Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Anthropometry Related Abstracts

25 Anthropometric Parameters of Classroom Furniture in Public and Private Universities of Karachi

Authors: Farhan Iqbal


Ergonomics has its implication in classroom. Present study aimed at finding out the comfort level of students at university level due to classroom furniture which may affect students learning. Two public and one private institution was targeted. Purposive sampling was done. Four hundred and seventy five students volunteered to reply to a questionnaire. Different furniture were measured and descriptively compared with ISO 5970 standard. Overall discomfort was found to be statistically significant as compared to comfort. Comfort and discomfort were found to be negatively correlated. Gender did not differ on upper body discomfort, though, the median score found men to be more comfortable at upper body. GPA was found to be independent of comfort level. Most afflicted areas were neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back and pelvic. The present study will be helpful for all educational institutions of Pakistan. Future studies may be carried out with structural and functional anthropometric data of students for redesigning of the classroom furniture.

Keywords: Learning, Anthropometry, classroom furniture, comfort, discomfort

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24 Anthropometry in Macedonian Senior Football and Basketball Players

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karadjozova


Objective: The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe anthropometric and performance characteristics and to explore their differences between senior football (F) and basketball (B) players. Subjects and methods: 25 F (aged 23±2.5 y) and 25 B (aged 22±4.2 y) from Macedonian national teams and elite sport clubs were annually tested during 2 consecutive years. Full anthropometric profiles (stature, weight, five circumferences, four bone diameters, seven skin-folds and nine calculated parameters with standard formulas) were collected. Body composition was determined with InBody720 System. Physical capacity was tested with ergo metric test of Bruce (Custo med GmbH, Germany). Results: B were taller (p<0.001) and heavier (p<0.01), but leaner (p<0.001). F had higher percentage of muscle mass (p<0.01) and body fat (p< 0.001). F had higher VO2max (p<0.05) and lower hard rate (p<0.01). The differences in physical performance were not significant (p>0.05) within the groups during the 2-years period. Conclusions: These results suggest that there are distinct differences in anthropometric profile between Macedonian senior football and basketball players during the two competitive seasons.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Basketball Players, football players, Macedonia

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23 Comparison of Anthropometric Measurements Between Handball and Basketball Female Players

Authors: Lidija Todorovska, Sanja Manchevska, Vaska Antevska, Beti Dejanova, Sunchica Petrovska, Ivanka Karagjozova, Elizabeta Sivevska, Jasmina Pluncevic Gligoroska


Introduction: Anthropometric measurements are integral part of regular medical examinations of athletes. In addition to the quantification of the size of the body, these measurements indicate the quality of the physical status, because of its association with sports performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in anthropometric parameters and body mass components in female athletes who participate in two different types of sports. Methods: A total of 27 athletes, 15 handball players and 12 basketball players, at the average age of 22.7 years (age span from 17 to 30 years) entered the study. Anthropometric method by Matiegka was used for determination of body components. Sixteen anthropometric measures were taken: height, weight, four diameters of joints, four circumferences of limbs and six skin folds. Results: Handball players were 169.6±6.7 cm tall and 63,75±7.5 kg heavy. Their average relative muscle mass (absolute mass in kg) was 51% (32.5kg), while bone component was 16.8% (10.7kg) and fat component was 14.3% (7.74kg). The basketball players were 177.4±8.2cm tall and 70.37±12.1kg heavy. Their average relative muscle mass (absolute mass in kg) was 51.9 % (36.6kg), bone component was 16.37% (11.5kg) and fat component was 15.36% (9.4kg). The comparison of anthropometric values showed that basketball players were statistically significantly higher and heavier than handball players (p<0.05). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the range of upper leg circumference (higher in basketball players) and the forearm skin fold (higher in the basketball players). Conclusion: Handball players and basketball players significantly differed in basic anthropometric measures (height and weight), but the body components had almost identical values. The anthropometric measurements that have been taken did not show significant difference between handball and basketball female players despite the different physical demands of the games.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Basketball, body components, handball female players

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22 Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez


This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Ergonomics, Productivity, Anthropometry

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21 Anthropometric Profile and Its Influence on the Vital Signs of Baja California College Students

Authors: J. A. López, C. Camargo, J. E. Olguín, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez


An anthropometric study applied to 1,115 students of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering of the Autonomous University of California. Thirteen individual measurements were taken in a sitting position. The results obtained allow forming a reliable anthropometric database for statistical studies and analysis and inferences of specific distributions, so the opinion of experts in occupational medicine recommendations may emit to reduce risks resulting in an alteration of the vital signs during the execution of their school activities. Another use of these analyses is to use them as a reliable reference for future deeper research, to the design of spaces, tools, utensils, workstations, with anthropometric dimensions and ergonomic characteristics suitable to use.

Keywords: Medicine, Anthropometry, students, vital signs

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20 Anthropometric Analysis for the Design of Workstations in the Interior Spaces of the Manufacturing Industry in Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez


This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Ergonomics, Productivity, Anthropometry

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19 Impact of Maternal Nutrition on Newborn Anthropometry and Hemoglobin

Authors: Vinay Mishra, Meena Malkani


Objectives: To study the effect of physical maternal nutritional markers (viz. weight, height, gestational weight gain, BMI) and third-trimester haemoglobin concentration on anthropometry and cord blood haemoglobin of their newborn. Methods: Study area: Post-natal ward of a tertiary care hospital in an urban area. Study population: All post-partum women and their newborns. Sample size: 100. Maternal and neonatal data and anthropometric measurements were recorded in semi-structured case proforma. Data analysis: The data obtained was analysed using SPSS 20 software.The comparison between the groups was done using One-Way Analysis of Variance for two groups. For more than two groups comparisons further posthoc analysis was done using Tukey test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for correlating the variables. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 1. Out of the 100 studied mothers, 52% were anaemic. 2. Cord blood haemoglobin values decreased significantly with the order of birth. 3. Cord blood haemoglobin of normal-weight newborns is significantly higher as compared to that of LBW newborns. 4. Cord blood haemoglobin has strong statistical significance with maternal anaemia. 5. Pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain significantly influence the neonates anthropometry. Conclusions: 1. Birth order has a prominent inverse effect on the cord blood haemoglobin. 2. Majority of the expectant mothers are anaemic and give birth to LBW babies with reduced anthropometric markers. 3. Pre-pregnancy weight, height and gestational weight gain has a very significant impact on the neonatal anthropometry. 4. Thus, maternal nutrition during gestation and during the crucial periods of growth in the pre-child bearing age group has a very significant impact on foetal development.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Newborn, maternal nutrition, cord blood hemoglobin

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18 The Impact of Geophagia on the Iron Status of Black South African Women

Authors: C. M. Walsh, F. J. Veldman, C. Brand, A van Onselen


Objectives: To determine the nutritional status and risk factors associated with women practicing geophagia in QwaQwa, South Africa. Materials and Methods: An observational epidemiological study design was adopted which included an exposed (geophagia) and non-exposed (control) group. A food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were applied to determine nutritional status of participants. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors that were likely to be associated with the practice of geophagia. Results: The mean total energy intake for the geophagia group (G) and control group(C) were 10324.31 ± 2755.00 kJ and 10763.94 ± 2556.30 kJ respectively. Both groups fell within the overweight category according to the mean body mass index (BMI) of each group (G= 25.59 kg/m2; C= 25.14 kg/m2). The mean serum iron levels of the geophagia group (6.929 μmol/l) were significantly lower than that of the control group (13.75 μmol/l) (p = 0.000). Serum transferrin (G=3.23g/l; C=2.7054g/l) and serum transferrin saturation (G=8.05%; C=18.74%) levels also differed significantly between groups (p=0.00). Factors that were associated with the practice of geophagia included haemoglobin (Odds ratio (OR):14.50), serum-iron (OR: 9.80), serum-ferritin (OR: 3.75), serum-transferrin (OR: 6.92) and transferrin saturation (OR: 14.50). A significant negative association (p=0.014) was found between women who were wage-earners and those who were not wage-earners and the practice of geophagia (OR: 0.143; CI: 0.027; 0.755). These findings seem to indicate that a permanent income may decrease the likelihood of practising geophagia. Key findings: Geophagia was confirmed to be a risk factor for iron deficiency in this community. The significantly strong association between geophagia and iron deficiency emphasizes the importance of identifying the practice of geophagia in women, especially during their child bearing years. Further research to establish whether the practice of geophagia is a cause of iron-deficiency, or whether it is the consequence thereof, would give a clearer view on how to recognise and treat the condition.

Keywords: Anthropometry, geophagia, iron deficiency anaemia, dietary intake

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17 An Assessment of the Anthropometric Characteristics of Malaysian Cricket Batsmen

Authors: Muhammad Saleem, Muhammad Zia ul Haq, Ong Kuan Boon, Jeffrey Low Fook Lee, Bendri Bin Dasril, Amna Iqbal


This study is bond of two purpose, first is to establish the anthropometric profile of Malaysian cricket batsmen and second, to find the variances among the anthropometric characteristics of ten under-16 years, eight under-19 years and eight senior teams batsmen. The anthropometric variables were measured as 8 skinfolds, 12 circumferences, 06 lengths and 05 breadths, stature, sitting height, arm span, body mass, hand grip strength and leg strength. The batsmen of under-19 and under-16 found similar in skinfolds, sum of skinfolds, circumferences and breadth measurements but significantly lesser than the senior team batsmen. Senior and Under-19 batsmen were almost found similar in segmental lengths, heights and arm span but significantly higher than the under-16 batsmen. Breadth measurements the under-19 found higher than the senior and u-16 batsmen. The hand grips strength of the senior batsmen significantly high than the uder-19 and under-16 players and both groups were similar and no significant difference were found in leg strength of all three groups batsmen. Leg strength were found significant correlation with wrist, hip, thigh, and calf girth and handgrip strength. The hand grip strength were found correlated with all variables except biceps, mid-thigh skinfold, segmental length, humerus breadth. It is concluded from the present study that the girth segments and hand grip strength are the predictors of good performance in cricket batting.

Keywords: Anthropometry, hand grip strength, cricket batting, batsmen, body segments

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16 A Study of Anthropometric Correlation between Upper and Lower Limb Dimensions in Sudanese Population

Authors: Altayeb Abdalla Ahmed


Skeletal phenotype is a product of a balanced interaction between genetics and environmental factors throughout different life stages. Therefore, interlimb proportions are variable between populations. Although interlimb proportion indices have been used in anthropology in assessing the influence of various environmental factors on limbs, an extensive literature review revealed that there is a paucity of published research assessing interlimb part correlations and possibility of reconstruction. Hence, this study aims to assess the relationships between upper and lower limb parts and develop regression formulae to reconstruct the parts from one another. The left upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, hand breadth, tibial length, bimalleolar breadth, foot length, and foot breadth of 376 right-handed subjects, comprising 187 males and 189 females (aged 25-35 years), were measured. Initially, the data were analyzed using basic univariate analysis and independent t-tests; then sex-specific simple and multiple linear regression models were used to estimate upper limb parts from lower limb parts and vice-versa. The results of this study indicated significant sexual dimorphism for all variables. The results indicated a significant correlation between the upper and lower limbs parts (p < 0.01). Linear and multiple (stepwise) regression equations were developed to reconstruct the limb parts in the presence of a single or multiple dimension(s) from the other limb. Multiple stepwise regression equations generated better reconstructions than simple equations. These results are significant in forensics as it can aid in identification of multiple isolated limb parts particularly during mass disasters and criminal dismemberment. Although a DNA analysis is the most reliable tool for identification, its usage has multiple limitations in undeveloped countries, e.g., cost, facility availability, and trained personnel. Furthermore, it has important implication in plastic and orthopedic reconstructive surgeries. This study is the only reported study assessing the correlation and prediction capabilities between many of the upper and lower dimensions. The present study demonstrates a significant correlation between the interlimb parts in both sexes, which indicates a possibility to reconstruction using regression equations.

Keywords: correlation, Anthropometry, limb, Sudanese

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15 Industrial Ergonomics Improvement at a Refrigerator Manufacturing Company in Iran: An Approach on Interventional Ergonomics

Authors: Hassan S. Naeini


Nowadays a lot of people are working in several sorts of industrial sectors in which there are some risk factors which threaten human being especially in developing countries. One of the main problems which effect on workers’ health refers to Ergonomics. Ergonomics as multidisciplinary science concerns workers’ health and safety in terms of somatic and mental concepts. Surely ergonomics interventions and improvement make a better condition for workers and change the quality of working life to better condition. In this study, one of the factories in Iran which is producing some kinds of small and medium size of refrigerators was chosen as the sample. The preliminary ergonomics observation of the mentioned factory showed that there are some risk factors in terms of ergonomics aspects, so an ergonomic intervention was defined, then some ergonomic assessment methods such as NMQ,OWAS, and Environmental Ergonomic Assessment were used. Also Anthropometric measurement was done. This study shows that there are some workstations and plants which suffer some degrees of ergonomic problems. Considering with the gathered data, illumination, noise control and workstation design in metal workstation are known as the priority actions. Some parts of the mentioned interventions are ongoing actions. it seems that the mentioned intervention and workstations design make a better condition for workers, because ergonomics make a safer and more sustainable environments for human being.

Keywords: Health, Ergonomics, Anthropometry, NMQ, OWAS

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14 The Importance of Erythrocyte Parameters in Obese Children

Authors: M. Metin Donma, Orkide Donma, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu, Feti Tulubas, Murat Aydin, Tuba Gokkus, Ahmet Gurel


Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has increased the interest in early and late indicators of gaining weight. Cell blood counts may be indicators of proinflammatory states. The aim was to evaluate associations of hematological parameters, including Hematocrit (HTC), hemoglobin, blood cell counts, and their indices with the degree of obesity in pediatric population. A total of 249; -139 morbidly obese (MO), 82 healthy Normal Weight (NW) and 28 Overweight (OW) children were included into the scope of the study. WHO BMI-for age percentiles were used to form age- and sex-matched groups. Informed consent forms and the Ethics Committee approval were obtained. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Hematological parameters were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p≤0.05. Significant differences (p=0.000) between waist-to-hip ratios and head-to-neck ratios (hnrs) of MO and NW children were detected. A significant difference between hnrs of OW and MO children (p=0.000) was observed. Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) was higher in OW children than NW group (p=0.030). Such finding couldn’t be detected between MO and NW groups. Increased RDW was prominent in OW children. The decrease in Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) values in MO children was sharper than the values in OW children (p=0.006 vs p=0.042) compared to those in NW group. Statistically higher HTC levels were observed between MO-NW (p=0.014), but none between OW-NW. Though the cause-effect relationship between obesity and erythrocyte indices still needs further investigation, alterations in RDW, HTC, MCHC during obesity may be of significance in the early life.

Keywords: Obesity, Children, Anthropometry, erythrocytes

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13 Anthropometric Data Variation within Gari-Frying Population

Authors: T. M. Samuel, O. O. Aremu, I. O. Ismaila, L. I. Onu, B. O. Adetifa, S. E. Adegbite, O. O. Olokoshe


The imperative of anthropometry in designing to fit cannot be overemphasized. Of essence is the variability of measurements among population for which data is collected. In this paper anthropometric data were collected for the design of gari-frying facility such that work system would be designed to fit the gari-frying population in the Southwestern states of Nigeria comprising Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, and Ekiti. Twenty-seven body dimensions were measured among 120 gari-frying processors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS package to determine the mean, standard deviation, minimum value, maximum value and percentiles (2nd, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th, and 98th) of the different anthropometric parameters. One sample t-test was conducted to determine the variation within the population. The 50th percentiles of some of the anthropometric parameters were compared with those from other populations in literature. The correlation between the worker’s age and the body anthropometry was also investigated.The mean weight, height, shoulder height (sitting), eye height (standing) and eye height (sitting) are 63.37 kg, 1.57 m, 0.55 m, 1.45 m, and 0.67 m respectively.Result also shows a high correlation with other populations and a statistically significant difference in variability of data within the population in all the body dimensions measured. With a mean age of 42.36 years, results shows that age will be a wrong indicator for estimating the anthropometry for the population.

Keywords: Anthropometry, cassava processing, design to fit, gari-frying, workstation design

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12 Body Composition Analysis of University Students by Anthropometry and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

Authors: Vinti Davar


Background: Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, and 35.8 million (2.3%) of global DALYs are caused by overweight or obesity. Obesity is acknowledged as one of the burning public health problems reducing life expectancy and quality of life. The body composition analysis of the university population is essential in assessing the nutritional status, as well as the risk of developing diseases associated with abnormal body fat content so as to make nutritional recommendations. Objectives: The main aim was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight in University students using Anthropometric analysis and BIA methods Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 university students participated. The body composition analysis was undertaken by using mainly: i) Anthropometric Measurement: Height, Weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness, ii) Bio-electrical impedance was used for analysis of body fat mass, fat percent and visceral fat which was measured by Tanita SC-330P Professional Body Composition Analyzer. The data so collected were compiled in MS Excel and analyzed for males and females using SPSS 16.Results and Discussion: The mean age of the male (n= 153) studied subjects was 25.37 ±2.39 year and females (n=130) was 22.53 ±2.31. The data of BIA revealed very high mean fat per cent of the female subjects i.e. 30.3±6.5 per cent whereas mean fat per cent of the male subjects was 15.60±6.02 per cent indicating a normal body fat range. The findings showed high visceral fat of both males (12.92±3.02) and females (16.86±4.98). BMI, BF% and WHR were higher among females, and BMI was higher among males. The most evident correlation was verified between BF% and WHR for female students (r=0.902; p<0.001). The correlation of BFM and BF% with thickness of triceps, sub scapular and abdominal skin folds and BMI was significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: The studied data made it obvious that there is a need to initiate lifestyle changing strategies especially for adult females and encourage them to improve their dietary intake to prevent incidence of non communicable diseases due to obesity and high fat percentage.

Keywords: Obesity, Anthropometry, body fat percentage, bioelectrical impedance

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11 Effects of Continuous Training on Anthropometric Characteristics of Adolescents in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel S. Adeyanju


This study assessed the effects of continuous training on anthropometric characteristics of adolescents in Kano, Nigeria. The anthropometric measures of per cent body fat (%BF), body mass index (BMI), conicity index (CI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were selected because of their roles in increased adiposity and favourable cardiovascular disease (CVD) factor profiles in children and adolescence. The international standards and procedures were followed in all the measurements. A total of thirty (30) subjects (M=15; F=15), selected at random, were divided into two groups; one training (M=10; F=10) and the other control (M=5; F=5). Both groups were tested before training, at six (6) and 12 weeks in all the listed variables. The training group had 12 weeks continuous training which involved running round the standard 400 m track of the college following standard procedures; while the control group did not. The findings revealed significant sex-specific reductions in %BF (F=610.482 ˂ 0.05), BMI (F=73.860 ˂ 0.05), WHR (F=49.756 ˂ 0.05); however, no significant training effect on CI (F=1.855 ˃ 0.05) and WHR (F=1.956 ˃ 0.05) was found. Greater modifications found in females than in males (except in CI and WHR) due to training were probably related to their initial level of fitness and enzymatic modifications at subcellular level during training. The result also revealed significant relationship between the modifications in %BF, BMI and WHR but failed to establish any between CI and other adiposity measures. Thus, to avert the consequences of obesity and overweight, the declining fitness level of adolescents should be checked by ensuring they engaged in regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) programmes. Such a childhood habit of exercise developed early in life will have a carry-over value into adult life and improve the quality of adult population.

Keywords: Anthropometry, adiposity, conicity, continuous training

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10 Nutritional Status of Food Insecure Students, UWC

Authors: E. C. Swart, E. Kunneke


Background: Disparities in food security exist between communities and households across the country, reflecting continuing social and economic inequalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of food insecurity amongst UWC students. Method: Cross-sectional study recruited 200 students via email and cellphone from an ICS generated list of randomly selected students aged 18-25. Data collection took place during the first two weeks of term 3. Individual appointments were made with consenting participants and conducted in English by trained BSc Dietetics students. Data was analysed using SPSS. The hunger scale used by Stats SA (October 2010) was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a single 24hr recall. Results: Sixty-three percent of the students reported that they do experience some food insecurity whilst 14.5% reported to go hungry due to inadequate access to food. Coping mechanisms during periods of food insecurity include: Asking a friend, neighbour, family member (40%); Borrow (15%); Steal (none); Casual jobs (12%). Anthropometric status of students did not differ statistically significantly by food security status. A statistically significantly greater proportion of Xhosa speaking students reported inadequate money for food. Students residing in residences off campus appear to be least food secure in terms of money available and limiting food intake, whilst those residing at home are less food insecure. Similar proportions of students who receive bursaries or whose parents are paying reported going hungry whilst those who supports themselves never goes hungry. Mean nutrient intake during the previous 24 hours of students who reported inadequate resources to buy food, who eat less due to inadequate resources and who goes hungry only differed statistically significantly for Vitamin B (go hungry) and for fibre (money shortage). In general the nutrient intake is lower for those who reported to eat less and go hungry except for added sugar, vitamin A and folate (go hungry), and energy, fibre, iron, riboflavin and folate (eat less). For students who reported to have inadequate money to buy food, the mean nutrient intake was higher except for calcium and thiamin. The mean body mass index of this group of students was also higher even though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Hunger is present on campus however a single 24hr recall did not confirm statistically significant lower nutrient intakes for students who reported different levels of food insecurity.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Nutritional status, students, dietary intake

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9 Gender Differences in Morbid Obese Children: Clinical Significance of Two Diagnostic Obesity Notation Model Assessment Indices

Authors: Orkide Donma, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu, Murat Aydin, Mustafa M. Donma, Muhammet Demirkol, Aysin Nalbantoglu


Childhood obesity is an ever increasing global health problem, affecting both developed and developing countries. Accurate evaluation of obesity in children requires difficult and detailed investigation. In our study, obesity in children was evaluated using new body fat ratios and indices. Assessment of anthropometric measurements, as well as some ratios, is important because of the evaluation of gender differences particularly during the late periods of obesity. A total of 239 children; 168 morbid obese (MO) (81 girls and 87 boys) and 71 normal weight (NW) (40 girls and 31 boys) children, participated in the study. Informed consent forms signed by the parents were obtained. Ethics Committee approved the study protocol. Mean ages (years)±SD calculated for MO group were 10.8±2.9 years in girls and 10.1±2.4 years in boys. The corresponding values for NW group were 9.0±2.0 years in girls and 9.2±2.1 years in boys. Mean body mass index (BMI)±SD values for MO group were 29.1±5.4 kg/m2 and 27.2±3.9 kg/m2 in girls and boys, respectively. These values for NW group were calculated as 15.5±1.0 kg/m2 in girls and 15.9±1.1 kg/m2 in boys. Groups were constituted based upon BMI percentiles for age-and-sex values recommended by WHO. Children with percentiles >99 were grouped as MO and children with percentiles between 85 and 15 were considered NW. The anthropometric measurements were recorded and evaluated along with the new ratios such as trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio, as well as indices such as Index-I and Index-II. The body fat percent values were obtained by bio-electrical impedance analysis. Data were entered into a database for analysis using SPSS/PASW 18 Statistics for Windows statistical software. Increased waist-to-hip circumference (C) ratios, decreased head-to-neck C, height ‘to’ ‘two’-‘to’-waist C and height ‘to’ ‘two’-‘to’-hip C ratios were observed in parallel with the development of obesity (p≤0.001). Reference value for height ‘to’ ‘two’-‘to’-hip ratio was detected as approximately 1.0. Index-II, based upon total body fat mass, showed much more significant differences between the groups than Index-I based upon weight. There was not any difference between trunk-to-appendicular fat ratios of NW girls and NW boys (p≥0.05). However, significantly increased values for MO girls in comparison with MO boys were observed (p≤0.05). This parameter showed no difference between NW and MO states in boys (p≥0.05). However, statistically significant increase was noted in MO girls compared to their NW states (p≤0.001). Trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio was the only fat-based parameter, which showed gender difference between NW and MO groups. This study has revealed that body ratios and formula based upon body fat tissue are more valuable parameters than those based on weight and height values for the evaluation of morbid obesity in children.

Keywords: Gender, Childhood Obesity, Anthropometry, morbid obesity

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8 Laboratory Indices in Late Childhood Obesity: The Importance of DONMA Indices

Authors: Orkide Donma, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu, Murat Aydin, Tuba Gokkus, Mustafa M. Donma, Muhammet Demirkol, Aysin Nalbantoglu


Obesity in childhood establishes a ground for adulthood obesity. Especially morbid obesity is an important problem for the children because of the associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, body mass index (BMI), body fat ratios, anthropometric measurements and ratios were evaluated together with different laboratory indices upon evaluation of obesity in morbidly obese (MO) children. Children with nutritional problems participated in the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents. Study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee. Sixty-two MO girls aged 129.5±35.8 months and 75 MO boys aged 120.1±26.6 months were included into the scope of the study. WHO-BMI percentiles for age-and-sex were used to assess the children with those higher than 99th as morbid obesity. Anthropometric measurements of the children were recorded after their physical examination. Bio-electrical impedance analysis was performed to measure fat distribution. Anthropometric ratios, body fat ratios, Index-I and Index-II as well as insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) were calculated. Girls as well as boys were binary grouped according to homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index of <2.5 and >2.5, fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FGIR) of <6 and >6 and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) of <0.33 and >0.33 as the frequently used cut-off points. They were evaluated based upon their BMIs, arms, legs, trunk, whole body fat percentages, body fat ratios such as fat mass index (FMI), trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR), whole body fat ratio (WBFR), anthropometric measures and ratios [waist-to-hip, head-to-neck, thigh-to-arm, thigh-to-ankle, height/2-to-waist, height/2-to-hip circumference (C)]. SPSS/PASW 18 program was used for statistical analyses. p≤0.05 was accepted as statistically significance level. All of the fat percentages showed differences between below and above the specified cut-off points in girls when evaluated with HOMA-IR and QUICKI. Differences were observed only in arms fat percent for HOMA-IR and legs fat percent for QUICKI in boys (p≤ 0.05). FGIR was unable to detect any differences for the fat percentages of boys. Head-to-neck C was the only anthropometric ratio recommended to be used for all ISIs (p≤0.001 for both girls and boys in HOMA-IR, p≤0.001 for girls and p≤0.05 for boys in FGIR and QUICKI). Indices which are recommended for use in both genders were Index-I, Index-II, HOMA/BMI and log HOMA (p≤0.001). FMI was also a valuable index when evaluated with HOMA-IR and QUICKI (p≤0.001). The important point was the detection of the severe significance for HOMA/BMI and log HOMA while they were evaluated also with the other indices, FGIR and QUICKI (p≤0.001). These parameters along with Index-I were unique at this level of significance for all children. In conclusion, well-accepted ratios or indices may not be valid for the evaluation of both genders. This study has emphasized the limiting properties for boys. This is particularly important for the selection process of some ratios and/or indices during the clinical studies. Gender difference should be taken into consideration for the evaluation of the ratios or indices, which will be recommended to be used particularly within the scope of obesity studies.

Keywords: Gender, Childhood Obesity, Anthropometry, insulin sensitivity index

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7 Percentile Reference Values of Vertical Jumping Performances and Anthropometric Characteristics in Athletic Tunisian Children and Adolescents

Authors: Chirine Aouichaoui, Mohamed Tounsi, Ines Mrizak, Zouhair Tabka, Yassine Trabelsi


The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for vertical jumping performances and anthropometric characteristics for athletic Tunisian children. One thousand and fifty-five athletic Tunisian children and adolescents (643 boys and 412 girls) aged 7-18 years were randomly selected to participate in our study. They were asked to perform squat jumps and countermovement jumps. For each measurement, a least square regression model with high order polynomials was fitted to predict mean and standard deviation of vertical jumping parameters and anthropometric variables. Smoothed percentile curves and percentile values for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles are presented for boys and girls. In conclusion, percentiles values of vertical jumping performances and anthropometric characteristics are provided. The new Tunisian reference charts obtained can be used as a screening tool to determine growth disorders and to estimate the proportion of adolescents with high or low muscular strength levels. This study may help in verifying the effectiveness of a specific training program and detecting highly talented athletes.

Keywords: Anthropometry, athletes, jump height, percentile values, leg muscle power

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6 Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Ability Profile of Elite and Non-Elite Boxers of Manipur

Authors: Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Ability Profile of Elite and Non-Elite Boxers of Manipur


Background: Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports where different anthropological and fitness ability parameters determine performance. It is characterized by short duration, high intensity bursts of activity. The purpose of this research was to determine anthropometric and physical fitness profile of male elite and non-elite boxers of Manipur and to compare the two groups. Materials and Methods: Nineteen subjects were selected as elite boxers and twenty-four were non-elite boxers of Manipur. A cross-sectional study was conducted on anthropometric measurements and physical fitness ability tests on 33 subjects (elite and non-elite boxers). Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistics, t-test and logistic regression with the help of SPSS version 15 software. Results: Results showed elite boxers have significantly reduced neck girth and calf girth as compare to non-elite boxers. Elite boxers have significantly lower sub scapular skin fold (SSF) and supra iliac skin fold (SISF) than their counterparts. Higher stature, larger BTB and lower percent fat are associated with higher performance in boxing. Sit ups (SU), standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Plat taping (PT), Sit and reach (SAR) and Harvard Step Test (HST) are predicted as most contributing factors enhancing performance level among the physical fitness components. Elite boxers are found to have more functional strength (sit ups), higher explosive strength (SBJ), more agility (PT), cardio-vascular endurance and flexibility (SAR) than non-elite boxers. Conclusion: In conclusion, lower fat, higher lean body mass, larger bi-trochantric breadth, high explosive strength, agility and flexibility are significantly associated with higher performance and chance of becoming elite boxers.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Physical Fitness, Manipur, elite and non-elite boxers

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5 The Three-Dimensional Kinematics of the Sprint Start in Young Elite Sprinters

Authors: Saeed Ilbeigi, Bart Van Gheluwe


The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. Moreover, the effect of anthropometrical factors such as skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth also were considered on the kinematics of the sprint start. Among all young sprinters involved in the national Belgium league, sixty sprinters (boys: 14.7 ± 1.8 years and girls: 14.8±1.5 years) were randomly selected. The kinematics data of the sprint start were collected with a Vicon® 620 motion analysis system equipped with 12 infrared cameras running at 250 Hz and running the Vicon Data Station software. For statistical analysis, T-tests and ANOVA׳s with Scheffé post hoc test were used and the significant level was set as p≤0.05. The results showed that the angular positions of the lower joints of the young sprinters in the set position were comparable with adult figures from literature, however, with a greater range of joint extension. The most significant difference between boys and girls was found in the set position, where the boys presented a more dorsiflexed ankle. No further gender effect was observed during the leaving the blocks and contact phase. The sprinters with a higher age, skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth displayed a better angular position of the lower joints (e.g. ankle, knee, hip) in the set position, a more optimal angular position for the foot and knee for absorbing impact forces at foot contact and finally a higher range of flexion/extension motion to produce force and power when leaving the blocks.

Keywords: Kinematics, Anthropometry, sprint start, young elite sprinters

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4 Leptin Levels in Cord Blood and Their Associations with the Birth of Small, Large and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants in Southern Sri Lanka

Authors: R. P. Hewawasam, M. H. A. D. de Silva, M. A. G. Iresha


In recent years childhood obesity has increased to pan-epidemic proportions along with a concomitant increase in obesity-associated morbidity. Birth weight is an important determinant of later adult health, with neonates at both ends of the birth weight spectrum at risk of future health complications. Consequently, infants who are born large for gestational age (LGA) are more likely to be obese in childhood and adolescence and are at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications later in life. Adipose tissue plays a role in linking events in fetal growth to the subsequent development of adult diseases. In addition to its role as a storage depot for fat, adipose tissue produces and secrets a number of hormones of importance in modulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. Cord blood leptin level has been positively correlated with fetal adiposity at birth. It is established that Asians have lower skeletal muscle mass, low bone mineral content and excess body fat for a given body mass index indicating a genetic predisposition in the occurrence of obesity. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted in Sri Lanka to determine the relationship between adipocytokine profile in cord blood and anthropometric parameters in newborns. Thus, the objective of this study is to establish the above relationship for the Sri Lankan population to implement awareness programs to minimize childhood obesity in the future. Umbilical cord blood was collected from 90 newborns (Male 40, Female 50; gestational age 35-42 weeks) after double clamping the umbilical cord before separation of the placenta and the concentration of leptin was measured by ELISA technique. Anthropometric parameters of the newborn such as birth weight, length, ponderal index, occipital frontal, chest, hip and calf circumferences were measured. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between leptin and anthropometric parameters while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the differences in cord blood leptin levels between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and LGA infants. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the cord blood leptin concentrations of LGA infants (12.67 ng/mL ± 2.34) and AGA infants (7.10 ng/mL ± 0.90). However, a significant difference was not observed between leptin levels of SGA infants (8.86 ng/mL ± 0.70) and AGA infants. In both male and female neonates, umbilical leptin levels showed significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) with birth weight of the newborn, pre-pregnancy maternal weight and pre pregnancy BMI between the infants of large and appropriate for gestational ages. Increased concentrations of leptin levels in the cord blood of large for gestational age infants suggest that they may be involved in regulating fetal growth. Leptin concentration of Sri Lankan population was not significantly deviated from published data of Asian populations. Fetal leptin may be an important predictor of neonatal adiposity; however, interventional studies are required to assess its impact on the possible risk of childhood obesity.

Keywords: Childhood Obesity, Anthropometry, leptin, appropriate for gestational age

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3 Eliminating Arm, Neck and Leg Fatigue of United Asia International Plastics Corporation Workers through Rapid Entire Body Assessment

Authors: John Cheferson R. De Belen, John Paul G. Elizares, Ronald John G. Raz, Janina Elyse A. Reyes, Charie G. Salengua, Aristotle L. Soriano


Plastic is a type of synthetic or man-made polymer that can readily be molded into a variety of products. Its usage over the past century has enabled society to make huge technological advances. The workers of United Asia International Plastics Corporation (UAIPC), a plastic manufacturing company performs manual packaging which causes fatigue and stress on their arm, neck, and legs due to extended periods of standing and repetitive motions. With the use of the Fishbone Diagram, Five-Why Analysis, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Anthropometry, the stressful tasks and activities were identified and analyzed. Given the anthropometric measurements obtained from the workers, improved dimensions for the tables and chairs should be used and provide a new packaging machine. The validation of this proposal shall follow after its implementation. By eliminating fatigue during working hours in the production, the workers will be at ease at performing their work properly; productivity will increase that will lead to more profit. Further areas for study include measurement and comparison of the worker’s anthropometric measurement with the industry standard.

Keywords: Anthropometry, fishbone diagram, five-why analysis, rapid entire body assessment

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2 Survey of the Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Tests and Anthropometric Dimensions in Healthy People, 2018

Authors: Ali Dehghan, Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Vafa Feyzi, Parisa Kahani, Fatollah Rahimi Bafrani, Nava Seyedi, Zohreh Forozanfar


Introduction: Movement function is considered as the ability to produce and maintain balance, stability, and movement throughout the movement chain. Having a score of 14 and above on 7 sub-tests in the functional movement screening (FMS) test shows agility and optimal movement performance. On the other hand, the person's body is an important factor in physical fitness and optimal movement performance. The aim of this study was to identify effective anthropometric dimensions in increasing motor function. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study using simple random sampling. FMS test and 25 anthropometric dimensions and subcutaneous in five body regions measured in 139 healthy students of Bam University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: 139 students were enrolled in the study, 51.1% (71 subjects) and the rest were female. The mean and standard deviation of age, weight, height, and arm subcutaneous fat were 21.5 ± 1.45, 12.6 ± 64.3, 168.7 ± 9.8, 15.3 ± 7, respectively. 17 subjects (12.2%) of the participants in the study have a score of less than 14, and the rest were above 14. Using regression analysis, it was found that exercise and arm subcutaneous fat are predictive variables associated with obtaining a high score in the FMS test. Conclusion: Exercise and weight loss are effective factors for increasing the movement performance of individuals, and this factor is independent of the size of other physical dimensions.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Anthropometry, functional movement, screening test

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1 Hand Anthropometric Dimensions and Occupation

Authors: Hamid Falaki, Roya Kelkanlo, Mojtaba Tabatabaei


The present study aimed at distinguishing the effects of work type on hand dimensions and investigating the relationship between anthropometric dimensions and occupation. The anthropometric data used in study were collected on 12 hand anthropometric dimensions. The participants included 91 males in two groups, namely manual labor job and office workers. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. All measurements were significantly greater than those of office jobs except for the grip diameter obtained from the manual workers. The hand perimeter was the greatest value among the 12 measured dimensions, while the thickness of the side little finger was the smallest one. In four dimensions, namely width of four fingers together from the central hinge; diameter of thumb to face; diameter of index finger to face; hand thickness from index finger revealed the availability of a significant difference between manual labor jobs and office workers. Moreover, no significant relation was observed between weight and stature with hand dimension, which represents the correlation between occupation and the four dimensions. The results of this study showed that the difference between the two occupational groups was significant in terms of the four dimensions. Therefore, it is suggested that tool designers should consider this finding in their designing process.

Keywords: Anthropometry, occupation, tool design, hand dimensions

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