Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

anthocyanins Related Abstracts

9 The Relationship of Anthocyanins with Color of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Potatoes

Authors: I. Murniece, L. Tomsone, I. Skrabule, A. Vaivode


Many of the compounds present in potato are important because of their beneficial effects on health, therefore, are highly desirable in the human diet. Potato tubers contain significant amounts of anthocyanins. The aim of this research was to determine the content of anthocyanins and its relationship with the colour of organically and conventionally cultivated potato varieties. In the research eight potato samples of three potato varieties were analysed on anthocyanins, dry matter content and colour. Obtained results show that there was no significant influence on amount of anthocyanins between different cultivation environments (p>0.05) while between varieties-significant difference (p<0.05). Strong correlation between the amount of anthocyanins and colour was determined.

Keywords: Organic, Conventional, potato variety, anthocyanins, dry matter

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8 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves


Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 mol TE/g, and from 24.7 to 53.4 mol TE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, geographical origin, blueberry cultivar

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7 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang


Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. CeritinaKulesh. anddelphinidin-rich extracts from ClitoriaternateaL. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3, and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation.FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding.Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, physicochemical characteristics, anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea

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6 Bio-Nano Mask: Antivirus and Antimicrobial Mouth Mask Coating with Nano-TiO2 and Anthocyanin Utilization as an Effective Solution of High ARI Patients in Riau

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan


Indonesia placed in sixth rank total Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) patient in the world and Riau as one of the province with the highest number of people with respiratory infection in Indonesia reached 37 thousand people. Usually society using a mask as prevention action. Unfortunately the commercial mouth mask only can work maximum for 4 hours and the pores are too large to filter out microorganisms and viruses carried by infectious droplets nucleated 1-5 μm. On the other hand, Indonesia is rich with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and purple sweet potato anthocyanin pigment. Therefore, offered Bio-nano-mask which is a antimicrobial and antiviral mouth mask with Nano-TiO2 coating and purple sweet potato anthocyanins utilization as an effective solution to high ARI patients in Riau, which has the advantage of the mask surface can’t be attached by infectious droplets, self-cleaning and have anthocyanins biosensors that give visual response can be understood easily by the general public in the form of a mask color change from blue/purple to pink when acid levels increase. Acid level is an indicator of microorganisms accumulation in the mouth and surrounding areas. Bio-nano mask making process begins with the preparation (design, Nano-TiO2 liquid preparation, anthocyanins biosensors manufacture) and then superimposing the Nano-TiO2 on the outer surface of spunbond color using a sprayer, then superimposing anthocyanins biosensors film on the Meltdown surface, making bio nano-mask and it pack. Bio-nano mask has the advantage is effectively preventing pathogenic microorganisms and infectious droplets and has accumulated indicator microorganisms that color changes which easily observed by the common people though.

Keywords: ARI, anthocyanins, nano-TiO2 liquid, self cleaning

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5 Different Methods Anthocyanins Extracted from Saffron

Authors: Hashem Barati, Afshin Farahbakhsh


The flowers of saffron contain anthocyanins. Generally, extraction of anthocyanins takes place at low temperatures (below 30 °C), preferably under vacuum (to minimize degradation) and in an acidic environment. In order to extract anthocyanins, the dried petals were added to 30 ml of acidic ethanol (pH=2). Amount of petals, extraction time, temperature, and ethanol percentage which were selected. Total anthocyanin content was a function of both variables of ethanol percent and extraction time.To prepare SW with pH of 3.5, different concentrations of 100, 400, 700, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm of sodium metabisulfite were added to aqueous sodium citrate. At this selected concentration, different extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, 180 min were tested to determine the optimum extraction time. When the extraction time was extended from 20 to 60 min, the total recovered anthocyanins of sulfur method changed from 650 to 710 mg/100 g. In the EW method Cellubrix and Pectinex enzymes were added separately to the buffer solution at different concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, 10%, and 12.5% and held for 2 hours reaction time at an ambient temperature of 40 °C. There was a considerable and significant difference in trends of Acys content of tepals extracted by pectinex enzymes at 5% concentration and AE solution.

Keywords: anthocyanins, saffron, acidic environment, acidic ethanol, pectinex enzymes, Cellubrix enzymes, sodium metabisulfite

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4 Effects of Delphinidin on Lipid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells and Diet-Induced Obese Mice

Authors: Marcela Parra-Vargas, Ana Sandoval-Rodriguez, Roberto Rodriguez-Echevarria, Jose Dominguez-Rosales, Juan Armendariz-Borunda


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an excess of hepatic lipids, and it is to author’s best knowledge, the most prevalent chronic liver disorder. Anthocyanin-rich food consumption is linked to health benefits in metabolic disorders associated with obesity and NAFLD, although the precise functional role of anthocyanidin delphinidin (Dp) has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Dp in NAFLD metabolic alterations by evaluating prevention or amelioration of hepatic lipid accumulation, as well as molecular mechanisms in two experimental obesity-related models of NALFD. In vitro: HepG2 cells were incubated with sodium palmitate (PA, 1 mM) to induce lipotoxic damage, and concomitantly treated with Dp (180 uM) for 24 h. Subsequently, total lipid accumulation was measured by colorimetric staining with Oil Red O, and total intrahepatic triglycerides were determined by an enzymatic assay. To assess molecular mechanisms, cells were pre-treated with PA for 24 h and then exposed to Dp for 1 h. In vivo: four-week-old male C57BL/6Nhsd mice were allocated in two main groups. Mice were fed with standard diet (control) or high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (45% fat, HFD) for 16 wk to induce NAFLD. Then HFD was divided into subgroups: one treated orally with Dp (15 mg/kg bw, HFD-Dp) every day for 4 wk, while HFD group treated with vehicle (DMSO). Weight and fasting glucose were recorded weekly, while dietary ingestion was measured daily. Insulin tolerance test was performed at the end of treatment. Liver histology was evaluated with H&E and Masson’s trichrome stain. RT-PCR was used to evaluate gene expression and Western Blot to determine levels of protein in both experimental models. Parametric data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test for non-parametric data, and P < 0.5 were considered significant. Dp prevented hepatic lipid accumulation by PA in HepG2 hepatocytes. Furthermore, Dp down-regulated gene expression of SREBP1c, FAS, and CPT1a without modifying AMPK phosphorylation levels. In vivo, Dp oral administration did not ameliorate lipid metabolic alterations raised by HFD. Adiposity, dietary ingestion, fasting glucose, and insulin sensitivity after Dp treatment remained similar to HFD group. Histological analysis showed hepatic damage in HFD groups and no differences between HFD and HFD-Dp groups were found. Hepatic gene expression of ACC and FAS were not altered by HFD. SREBP1c was similar in both HFD and HFD-Dp groups. No significant changes were observed in SREBP1c, ACC, and FAS adipose tissue gene expression by HFD or Dp treatment. Additionally, immunoblotting analysis revealed no changes in pathway SIRT1-LKB-AMPK and PPAR alpha by both HFD groups compared to control. In conclusion, the antioxidant Dp may provoke beneficial effects in the prevention of hepatic lipid accumulation. Nevertheless, the oral dose administrated in mice that simulated the total intake of anthocyanins consumed daily by humans has no effect as a treatment on hepatic lipid metabolic alterations and histological abnormalities associated with exposure to chronic HFD. A healthy lifestyle with regular intake of antioxidants such as anthocyanins may prevent metabolic alterations in NAFLD.

Keywords: Obesity, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Antioxidants, anthocyanins, delphinidin

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3 A Comparative Study on the Phenolics Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Water Yam Landraces in Kerala, India

Authors: Anumol Jose, Sajana Nazar, M. R. Vishnu, M. Anilkumar


Water yam is an underutilized tropical tuber crop and a rich source of polyphenol compounds and acylated anthocyanins. There is an inverse relationship between the risk of chronic human diseases and the consumption of polyphenolic rich diet. Dioscorea alata is a plant species with several undocumented landraces. In this study, several landraces of water yam with distinct morphological features were collected from all over kerala. Distinct variation in morphological feature among landraces was tuber colour and only those landraces which expressed consistent morphological characters for constitutively two growing seasons were included in the study. Plants were categorized according to the L*a*b* colour attributes of tuber extracts. There were five categories, red, pink, orange, yellow and white. Total phenol, flavanoid and anthocyanin content of the tuber extracts were measured spectroscopically and correlated with antioxidant properties determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate free radical method and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Landraces showed statistically significant difference in all the parameters studied and strong correlation were observed between total phenol and antioxidant activity. Out of the five categories orange coloured tubers showed relatively high phenol and flavanoid content.Colour variations of tuber extracts correlated with anthocyanin quantity and polymeric nature of anthocyanins. This study helps to identify and categorize landraces of D.alata with potential health benefits and commercial applications. Distinct colour characteristics of tuber could be useful in the field of natural colorants. This study also aimed to document and preserve landraces of water yams for further study and research in this area.

Keywords: polyphenols, anthocyanins, water yam, the antioxidant property

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2 Effect of Plant Nutrients on Anthocyanin Content and Yield Component of Black Glutinous Rice Plants

Authors: Chonlada Bennett, Phumon Sookwong, Sakul Moolkam, Sivapong Naruebal Sugunya Mahatheeranont


The cultivation of black glutinous rice rich in anthocyanins can provide great benefits to both farmers and consumers. Total anthocyanins content and yield component data of black glutinous rice cultivar (KHHK) grown with the addition of mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, Fe and Se) under soilless conditions were studied. Ca application increased seed anthocyanins content by three-folds compared to controls. Cu application to rice plants obtained the highest number of grains panicle, panicle length and subsequently high panicle weight. Se application had the largest effect on leaf anthocyanins content, the number of tillers, number of panicles and 100-grain weight. These findings showed that the addition of mineral elements had a positive effect on increasing anthocyanins content in black rice plants and seeds as well as the heightened development of black glutinous rice plant growth.

Keywords: Soilless Culture, anthocyanins, mineral elements, Black Glutinous Rice

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1 Biosynthesis of Healthy Secondary Metabolites in Olive Fruit in Response to Different Agronomic Treatments

Authors: Anna Perrone, Federico Martinelli


Olive fruit is well-known for the high content in secondary metabolites with high interest at nutritional, nutraceutical, antioxidant, and healthy levels. The content of secondary metabolites in olive at harvest may be affected by different water regimes, with significant effects on olive oil composition and quality and, consequently, on its healthy and nutritional features. In this work, a summary of several research studies dealing with the biosynthesis of healthy and nutraceutical metabolites of the secondary metabolism in olive fruit will be reported. The phytochemical findings have been correlated with the expression of key genes involved in polyphenol, terpenoid, and carotenoid biosynthesis and metabolism in response to different development stages and water regimes. Flavonoids were highest in immature fruits, while anthocyanins increased at ripening. In epicarp tissue, this was clearly associated with an up-regulation of the UFGT gene. Olive fruits cultivated under different water regimes were analyzed by metabolomics. This method identified several hundred metabolites in the ripe mesocarp. Among them, 46 were differentially accumulated in the comparison between rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Well-known healthy metabolites were more abundant at a higher level of water regimes. Increased content of polyphenols was observed in the rain-fed fruit; particularly, anthocyanin concentration was higher at ripening. Several secondary metabolites were differentially accumulated between different irrigation conditions. These results showed that these metabolic approaches could be efficiently used to determine the effects of agronomic treatments on olive fruit physiology and, consequently, on nutritional and healthy properties of the obtained extra-virgin olive oil.

Keywords: polyphenols, anthocyanins, Olea europea, water regimes

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