment is a topical preparation comprising the active substance and ointment base. Not all the base matches the active substances or any type of disease. In this study using flavonoid active substances contained in rosella flower petals (Hibiscus sabdariffa) to be made ointment by testing a variety of different bases in order to obtain a suitable basis for the formulation of ointment extract rosella flower petals. Methods: Experimental research with research methods Post test control group design using the ointment is hydrocarbon sample, absorption, leached water and dissolved water. Then tested for bacteria S. aureus with different concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16, 32%. Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc test. Results: Ointment with a hydrocarbon base, absorption, leached water and dissolved water having no change in physical properties during storage. Base affect the physical properties of an ointment that adhesion, dispersive power and pH. The physical properties of the ointment with different concentrations produce different physical properties including adhesion, dispersive power and pH. The higher the concentration the higher dispersive power, but the smaller the adhesion and pH. Conclusion: Differences bases, storage time, the concentration of the extract can affect the physical properties of the ointment. Concentration of extract in the ointment extract rosella flower petals is 32%.

Keywords: Physical Properties, Antibacterial, rosella, ointments

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
33 Chemometric Estimation of Inhibitory Activity of Benzimidazole Derivatives by Linear Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks Modelling

Authors: Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Stela Jokić

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is to correlate antibacterial behavior of benzimidazole derivatives with their molecular characteristics using chemometric QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships) approach. QSAR analysis has been carried out on the inhibitory activity of benzimidazole derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus. The data were processed by linear least squares (LLS) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The LLS mathematical models have been developed as a calibration models for prediction of the inhibitory activity. The quality of the models was validated by leave one out (LOO) technique and by using external data set. High agreement between experimental and predicted inhibitory acivities indicated the good quality of the derived models. These results are part of the CMST COST Action No. CM1306 "Understanding Movement and Mechanism in Molecular Machines".

Keywords: Antibacterial, Chemometric, QSAR, benzimidazoles

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
32 Phytochemical Constituents and Bioactive Properties of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. against Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: Juliana Janet R. Martin-Puzon, Demetrio L. Valle, Windell L. Rivera

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the presence of bioactive phytochemical constituents and evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of Glinus oppositifolius or carpet weed, a plant valued for its use in traditional medicine and as a vegetable. The leaves, stems, and roots were extracted using chloroform, ethanol, and methanol. Phytochemical screening revealed that the entire G. oppositifolius plant, i.e. roots, stems, and leaves, is a rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, sterols, tannins, and triterpenes. The antibacterial activity of the leaf and stem extracts were evaluated through disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and bactericidal concentration assays against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESβL+), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and metallo-β-lactamase-producing (MβL+) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The leaf extracts revealed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of non-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumanii. In conclusion, the various biological activities of G. oppositifolius, including its antibacterial activity, are due to the presence of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. The presence of phytochemical compounds in G. oppositifolius is scientific evidence on its use for treatment of many ailments. Thus, the results demonstrate the great potential of the plant as a new, alternative source of antimicrobials and other components with therapeutic value.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Secondary Metabolites, Glinus oppositifolius, multidrug-resistant

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
31 Endemic Asteraceae from Mauritius Islands as Potential Phytomedicines

Authors: S.Kauroo, J. Govinden Soulange, D. Marie

Abstract:

Psiadia species from the Asteraceae are traditionally used in the folk medicine of Mauritius to treat cutaneous and bronchial infections. The present study aimed at validating the phytomedicinal properties of the selected species from the Asteraceae family, namely Psiadia arguta, Psiadia viscosa, Psiadia lithospermifolia, and Distephanus populifolius. Dried hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol leaf extracts were studied for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), and Deoxyribose assays. Antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria namely Escherichia coli (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC27853), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) was measured using the broth microdilution assay. Qualitative phytochemical screening using standard methods revealed the presence of coumarins, tannins, leucoanthocyanins, and steroids in all the tested extracts. The measured phenolics level of the selected plant extracts varied from 24.0 to 231.6 mg GAE/g with the maximum level in methanol extracts in all four species. The highest flavonoids and proanthocyanidins content was noted in Psiadia arguta methanolic extracts with 65.7±1.8 mg QE/g and 5.1±0.0 mg CAT/g dry weight (DW) extract, respectively. The maximum free radical scavenging activity was measured in Psiadia arguta methanol and ethyl acetate extracts with IC50 11.3±0.2 and 11.6± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively and followed by Distephanus populifolius methanol extracts with an IC50 of 11.3± 0.8 µg/mL. The maximum ferric reducing antioxidant potential was noted in Psiadia lithospermifolia methanol extracts with a FRAP value of 18.8 ± 0.4 µmol Fe2+/L/g DW. The antioxidant capacity based on DPPH and Deoxyribose values were negatively related to total phenolics, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins content while the ferric reducing antioxidant potential were strongly correlated to total phenolics, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins content. All four species exhibited antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria (both Gram-negative and Gram-positive). Interestingly, the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Psiadia viscosa and Psiadia lithospermifolia were more active than the control antibiotic Chloramphenicol. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Psiadia viscosa and Psiadia lithospermifolia against the tested bacteria ranged from (62.5 to 500 µg/ml). These findings validate the use of these tested Asteraceae in the traditional medicine of Mauritius and also highlight their pharmaceutical potential as prospective phytomedicines.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Flavonoids, DPPH, antioxidant, FRAP, Psiadia spp

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
30 Antimicrobial and Haemostatic Effect of Chitosan/Polyacrylic Acid Hybrid Membranes

Authors: A. Abou-Okeil, F. A. Abdel-Mohdy, M. K. El-Bisi, A. A. Sleem, S. El-Sabbagh, Kawther El-Shafei, Hoda S. El-Sayed, S. M. ElSawy

Abstract:

Chitosan/ polyacrylic acid membranes containing different amounts of Al2(SO4) and/or TiO2 were prepared. The prepared membranes were characterized by measuring mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break, swelling properties, antimicrobial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and blood clotting. The results obtained indicate that the presence of Al2(SO4) and TiO2 in the membrane formulations have an incremental effect on the antimicrobial properties and blood clotting in albino rate.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Membrane, chitosan, acrylic acid, blood clotting

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
29 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami ‎, Rastin Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpou, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri

Abstract:

Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Antifungal, cytotoxic, Persian Gulf, hard corals

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
28 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Yiming Weng, Leah Howard

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: Antibacterial, compressive strength, dental restorative, S. mutans viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
27 Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel -1,2,3-Triazoles Derivatives

Authors: Elham Zarenezhad, Hoda Dehghani, Zahra Dehghani

Abstract:

1,2,3-Triazole derivatives are important compounds in medicinal chemistry owing to their wide applications in drug discovery. They can readily associate with biologically targets through the hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions. The 1,2,3-triazole core is a key structural motif in many bioactive compounds, exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological activities, such as antiviral, anticancer, anti-HIV, antibiotic, antibacterial, and antimicrobial. Additionally, they have found significant industrial applications as dyes, agrochemicals, corrosion inhibitors, photo stabilizers, and photographic materials. we disclose the synthesis and characterization of 1-azido-3-(aryl-2-yloxy)propan-2-ol drivatives. The chemistry works well with various ß-azido alcohols involving aryloxy, alkoxy and alkyl residues, and also tolerates a wide spectrum of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing functional groups in both alkyne and azide molecules. Most of ß-azidoalcohols used in these experiments were pre-synthesized by the regioselective ring opening reaction of corresponded epoxides with sodium azide, whereas the majority of terminal alkynes were prepared via SN2-type reaction of propargyl bromide and corresponded nucleophiles. To evaluate the bioactivity of title compounds, the in vitro antifungal activity of all compound was investigated against several pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton rubrum , clotrimazole and fluconazole was used as standard antifungal drugs, also To understand the antibacterial activity of synthesized compounds, they were in vitro screened against E. coli and S. aureus as Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The in vitro tests have shown the promising antifungal but marginal antibacterial activity against tested fungi and bacteria.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Antifungal, Biological Activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
26 Production of Vermiwash from Medicinal Plants and Its Potential Use as Fungicide against the Alternaria Alternata (fr.) Keissl. Affecting Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Guyana

Authors: Abdullah Ansari, Sinika Rambaran, Sirpaul Jaikishun

Abstract:

Vermiwash could be used to enhance plant productivity and resistance to some harmful plant pathogens, as well as provide benefit through the disposal of waste matter. Alternaria rot caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., is a common soil-borne pathogen that results in postharvest fruit rot of cucumbers, peppers and other cash crops. The production and distribution of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) could be severely affected by Alternaria rot. Fungicides are the traditional treatment however; they are not only expensive but can also cause environmental and health problems. Vermiwash was prepared from various medicinal plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum L. {Tulsi}, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. {neem}, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. {lemon grass} and Oryza sativa L. {paddy straw} and applied, in vitro, to A. alternata to investigate their effectiveness as organic alternatives to traditional fungicides. All of the samples of vermiwash inhibited the growth of A. alternata. The inhibitive effects on the fungus appeared most effective when A. indica and O. tenuiflorum were used in the production of the vermiwash. Using the serial dilution method, vermiwash from O. tenuiflorum showed the highest percent of inhibition (93.2%), followed by C. citratus (74.7%), A. indica (68.7%), O. sativa, combination, and combination without worms. Using the sterile disc diffusion method, all of the samples produced zones of inhibition against A. alternata. Vermiwash from A. indica produced a zone of inhibition, averaging 15.3mm, followed by O. tenuiflorum (14.0mm), combination without worms, combination, C. citratus and O. sativa. Nystatin produced a zone of inhibition of 10mm. The results indicate that vermiwash is not simply an organic alternative to more traditional chemical fungicides, but it may in fact be a better and more effective product in treating certain fungal plant infections, particularly A. alternata.

Keywords: Soil, Antibacterial, Bacteria, Antifungal, alternaria alternata, vermiwash, earthworms

Procedia PDF Downloads 135