Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Antenna Related Abstracts

14 A Horn Antenna Loaded with FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524 mm and loss tangent 0.004. Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.25 GHz (10.75–11 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: Antenna, filtenna, frequency selective surface (FSS), horn

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13 A Horn Antenna Loaded with SIW FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with substrate integrated waveguide frequency selective surface (SIW FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524mm and loss tangent 0.004. This structure is called a filtering antenna (filtenna). Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite SIW FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.3 GHz (0.955–0.985 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: Antenna, filtenna, frequency-selective surface (FSS), horn antennas

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12 Design of a Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for LTE Applications by Applying FDSC Model

Authors: Settapong Malisuwan, Jesada Sivaraks, Navneet Madan, Peerawat Promkladpanao, Nattakit Suriyakrai


In this paper, a compact microstrip patch antenna is designed for mobile LTE applications by applying the frequency-dependent Smith-Chart (FDSC) model. The FDSC model is adopted in this research to reduce the error on the frequency-dependent characteristics. The Ansoft HFSS and various techniques is applied to meet frequency and size requirements. The proposed method within this research is suitable for use in computer-aided microstrip antenna design and RF integrated circuit (RFIC) design.

Keywords: Antenna, CAD, LTE, frequency-dependent, smith-chart, microstrip

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11 Design of a Novel Fractal Multiband Planar Antenna with a CPW-Feed

Authors: J. Terhzaz, A. Tajmouati, N. Ababssi, M. Latrach, T. Benyetho, L. El Abdellaoui, H. Bennis, A. Tribak


This work presents a new planar multiband antenna based on fractal geometry. This structure is optimized and validated into simulation by using CST-MW Studio. To feed this antenna we have used a CPW line which makes it easy to be incorporated with integrated circuits. The simulation results presents a good matching input impedance and radiation pattern in the GSM band at 900 MHz and ISM band at 2.4 GHz. The final structure is a dual band fractal antenna with 70 x 70 mm² as a total area by using an FR4 substrate.

Keywords: Antenna, multiband, GSM, fractal, CPW

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10 Design of H-Shape X-band Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Trushit Upadhyaya, Arpan H. Desai


This paper presents a new small electrically antenna rectangular X- band micro-strip patch antenna loaded with material Rogers RT/duroid 5870 (tm). The present discussion focuses on small Electrically antenna which are electrically small compared to wave length the performance of electrically small antenna are closely related to their electrical size, the gain can be increased to maintain the efficiency of the radiator. Basically micro-strip Patch antennas have been used in satellite communications and for their good characteristics such as lightness, low cost, and so on. Here in the design H- shape folded dipole, which increase the band width of the antenna.

Keywords: Antenna, feed, gain, electrically small antennas, X-band application, micro-strip patch, frequency antenna

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9 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla


This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: Geometry, Antenna, inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance

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8 Analyze the Effect of TETRA, Terrestrial Trunked Radio, Signal on the Health of People Working in the Gas Refinery

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadian, Mohammad Bagher Heidari


TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) is a digital radio communication standard, which has been implemented in several different parts of the gas refinery ninth (phase 12th) by South Pars Gas Complex. Studies on possible impacts on the users' health considering different exposure conditions are missing. Objectives: To investigate possible acute effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of two different levels of TETRA hand-held transmitter signals on cognitive function and well-being in healthy young males. Methods: In the present double-blind cross-over study possible effects of short-term (2.5 h) EMF exposure of handset-like signals of TETRA (450 - 470 MHz) were studied in 30 healthy male participants (mean ± SD: 25.4 ±2.6 years). Individuals were tested on nine study days, on which they were exposed to three different exposure conditions (Sham, TETRA 1.5 W/kg and TETRA 10.0 W/kg) in a randomly assigned and balanced order. Participants were tested in the afternoon at a fixed timeframe. Results: Attention remained unchanged in two out of three tasks. In the working memory, significant changes were observed in two out of four subtasks. Significant results were found in 5 out of 35 tested parameters, four of them led to an improvement in performance. Mood, well-being and subjective somatic complaints were not affected by TETRA exposure. Conclusions: The results of the present study do not indicate a negative impact of a short-term EMF- effect of TETRA on cognitive function and well-being in healthy young men.

Keywords: Antenna, TETRA (terrestrial trunked radio), electromagnetic fields (EMF), mobile telecommunication health research (MTHR)

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7 Design and Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of Radio Frequency Identification for Boosting up Tag Data Processing

Authors: G. Rajeshwari, V. D. M. Jabez Daniel


Radio Frequency Identification systems are used for automated identification in various applications such as automobiles, health care and security. It is also called as the automated data collection technology. RFID readers are placed in any area to scan large number of tags to cover a wide distance. The placement of the RFID elements may result in several types of collisions. A major challenge in RFID system is collision avoidance. In the previous works the collision was avoided by using algorithms such as ALOHA and tree algorithm. This work proposes collision reduction and increased throughput through reading enhancement method with tree algorithm. The reading enhancement is done by improving interrogation procedure and increasing the data handling capacity of RFID reader with parallel processing. The work is simulated using Xilinx ISE 14.5 verilog language. By implementing this in the RFID system, we can able to achieve high throughput and avoid collision in the reader at a same instant of time. The overall system efficiency will be increased by implementing this.

Keywords: Antenna, Tag, anti-collision protocols, data management system, reader, reading enhancement

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6 Sexual Dimorphism in the Sensorial Structures of the Antenna of Thygater aethiops (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Its Relation with Some Corporal Parameters

Authors: Wendy Carolina Gomez Ramirez, Rodulfo Ospina Torres


Thygater aethiops is a species of solitary bee with a neotropical distribution that has been adapted to live in urban environments. This species of bee presents a marked sexual dimorphism since the males have antenna almost as long as their body different from the females that present antenna with smaller size. In this work, placoid sensilla were studied, which are structures that appear in the antenna and are involved in the detection of substances both, for reproduction and for the search of food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between these sensory structures in the different sexes, for which males and females were captured. Later some body measures were taken such as fresh weight with abdomen and without it, since the weight could be modified by the stomach content; other measures were taken as the total antenna length and length of the flagellum and flagelomere. After negative imprints of the antenna were made using nail polish, the imprint was cut with a microblade and mounted onto a microscope slide. The placoid sensilla were visible on the imprint, so they were counted manually on the 100x objective lens of the optical microscope. Initially, the males presented a specific distribution pattern in two types of sensilla: trichoid and placoid, the trichoid were found aligned in the dorsal face of the antenna and the placoid were distributed along the entire antenna; that was different to the females since they did not present a distribution pattern the sensilla were randomly organized. It was obtained that the males, because they have a longer antenna, have a greater number of sensilla in relation to the females. Additionally, it was found that there was no relationship between the weight and the number of sensilla, but there was a positive relationship between the length of the antenna, the length of the flagellum and the number of sensilla. The relationship between the number of sensilla per unit area in each of the sexes was also calculated, which showed that, on average, males have 4.2 ± 0.38 sensilla per unit area and females present 2.2 ± 0.20 and likewise a significant difference between sexes. This dimorphism found may be related to the sexual behavior of the species, since it has been demonstrated that males are more adapted to the perception of substances related to reproduction than to the search of food.

Keywords: Antenna, Sexual Dimorphism, olfactory organ, sensilla, solitary bees

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5 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi


In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: Reconfigurable, Antenna, array, vehicular

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4 Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: Vladimir Veremey


The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Keywords: Antenna arrays, Antenna, directivity, slot antenna, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO), millimeter wave bands, flush installation, open waveguide, conformal antennas

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3 A Low-Cost Long-Range 60 GHz Backhaul Wireless Communication System

Authors: Atabak Rashidian


In duplex backhaul wireless communication systems, two separate transmit and receive high-gain antennas are required if an antenna switch is not implemented. Although the switch loss, which is considerable and in the order of 1.5 dB at 60 GHz, is avoided, the large separate antenna systems make the design bulky and not cost-effective. To avoid two large reflectors for such a system, transmit and receive antenna feeds with a common phase center are required. The phase center should coincide with the focal point of the reflector to maximize the efficiency and gain. In this work, we present an ultra-compact design in which stacked patch antennas are used as the feeds for a 12-inch reflector. The transmit antenna is a 1 × 2 array and the receive antenna is a single element located in the middle of the transmit antenna elements. Antenna elements are designed as stacked patches to provide the required impedance bandwidth for four standard channels of WiGigTM applications. The design includes three metallic layers and three dielectric layers, in which the top dielectric layer is a 100 µm-thick protective layer. The top two metallic layers are specified to the main and parasitic patches. The bottom layer is basically ground plane with two circular openings (0.7 mm in diameter) having a center through via which connects the antennas to a single input/output Si-Ge Bi-CMOS transceiver chip. The reflection coefficient of the stacked patch antenna is fully investigated. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth is about 11%. Although the gap between transmit and receive antenna is very small (g = 0.525 mm), the mutual coupling is less than -12 dB over the desired frequency band. The three dimensional radiation patterns of the transmit and receive reflector antennas at 60 GHz is investigated over the impedance bandwidth. About 39 dBi realized gain is achieved. Considering over 15 dBm of output power of the silicon chip in the transmit side, the EIRP should be over 54 dBm, which is good enough for over one kilometer multi Gbps data communications. The performance of the reflector antenna over the bandwidth shows the peak gain is 39 dBi and 40 dBi for the reflector antenna with 2-element and single element feed, respectively. This type of the system design is cost-effective and efficient.

Keywords: Antenna, millimeter-wave, integrated circuit, phase center

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2 Efficiency Improvement of REV-Method for Calibration of Phased Array Antennas

Authors: Daniel Hristov


The paper describes the principle of operation, simulation and physical validation of method for simultaneous acquisition of gain and phase states of multiple antenna elements and the corresponding feed lines across a Phased Array Antenna (PAA). The derived values for gain and phase are used for PAA-calibration. The method utilizes the Rotating-Element Electric- Field Vector (REV) principle currently used for gain and phase state estimation of single antenna element across an active antenna aperture. A significant reduction of procedure execution time is achieved with simultaneous setting of different phase delays to multiple phase shifters, followed by a single power measurement. The initial gain and phase states are calculated using spectral and correlation analysis of the measured power series.

Keywords: Antenna arrays, Antenna, Calibration, Power Measurement, phase measurement

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1 On Body Wearable Microstrip Patch Antenna

Authors: Anushka Mohanty, Divyanshi Nath, Jessica Sadavarte, Tazeen Shaikh


This paper represents an on-body wearable antenna, with co-planar wave guide (CPW) feeding mechanism. The antenna operates at two frequencies: 2.4 GHz and 3.1 GHz with a return loss of -27.4665 dB and -21.0123 dB respectively. The antenna has a good bandwidth of 240 MHz and 320 MHz for the two operating frequencies. The antenna is designed using Rogers RT Duroid 5880 as substrate material with a dielectric constant of 2.2 and a height of 1.5mm. The antenna has been mounted on a skin phantom to observe the impact of SAR field value. The antenna is designed using software tool HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) (Version 15).

Keywords: Antenna, SAR, WBAN, microstrip, HFSS, on-body, Rogers RT Duroid 5880

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