Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

anodization Related Abstracts

7 Various Modification of Electrochemical Barrier Layer Thinning of Anodic Aluminum Oxide

Authors: M. Michalska-Domańska, W. J. Stępniowski, W. Florkiewicz, M. Norek, E. Kościuczyk, T. Czujko


In this paper, two options of anodic alumina barrier layer thinning have been demonstrated. The approaches varied with the duration of the voltage step. It was found that too long step of the barrier layer thinning process leads to chemical etching of the nanopores on their top. At the bottoms pores are not fully opened what is disadvantageous for further applications in nanofabrication. On the other hand, while the duration of the voltage step is controlled by the current density (value of the current density cannot exceed 75% of the value recorded during previous voltage step) the pores are fully opened. However, pores at the bottom obtained with this procedure have smaller diameter, nevertheless this procedure provides electric contact between the bare aluminum (substrate) and electrolyte, what is suitable for template assisted electrodeposition, one of the most cost-efficient synthesis method in nanotechnology.

Keywords: anodic aluminum oxide, anodization, barrier layer thinning, nanopores

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6 Elaboration of Titania Nanotubes on Ti₆Al₄V Substrate by Electrochemical Anodization for Dental Application

Authors: Abdelghani Boucheham, Ahcene Karaali, Amar Manseri


Nanostructured Titania layers formed on the surface of titanium and titanium alloys by anodic oxidation play an important role in the enhancement of their biocompatibility and osseointegration in the human body. In the current work, highly ordered titania nanotube array films were elaborated on Ti₆Al₄V medical grade alloys in organic electrolyte containing ethylene glycol, 0.2 wt. % NH₄F and 4 vol. % H₂O at an applied potential of 60 V for different durations. The diameters, lengths and wall thicknesses of the obtained nanotubes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: Dental Implants, Titanium Alloys, SEM, anodization, titania nanotubes

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5 Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Physiological Level Using Anodized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube–Poldimethylsiloxane Paste Electrode

Authors: Angelo Gabriel Buenaventura, Allan Christopher Yago


A carbon paste electrode (CPE) composed of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) conducting particle and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) binder was used for simultaneous detection of Dopamine (DA) and Uric Acid (UA) in the presence of Ascorbic Acid (AA) at physiological level. The MWCNT-PDMS CPE was initially activated via potentiodynamic cycling in a basic (NaOH) solution, which resulted in enhanced electrochemical properties. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements revealed a significantly lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) for the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 5.08kΩ) as compared to buffer (pH 7)-activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 25.9kΩ). Reversibility analysis of Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple of both Buffer-Activated CPE and OH--Activated CPE showed that the OH—Activated CPE have peak current ratio (Ia/Ic) of 1.11 at 100mV/s while 2.12 for the Buffer-Activated CPE; this showed an electrochemically reversible behavior for Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple even at relatively fast scan rate using the OH--activated CPE. Enhanced voltammetric signal for DA and significant peak separation between DA and UA was obtained using the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE in the presence of 50 μM AA via Differential Pulse Voltammetry technique. The anodic peak currents which appeared at 0.263V and 0.414 V were linearly increasing with increasing concentrations of DA and UA, respectively. The linear ranges were obtained at 25 μM – 100 μM for both DA and UA. The detection limit was determined to be 3.86 μM for DA and 5.61 μM for UA. These results indicate a practical approach in the simultaneous detection of important bio-organic molecules using a simple CPE composed of MWCNT and PDMS with base anodization as activation technique.

Keywords: Dopamine, ascorbic acid, uric acid, anodization, carbon paste electrodes

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4 Development of Hydrophobic Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 7075

Authors: Nauman A. Siddiqui


High performance requirement of aircrafts and marines industry demands to cater major industrial problems like wetting, high-speed efficiency, and corrosion resistance. These problems can be resolved by producing the hydrophobic surfaces on the metal substrate. By anodization process, the surface of AA 7075 has been modified and achieved a rough surface with a porous aluminum oxide (Al2O3) structure at nano-level. This surface modification process reduces the surface contact energy and increases the liquid contact angle which ultimately enhances the anti-icing properties. Later the Silane and Polyurethane (PU) coatings on the anodized surface have produced a contact angle of 130°. The results showed a good water repellency and self-cleaning properties. Using SEM analysis, micrographs revealed the round nano-porous oxide structure on the substrate. Therefore this technique can help in increasing the speed efficiency by reducing the friction with the outer interaction and can also be declared as a green technique since it is user-friendly.

Keywords: polyurethane, hydrophobicity, anodization, AA 7075, silanes

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3 Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen, Hsuan-Yu Ku, Jo-Shan Chiu


This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.

Keywords: Nanotube, AAO, sol-gel, hydrophilicity, anodization

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2 Effect of Constant and Variable Temperature on the Morphology of TiO₂ Nanotubes Prepared by Two-Step Anodization Method

Authors: Tayyaba Ghani, Mazhar Mehmood, Mohammad Mujahid


TiO₂ nanotubes are receiving immense attraction in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells due to their well-defined nanostructures, efficient electron transport and large surface area as compared to other one dimensional structures. In the present work, we have investigated the influence of temperature on the morphology of anodically produced self-organized Titanium oxide nanotubes (TiNTs). TiNTs are synthesized by two-step anodization method in an ethylene glycol based electrolytes containing ammonium fluoride. Experiments are performed at constant anodization voltage for two hours. An investigation by the SEM images reveals that if the temperature is kept constant during the anodizing experiment, variation in the average tube diameter is significantly reduced. However, if the temperature is not controlled then due to the exothermic nature of reactions for the formation of TiNTs, the temperature of electrolyte keep on increasing. This variation in electrolyte bath temperature introduced strong variations in tube diameter (20 nm to 160 nm) along the length of tubes. Current profiles, recorded during the anodization experiment, predict the effect of constant and varying experimental temperatures as well. In both cases, XRD results show the complete anatase crystal structure of nanotube upon annealing at 450 °C. Present work highlights the importance of constant temperature during the anodization experiments in order to develop an ordered array of nanotubes with a uniform tube diameter.

Keywords: temperature, anodization, TiO2 nanotubes, ordering

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1 Self-Organized TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ Nanotubes on β-Ti Alloy by Anodization

Authors: Cuie Wen, Yuncang Li, Muhammad Qadir


Surface properties such as topography and physicochemistry of metallic implants determine the cell behavior. The surface of titanium (Ti)-based implant can be modified to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this study, a self-organized titania–niobium pentoxide–zirconia (TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂) nanotubular layer on β phase Ti35Zr28Nb alloy was fabricated via electrochemical anodization. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement techniques were used to investigate the nanotubes dimensions (i.e., the inner and outer diameters, and wall thicknesses), microstructural features and evolution of the hydrophilic properties. The in vitro biocompatibility of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes (NTs) was assessed by using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs has been studied. The results indicated that the average inner diameter, outer diameter and the wall thickness of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs were ranged from 25–70 nm, 45–90 nm and 5–13 nm, respectively, and were directly influenced by the applied voltage during anodization. The average inner and outer diameters of NTs increased with increasing applied voltage, and the length of NTs increased with increasing anodization time and water content of the electrolyte. In addition, the size distribution of the NTs noticeably affected the hydrophilic properties and enhanced the biocompatibility as compared with the uncoated substrate. The results of this study could be considered for developing nano-scale coatings for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, surface wettability, anodization, titanium alloy, TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes

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