Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

annealing Related Abstracts

12 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha


Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) process were studied by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100°C with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400°C for 30 to 120 min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: Microstructure, aluminium/copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction

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11 Free-Standing Pd-Based Metallic Glass Membranes for MEMS Applications

Authors: Wei-Shan Wang, Klaus Vogel, Felix Gabler, Maik Wiemer, Thomas Gessner


Metallic glasses, which are free of grain boundaries, have superior properties including large elastic limits, high strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Therefore, bulk metallic glasses (BMG) and thin film metallic glasses (TFMG) have been widely developed and investigated. Among various kinds of metallic glasses, Pd-Cu-Si TFMG, which has lower elastic modulus and better resistance of oxidation and corrosions compared to Zr- and Fe-based TFMGs, can be a promising candidate for MEMS applications. However, the study of Pd-TFMG membrane is still limited. This paper presents free-standing Pd-based metallic glass membranes with large area fabricated on wafer level for the first time. Properties of Pd-Cu-Si thin film metallic glass (TFMG) with various deposition parameters are investigated first. When deposited at 25°C, compressive stress occurs in the Pd76Cu6Si18 thin film regardless of Ar pressure. When substrate temperature is increased to 275°C, the stress state changes from compressive to tensile. Thin film stresses are slightly decreased when Ar pressure is higher. To show the influence of temperature on Pd-TFMGs, thin films without and with post annealing below (275°C) and within (370°C) supercooled liquid region are investigated. Results of XRD and TEM analysis indicate that Pd-TFMGs remain amorphous structure with well-controlled parameters. After verification of amorphous structure of the Pd-TFMGs, free-standing Pd-Cu-Si membranes were fabricated by depositing Pd-Cu-Si thin films directly on 200nm-thick silicon nitride membranes, followed by post annealing and dry etching of silicon nitride layer. Post annealing before SiNx removal is used to further release internal stress of Pd-TFMGs. The edge length of the square membrane ranges from 5 to 8mm. The effect of post annealing on Pd-Cu-Si membranes are discussed as well. With annealing at 370°C for 5 min, Pd-MG membranes are fully distortion-free after removal of SiNx layer. Results show that, by introducing annealing process, the stress-relief, distortion-free Pd-TFMG membranes with large area can be a promising candidate for sensing applications such as pressure and gas sensors.

Keywords: metallic glasses, annealing, amorphous alloy, TFMG membrane

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10 Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Shuo-Ling Chang


The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.

Keywords: Amorphous, Silicon, Nanoindentation, annealing, phase transformation

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9 Effect of Post Hardening on PVD Coated Tools

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Ashish Tulli


In the research, the effect of varying cutting parameters, design parameters and heat treatment processes were studied on the cutting performance (Tool life) of a PVD coated tool. Thus, in a quest for these phenomenon comparison, a single coated tool and a multicoated tool were analyzed after suitable heat treatment process. TNMG shaped insert with single coating of TiCN and multi-coating of TiAlN/TiN were developed on tungsten carbide substrate. These coated inserts were then successfully annealed and normalized for a temperature of 350°C for 30 minutes and their cutting performance was evaluated as per the flank wear obtained after turning of mild steel. The results showed that heat treatment had a suitable impact on the tool life of the coated insert and also led to increase in the micro-hardness of the tool coatings and decrease in the wear rate.

Keywords: flank wear, annealing, micro-hardness, PVD coatings, normalizing

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8 Characterization of Chemically Deposited CdS Thin Films Annealed in Different Atmospheres

Authors: J. Pantoja Enríquez, G. P. Hernández, G. I. Duharte, X. Mathew, J. Moreira, P. J. Sebastian


Cadmium sulfide films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in air, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.

Keywords: Optical, Thin Films, Electrical Properties, annealing, CDS

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7 Radiation Annealing of Radiation Embrittlement of the Reactor Pressure Vessel

Authors: E. A. Krasikov


Influence of neutron irradiation on RPV steel degradation are examined with reference to the possible reasons of the substantial experimental data scatter and furthermore – nonstandard (non-monotonous) and oscillatory embrittlement behavior. In our glance, this phenomenon may be explained by presence of the wavelike component in the embrittlement kinetics. We suppose that the main factor affecting steel anomalous embrittlement is fast neutron intensity (dose rate or flux), flux effect manifestation depends on state-of-the-art fluence level. At low fluencies, radiation degradation has to exceed normative value, then approaches to normative meaning and finally became sub normative. Data on radiation damage change including through the ex-service RPVs taking into account chemical factor, fast neutron fluence and neutron flux were obtained and analyzed. In our opinion, controversy in the estimation on neutron flux on radiation degradation impact may be explained by presence of the wavelike component in the embrittlement kinetics. Therefore, flux effect manifestation depends on fluence level. At low fluencies, radiation degradation has to exceed normative value, then approaches to normative meaning and finally became sub normative. Moreover as a hypothesis we suppose that at some stages of irradiation damaged metal have to be partially restored by irradiation i.e. neutron bombardment. Nascent during irradiation structure undergo occurring once or periodically transformation in a direction both degradation and recovery of the initial properties. According to our hypothesis, at some stage(s) of metal structure degradation neutron bombardment became recovering factor. As a result, oscillation arises that in turn leads to enhanced data scatter.

Keywords: Radiation, annealing, embrittlement, RPV steel

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6 Growth Mechanism, Structural and Compositional Properties of Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) Thin Films Deposited by Sputtering Method from a Compound Target

Authors: Sanusi Abdullahi, Musa Momoh, Abubakar Umar Moreh, Aminu Muhammad Bayawa, Olubunmi Popoola


Kesterite-type Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) thin films were deposited on corning glass from a single quaternary target. In this study, we investigated the growth mechanism and the influence of thin film thickness on the structural and compositional properties of CZTS films. All the four samples (as-deposited inclusive) show peaks corresponding to kesterite-type structure. The diffraction peaks of (112) are sharp and the small characteristics peaks of the kesterite structure such as (220)/ (204) and (312)/ (116) are also clearly observed in X-ray diffraction pattern. These results indicate that the quaternary CZTS would be a potential candidate for solar cell applications.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, annealing, RF sputtering, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film, growth mechanism

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5 Influence of Annealing on the Mechanical αc-Relaxation of Isotactic-Polypropylene: A Study from the Intermediate Phase Perspective

Authors: Baobao Chang, Konrad Schneider, Vogel Roland, Gert Heinrich


In this work, the influence of annealing on the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated. The results suggest that the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior depends strongly on the confinement force on the polymer chains in the intermediate phase and the thickness of the intermediate phase. After quenching at 10°C, abundant crystallites with a wide size distribution are formed. The polymer chains in the intermediate phase are constrained by the crystallites, giving rise to one broad αc-relaxation peak. With an annealing temperature between 60°C~105°C, imperfect lamellae melting releases part of the constraint force, which reduces the conformational ordering of the polymer chains neighboring the amorphous phase. Consequently, two separate αc-relaxation peaks could be observed which are labeled as αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation. αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation describe the relaxation behavior of polymer chains in the region close to the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase, respectively. Both relaxation peaks shift to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. With an annealing temperature higher than 105°C, the new crystalline phase is formed in the intermediate phase, which enhances the constraint force on the polymer chains. αc1-relaxation peak is broadened obviously and its position shifts to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. Moreover, αc2-relaxation is undetectable because that the polymer chains in the region between the initial crystalline phase and the newly formed crystalline phase are strongly confined.

Keywords: annealing, αc-relaxation, isotactic-polypropylene, intermediate phase

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4 Effect of Annealing on Electrodeposited ZnTe Thin Films in Non-Aqueous Medium

Authors: Shyam Ranjan Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal


Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material. This semiconducting material has several applications in sensors, photo-electrochemical devices and photovoltaic solar cell. In this study, Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were deposited on nickel substrate by electrodeposition technique using potentiostat/galvanostat at -0.85 V using AR grade of Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2), Tellurium Tetrachloride (TeCl4) in non-aqueous bath. The developed films were physically stable and showed good adhesion. The as deposited ZnTe films were annealed at 400ºC in air. The solid state properties and optical properties of the as deposited and annealed films were carried out by XRD, EDS, SEM, AFM, UV–Visible spectrophotometer, and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The diffraction peak observed at 2θ = 49.58° with (111) plane indicate the crystalline nature of ZnTe film. Annealing improves the crystalline nature of the film. Compositional analysis reveals the presence of Zn and Te with tellurium rich ZnTe film. SEM photograph at 10000X shows that grains of film are spherical in nature and densely distributed over the surface. The average roughness of the film is measured by atomic force microscopy and it is nearly equal to 60 nm. The direct wide band gap of 2.12 eV is observed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Luminescence peak of the ZnTe films are also observed in as deposited and annealed case.

Keywords: Optical Properties, thin film, XRD, electrodeposition, annealing, ZnTe

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3 Study of 'Rolled in Scale' and 'Rolled in Scum' in Automotive Grade Cold-Rolled Annealed Steel Sheet

Authors: Soumendu Monia, Vaibhav Jain, Hrishikesh Jugade, Manashi Adhikary, Goutam Mukhopadhyay


'Rolled in scale' (RIS) and 'Rolled in Scum' (RISc) are two superficial surface defects on cold rolled and annealed steel sheets which affect the aesthetics of surface and thereby that of the end-product. Both the defects are believed to be originating from distinctly different sources having different mechanisms of formation. However, due to their similar physical appearance, RIS and RISc are generally confused with each other and hence attaining the exact root cause for elimination of the defect becomes difficult. RIS appears irregular in shape, sometimes scattered, and always oriented in rolling direction. RISc is generally oval shaped, having identifiable pointed edges and mostly oriented in rolling direction. Visually, RIS appears to be greyish in colour whereas RISc is whitish in colour. Both the defects have quite random occurrence and do not leave any imprints on the reverse-side of the sheet. In the current study, an attempt has been made to differentiate these two similar looking surface defects using various metallographic and characterization techniques. Systematic experiments have been carried out to identify possible mechanisms of formation of these defects. Detailed characterization revealed basic differences between RIS and RISc with respect to their surface morphology. To summarize, RIS was observed as a residue of an otherwise under-pickled scale patch on surface, after it has been subjected to cold rolling and annealing in a batch/continuous furnace. Whereas RISc was found to be a localized rubbing of the surface, at the time of cold rolling itself, resulting in a rough surface texture.

Keywords: annealing, rolled in scale, rolled in scum, skin panel

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2 Compensation of Bulk Charge Carriers in Bismuth Based Topological Insulators via Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

Authors: Jyoti Yadav, Rini Singh, Anoop M.D, Nisha Yadav, N. Srinivasa Rao, Fouran Singh, Takayuki Ichikawa, Ankur Jain, Kamlendra Awasthi, Manoj Kumar


Nanocrystalline films exhibit defects and strain induced by its grain boundaries. Defects and strain affect the physical as well as topological insulating properties of the Bi2Te3 thin films by changing their electronic structure. In the present studies, the effect of Ni7+ ion irradiation on the physical and electrical properties of Bi2Te3 thin films was studied. The films were irradiated at five different fluences (5x1011, 1x1012, 3x1012, 5x1012, 1x1013 ions/cm2). Thin films synthesized using the e-beam technique possess a rhombohedral crystal structure with the R-3m space group. The average crystallite size, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak broadening, was found to be 18.5 ± 5 (nm). It was also observed that irradiation increases the induced strain. Raman Spectra of the films demonstrate the splitting of A_1u^1 modes originating from the vibrations along the c-axis. This is by the variation in the lattice parameter ‘c,’ as observed through XRD. The atomic force microscopy study indicates the decrease in surface roughness up to the fluence of 3x1012 ions/cm2 and further increasing the fluence increases the roughness. The decrease in roughness may be due to the growth of smaller nano-crystallites on the surface of thin films due to irradiation-induced annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal the composition to be in close agreement to the nominal values i.e. Bi2Te3. The resistivity v/s temperature measurements revealed an increase in resistivity up to the fluence 3x1012 ions/cm2 and a decrease on further increasing the fluence. The variation in electrical resistivity is corroborated with the change in the carrier concentration as studied through low-temperature Hall measurements. A crossover from the n-type to p-type carriers was achieved in the irradiated films. Interestingly, tuning of the Fermi level by compensating the bulk carriers using ion-irradiation could be achieved.

Keywords: Tuning, irradiation, annealing, Fermi level

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1 On a Determination of Residual Stresses and Wear Resistance of Thermally Sprayed Stainless Steel Coating

Authors: Merzak Laribi, Abdelmadjid Kasser


Thermal spraying processes are widely used to produce coatings on original constructions as well as in repair and maintenance of long standing structures. A lot of efforts forwarding to develop thermal spray coatings technology have been focused on improving mechanical characteristics, minimizing residual stress level and reducing porosity of the coatings. The specific aim of this paper is to determine either residual stresses distribution or wear resistance of stainless steel coating thermally sprayed on a carbon steel substrate. Internal stresses determination was performed using an extensometric method in combination with a simultaneous progressive electrolytic polishing. The procedure consists of measuring micro-deformations using a bi-directional extensometric gauges glued on the substrate side of the materials. Very thin layers of the deposits are removed by electrochemical polishing across the sample surface. Micro-deformations are instantaneously measured, leading to residual stresses calculation after each removal. Wear resistance of the coating has been determined using a ball-on-plate tribometer. Friction coefficient is instantaneously measured during the tribological test. Attention was particularly focused on the influence of a post-annealing at 850 °C for one hour in vacuum either on the residual stresses distribution or on the wear resistance behavior under specific wear and lubrication conditions. The obtained results showed that the microstructure of the obtained arc sprayed stainless steel coating is classical. It is homogeneous and contains un-melted particles, metallic oxides and also pores and micro-cracks. The internal stresses are in compression in the coating. They are more or less scattered between -50 and -270 MPa on the surface and decreased more at the interface. The value at the surface of the substrate is about –700 MPa, partially due to the molten particles impact with the substrate. The post annealing has reduced the residual stresses in both coating and surface of the steel substrate so that the hole material becomes more relaxed. Friction coefficient has an average value of 0.3 and 0.4 respectively for non annealed and annealed specimen. It is rather oil lubrication which is really benefit so that friction coefficient is decreased to about 0.06.

Keywords: Coating, Residual Stresses, Wear Resistance, Lubrication, annealing, stainless steel, thermal spraying

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