Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

anisotropy Related Abstracts

20 Factors Affecting the Ultimate Compressive Strength of the Quaternary Calcarenites, North Western Desert, Egypt

Authors: M. A. Rashed, A. S. Mansour, H. Faris, W. Afify

Abstract:

The calcarenites carbonate rocks of the Quaternary ridges, which extend along the northwestern Mediterranean coastal plain of Egypt, represent an excellent model for the transformation of loose sediments to real sedimentary rocks by the different stages of meteoric diagenesis. The depositional and diagenetic fabrics of the rocks, in addition to the strata orientation, highly affect their ultimate compressive strength and other geotechnical properties. There is a marked increase in the compressive strength (UCS) from the first to the fourth ridge rock samples. The lowest values are related to the loose packing, weakly cemented aragonitic ooid sediments with high porosity, besides the irregularly distributed of cement, which result in decreasing the ability of these rocks to withstand crushing under direct pressure. The high (UCS) values are attributed to the low porosity, the presence of micritic cement, the reduction in grain size and the occurrence of micritization and calcretization processes. The strata orientation has a notable effect on the measured (UCS). The lowest values have been recorded for the samples cored in the inclined direction; whereas the highest values have been noticed in most samples cored in the vertical and parallel directions to bedding plane. In case of the inclined direction, the bedding planes were oriented close to the plane of maximum shear stress. The lowest and highest anisotropy values have been recorded for the first and the third ridges rock samples, respectively, which may attributed to the relatively homogeneity and well sorted grain-stone of the first ridge rock samples, and relatively heterogeneity in grain and pore size distribution and degree of cementation of the third ridge rock samples, besides, the abundance of shell fragments with intra-particle pore spaces, which may produce lines of weakness within the rock.

Keywords: anisotropy, compressive strength, Egypt, calcarenites

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19 Selection of Variogram Model for Environmental Variables

Authors: Sheikh Samsuzzhan Alam

Abstract:

The present study investigates the selection of variogram model in analyzing spatial variations of environmental variables with the trend. Sometimes, the autofitted theoretical variogram does not really capture the true nature of the empirical semivariogram. So proper exploration and analysis are needed to select the best variogram model. For this study, an open source data collected from California Soil Resource Lab1 is used to explain the problems when fitting a theoretical variogram. Five most commonly used variogram models: Linear, Gaussian, Exponential, Matern, and Spherical were fitted to the experimental semivariogram. Ordinary kriging methods were considered to evaluate the accuracy of the selected variograms through cross-validation. This study is beneficial for selecting an appropriate theoretical variogram model for environmental variables.

Keywords: anisotropy, cross-validation, environmental variables, kriging, variogram models

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18 Experimental Analysis of the Origins of the Anisotropy Behavior in the 2017 AA Aluminum Alloy

Authors: May Abdelghani

Abstract:

The present work is devoted to the study of the microstructural anisotropy in mechanical cyclic behavior of the 2017AA aluminum alloy which is widely used in the aerospace industry. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the microstructural origins of this anisotropy already confirmed in our previous work in 2017AA aluminum alloy. To do this, we have used the microstructural analysis resources such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to see the differences between breaks from different directions of cyclic loading. Another resource of investigation was used in this study is that the EBSD method, which allows us to obtain a mapping of the crystallographic texture of our material. According to the obtained results in the microscopic analysis, we are able to identify the origins of the anisotropic behavior at the macroscopic scale.

Keywords: anisotropy, Fatigue Damage, cyclic behavior, microstructural analysis

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17 Effect of Anisotropy on Steady Creep in a Whisker Reinforced Functionally Graded Composite Disc

Authors: Tejeet Singh, V. K. Gupta

Abstract:

In many whisker reinforced composites, anisotropy may result due to material flow during processing operations such as forging, extrusion etc. The consequence of anisotropy, introduced during processing of disc material, has been investigated on the steady state creep deformations of the rotating disc. The disc material is assumed to undergo plastic deformations according to Hill’s anisotropic criterion. Steady state creep has been analyzed in a constant thickness rotating disc made of functionally graded 6061Al-SiCw (where the subscript ‘w’ stands for whisker) using Hill’s The content of reinforcement (SiCw) in the disc is assumed to decrease linearly from the inner to outer radius. The stresses and strain rates in the disc are estimated by solving the force equilibrium equation along with the constitutive equations describing multi-axial creep. The results obtained for anisotropic FGM disc have been compared with those estimated for isotropic FGM disc having the same average whisker content. The anisotropic constants, appearing in Hill’s yield criterion, have been obtained from the available experimental results. The results show that the presence of anisotropy reduces the tangential stress in the middle of the disc but near the inner and outer radii the tangential stress is higher when compared to isotropic disc. On the other hand, the steady state creep rates in the anisotropic disc are reduced significantly over the entire disc radius, with the maximum reduction observed at the inner radius. Further, in the presence of anisotropy the distribution of strain rate becomes relatively uniform over the entire disc, which may be responsible for reducing the extent of distortion in the disc.

Keywords: anisotropy, Creep, functionally graded composite, rotating disc

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16 Early Stage Hydration of Wollastonite: Kinetic Aspects of the Metal-Proton Exchange Reaction

Authors: Nicolas Giraudo, Peter Thissen

Abstract:

In this paper we bring up new aspects of the metal proton exchange reaction (MPER, also called early stage hydration): (1) its dependence of the number of protons consumed by the preferential exchanged cations on the pH value applied at the water/wollastonite interface and (2) strong anisotropic characteristics detected in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy measurements (LEIS). First we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to compare the kinetics of the reaction on different wollastonite surfaces, and combine it with ab initio thermodynamics to set up a model describing (1) the release of Ca in exchange with H coming from the water/wollastonite interface, (2) the dependence of the MPER on the chemical potential of protons. In the second part of the paper we carried out in-situ AFM and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) measurements in order to evaluate the predicted values. While a good agreement is found in the basic and neutral regime (pH values from 14-4), an increasing mismatch appears in the acidic regime (pH value lower 4). This is finally explained by non-equilibrium etching, dominating over the MPER in the very acidic regime.

Keywords: Hydration, cement, Density Functional Theory, anisotropy, calcium silicate

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15 The Effect of Austempering Temperature on Anisotropy of TRIP Steel

Authors: Abdolreza Heidari Noosh Abad, Amir Abedi, Davood Mirahmadi khaki

Abstract:

The high strength and flexibility of TRIP steels are the major reasons for them being widely used in the automobile industry. Deep drawing is regarded as a common metal sheet manufacturing process is used extensively in the modern industry, particularly automobile industry. To investigate the potential of deep drawing characteristic of materials, steel sheet anisotropy is studied and expressed as R-Value. The TRIP steels have a multi-phase microstructure consisting typically of ferrite, bainite and retained austenite. The retained austenite appears to be the most effective phase in the microstructure of the TRIP steels. In the present research, Taguchi method has been employed to study investigates the effect of austempering temperature parameters on the anisotropy property of the TRIP steel. To achieve this purpose, a steel with chemical composition of 0.196C -1.42Si-1.41Mn, has been used and annealed at 810oC, and then austempered at 340-460oC for 3, 6, and 9 minutes. The results shows that the austempering temperature has a direct relationship with R-value, respectively. With increasing austempering temperature, residual austenite grain size increases as well as increased solubility, which increases the amount of R-value. According to the results of the Taguchi method, austempering temperature’s p-value less than 0.05 is due to effective on R-value.

Keywords: anisotropy, Taguchi method, R-value, hot rolling, thermomechanical process

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14 Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric

Authors: Rym Zouari, Sami Ben Amar, Abdelwaheb Dogui

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.

Keywords: anisotropy, off-axis tensile test, strain fields, textile woven fabric

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13 Optical Characterization of Anisotropic Thiophene-Phenylene Co-Oligomer Micro Crystals by Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry

Authors: Christian Röling, Elena Y. Poimanova, Vladimir V. Bruevich

Abstract:

Here we demonstrate a non-destructive optical technique to localize and characterize single crystals of semiconductive organic materials – Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry. With a combination of microscopy and ellipsometry, it is possible to characterize even micro-sized thin film crystals on plane surface regarding anisotropy, optical properties, crystalline domains and thickness. The semiconducting thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer 1,4-bis(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzene (dHex-TTPTT) crystals were grown by solvent based self-assembly technique on silicon substrate with 300 nm thermally silicon dioxide. The ellipsometric measurements were performed with an Ep4-SE (Accurion). In an ellipsometric high-contrast image of the complete sample, we have localized high-quality single crystals. After demonstrating the uniaxial anisotropy of the crystal by using Müller-Matrix imaging ellipsometry, we determined the optical axes by rotating the sample and performed spectroscopic measurements (λ = 400-700 nm) in 5 nm intervals. The optical properties were described by using a Lorentz term in the Ep4-Model. After determining the dispersion of the crystals, we converted a recorded Delta and Psi-map into a 2D thickness image. Based on a quantitative analysis of the resulting thickness map, we have calculated the height of a molecular layer (3.49 nm).

Keywords: anisotropy, thin film, Ellipsometry, SCFET

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12 Delineation of Different Geological Interfaces Beneath the Bengal Basin: Spectrum Analysis and 2D Density Modeling of Gravity Data

Authors: Md. Afroz Ansari

Abstract:

The Bengal basin is a spectacular example of a peripheral foreland basin formed by the convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Eurasian and Burmese plates. The basin is embraced on three sides; north, west and east by different fault-controlled tectonic features whereas released in the south where the rivers are drained into the Bay of Bengal. The Bengal basin in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent constitutes the largest fluvio-deltaic to shallow marine sedimentary basin in the world today. This continental basin coupled with the offshore Bengal Fan under the Bay of Bengal forms the biggest sediment dispersal system. The continental basin is continuously receiving the sediments by the two major rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra (known as Jamuna in Bengal), and Meghna (emerging from the point of conflux of the Ganga and Brahmaputra) and large number of rain-fed, small tributaries originating from the eastern Indian Shield. The drained sediments are ultimately delivered into the Bengal fan. The significance of the present study is to delineate the variations in thicknesses of the sediments, different crustal structures, and the mantle lithosphere throughout the onshore-offshore Bengal basin. In the present study, the different crustal/geological units and the shallower mantle lithosphere were delineated by analyzing the Bouguer Gravity Anomaly (BGA) data along two long traverses South-North (running from Bengal fan cutting across the transition offshore-onshore of the Bengal basin and intersecting the Main Frontal Thrust of India-Himalaya collision zone in Sikkim-Bhutan Himalaya) and West-East (running from the Peninsular Indian Shield across the Bengal basin to the Chittagong–Tripura Fold Belt). The BGA map was derived from the analysis of topex data after incorporating Bouguer correction and all terrain corrections. The anomaly map was compared with the available ground gravity data in the western Bengal basin and the sub-continents of India for consistency of the data used. Initially, the anisotropy associated with the thicknesses of the different crustal units, crustal interfaces and moho boundary was estimated through spectral analysis of the gravity data with varying window size over the study area. The 2D density sections along the traverses were finalized after a number of iterations with the acceptable root mean square (RMS) errors. The estimated thicknesses of the different crustal units and dips of the Moho boundary along both the profiles are consistent with the earlier results. Further the results were encouraged by examining the earthquake database and focal mechanism solutions for better understanding the geodynamics. The earthquake data were taken from the catalogue of US Geological Survey, and the focal mechanism solutions were compiled from the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Catalogue. The concentrations of seismic events at different depth levels are not uncommon. The occurrences of earthquakes may be due to stress accumulation as a result of resistance from three sides.

Keywords: interfaces, seismicity, anisotropy, spectrum analysis

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11 Anisotropic Shear Strength of Sand Containing Plastic Fine Materials

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz

Abstract:

Anisotropy is one of the major aspects that affect soil behavior, and extensive efforts have investigated its effect on the mechanical properties of soil. However, very little attention has been given to the combined effect of anisotropy and fine contents. Therefore, in this paper, the anisotropic strength of sand containing different fine content (F) of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, was investigated using hollow cylinder tests under different principal stress directions of α = 0° and α = 90°. For a given principal stress direction (α), it was found that increasing fine content resulted in decreasing deviator stress (q). Moreover, results revealed that all fine contents showed anisotropic strength where there is a clear difference between the strength under 0° and the strength under 90°. This anisotropy was greatest under F = 5% while it decreased with increasing fine contents, particularly at F = 10%. Mixtures with low fine content show low contractive behavior and tended to show more dilation. Moreover, all sand-clay mixtures exhibited less dilation and more compression at α = 90° compared with that at α = 0°.

Keywords: anisotropy, principal stress direction, fine content, hollow cylinder sample

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10 Finite Element Simulation of Deep Drawing Process to Minimize Earing

Authors: Pawan S. Nagda, Purnank S. Bhatt, Mit K. Shah

Abstract:

Earing defect in drawing process is highly undesirable not only because it adds on an additional trimming operation but also because the uneven material flow demands extra care. The objective of this work is to study the earing problem in the Deep Drawing of circular cup and to optimize the blank shape to reduce the earing. A finite element model is developed for 3-D numerical simulation of cup forming process in ABAQUS. Extra-deep-drawing (EDD) steel sheet has been used for simulation. Properties and tool design parameters were used as input for simulation. Earing was observed in the simulated cup and it was measured at various angles with respect to rolling direction. To reduce the earing defect initial blank shape was modified with the help of anisotropy coefficient. Modified blanks showed notable reduction in earing.

Keywords: anisotropy, deep drawing, finite element simulation, earing

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9 Continuous Processing Approaches for Tunable Asymmetric Photochemical Synthesis

Authors: Amanda C. Evans

Abstract:

Enabling technologies such as continuous processing (CP) approaches can provide the tools needed to control and manipulate reactivities and transform chemical reactions into micro-controlled in-flow processes. Traditional synthetic approaches can be radically transformed by the application of CP, facilitating the pairing of chemical methodologies with technologies from other disciplines. CP supports sustainable processes that controllably generate reaction specificity utilizing supramolecular interactions. Continuous photochemical processing is an emerging field of investigation. The use of light to drive chemical reactivity is not novel, but the controlled use of specific and tunable wavelengths of light to selectively generate molecular structure under continuous processing conditions is an innovative approach towards chemical synthesis. This investigation focuses on the use of circularly polarized (cp) light as a sustainable catalyst for the CP generation of asymmetric molecules. Chiral photolysis has already been achieved under batch, solid-phase conditions: using synchrotron-sourced cp light, asymmetric photolytic selectivities of up to 4.2% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) have been reported. In order to determine the optimal wavelengths to use for irradiation with cp light for any given molecular building block, CD and anisotropy spectra for each building block of interest have been generated in two different solvents (water, hexafluoroisopropanol) across a range of wavelengths (130-400 nm). These spectra are being used to support a series of CP experiments using cp light to generate enantioselectivity.

Keywords: Flow Chemistry, anisotropy, asymmetry, active pharmaceutical ingredients

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8 Predictions for the Anisotropy in Thermal Conductivity in Polymers Subjected to Model Flows by Combination of the eXtended Pom-Pom Model and the Stress-Thermal Rule

Authors: David Nieto Simavilla, Wilco M. H. Verbeeten

Abstract:

The viscoelastic behavior of polymeric flows under isothermal conditions has been extensively researched. However, most of the processing of polymeric materials occurs under non-isothermal conditions and understanding the linkage between the thermo-physical properties and the process state variables remains a challenge. Furthermore, the cost and energy required to manufacture, recycle and dispose polymers is strongly affected by the thermo-physical properties and their dependence on state variables such as temperature and stress. Experiments show that thermal conductivity in flowing polymers is anisotropic (i.e. direction dependent). This phenomenon has been previously omitted in the study and simulation of industrially relevant flows. Our work combines experimental evidence of a universal relationship between thermal conductivity and stress tensors (i.e. the stress-thermal rule) with differential constitutive equations for the viscoelastic behavior of polymers to provide predictions for the anisotropy in thermal conductivity in uniaxial, planar, equibiaxial and shear flow in commercial polymers. A particular focus is placed on the eXtended Pom-Pom model which is able to capture the non-linear behavior in both shear and elongation flows. The predictions provided by this approach are amenable to implementation in finite elements packages, since viscoelastic and thermal behavior can be described by a single equation. Our results include predictions for flow-induced anisotropy in thermal conductivity for low and high density polyethylene as well as confirmation of our method through comparison with a number of thermoplastic systems for which measurements of anisotropy in thermal conductivity are available. Remarkably, this approach allows for universal predictions of anisotropy in thermal conductivity that can be used in simulations of complex flows in which only the most fundamental rheological behavior of the material has been previously characterized (i.e. there is no need for additional adjusting parameters other than those in the constitutive model). Accounting for polymers anisotropy in thermal conductivity in industrially relevant flows benefits the optimization of manufacturing processes as well as the mechanical and thermal performance of finalized plastic products during use.

Keywords: anisotropy, Thermal Conductivity, differential constitutive models, flow simulations in polymers

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7 Digital Image Correlation Based Mechanical Response Characterization of Thin-Walled Composite Cylindrical Shells

Authors: Sthanu Mahadev, Wen Chan, Melanie Lim

Abstract:

Anisotropy dominated continuous-fiber composite materials have garnered attention in numerous mechanical and aerospace structural applications. Tailored mechanical properties in advanced composites can exhibit superiority in terms of stiffness-to-weight ratio, strength-to-weight ratio, low-density characteristics, coupled with significant improvements in fatigue resistance as opposed to metal structure counterparts. Extensive research has demonstrated their core potential as more than just mere lightweight substitutes to conventional materials. Prior work done by Mahadev and Chan focused on formulating a modified composite shell theory based prognosis methodology for investigating the structural response of thin-walled circular cylindrical shell type composite configurations under in-plane mechanical loads respectively. The prime motivation to develop this theory stemmed from its capability to generate simple yet accurate closed-form analytical results that can efficiently characterize circular composite shell construction. It showcased the development of a novel mathematical framework to analytically identify the location of the centroid for thin-walled, open cross-section, curved composite shells that were characterized by circumferential arc angle, thickness-to-mean radius ratio, and total laminate thickness. Ply stress variations for curved cylindrical shells were analytically examined under the application of centric tensile and bending loading. This work presents a cost-effective, small-platform experimental methodology by taking advantage of the full-field measurement capability of digital image correlation (DIC) for an accurate assessment of key mechanical parameters such as in-plane mechanical stresses and strains, centroid location etc. Mechanical property measurement of advanced composite materials can become challenging due to their anisotropy and complex failure mechanisms. Full-field displacement measurements are well suited for characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials because of the complexity of their deformation. This work encompasses the fabrication of a set of curved cylindrical shell coupons, the design and development of a novel test-fixture design and an innovative experimental methodology that demonstrates the capability to very accurately predict the location of centroid in such curved composite cylindrical strips via employing a DIC based strain measurement technique. Error percentage difference between experimental centroid measurements and previously estimated analytical centroid results are observed to be in good agreement. The developed analytical modified-shell theory provides the capability to understand the fundamental behavior of thin-walled cylindrical shells and offers the potential to generate novel avenues to understand the physics of such structures at a laminate level.

Keywords: Composites, anisotropy, digital image correlation, curved cylindrical shells

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6 Directional Dependence of the Stress-Strain Behavior of Reinforced Sand

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz

Abstract:

The technique of reinforcing soil is an efficient, reliable and cost-effective alternative way for improving the performance of soil in civil engineering applications. Despite the anisotropic states of stresses induced within soil elements by many geotechnical structures such as footings, highways and offshore, most of the previous studies have been carried out under isotropic conditions. The anisotropic stress state in term of the inclined principal stress and the inequality of the intermediate and minor principal stresses cannot be investigated using conventional devices. Therefore, the advanced hollow cylinder apparatus, used in this work, provides a great opportunity to simulate such anisotropic stress states. To date, very little consideration has been given to how the direction of principal stress α and intermediate principal stress ratio b can affect the performance of the reinforced sand. This study presented that the anisotropic conditions of α and b resulted in significant variations in the deviator stress and volumetric strain of sand reinforced with geosynthetics. Anisotropic effect has been decreased by adding clay content.

Keywords: anisotropy, reinforced sand, direction of principal stress, intermediate principal stress ratio

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5 An Improved Single Point Closure Model Based on Dissipation Anisotropy for Geophysical Turbulent Flows

Authors: J. P. Panda, H. V. Warrior, A. P. Joshi

Abstract:

This paper is a continuation of the work carried out by various turbulence modelers in Oceanography on the topic of oceanic turbulent mixing. It evaluates the evolution of ocean water temperature and salinity by the appropriate modeling of turbulent mixing utilizing proper prescription of eddy viscosity. Many modelers in past have suggested including terms like shear, buoyancy and vorticity to be the parameters that decide the slow pressure strain correlation. We add to it the fact that dissipation anisotropy also modifies the correlation through eddy viscosity parameterization. This recalibrates the established correlation constants slightly and gives improved results. This anisotropization of dissipation implies that the critical Richardson’s number increases much beyond unity (to 1.66) to accommodate enhanced mixing, as is seen in reality. The model is run for a couple of test cases in the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the results are presented here.

Keywords: anisotropy, GOTM, pressure-strain correlation, Richardson critical number

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4 Estimation of Particle Size Distribution Using Magnetization Data

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles possess fascinating properties which make their behavior unique in comparison to corresponding bulk materials. Superparamagnetism is one such interesting phenomenon exhibited only by small particles of magnetic materials. In this state, the thermal energy of particles become more than their magnetic anisotropy energy, and so particle magnetic moment vectors fluctuate between states of minimum energy. This situation is similar to paramagnetism of non-interacting ions and termed as superparamagnetism. The magnetization of such systems has been described by Langevin function. But, the estimated fit parameters, in this case, are found to be unphysical. It is due to non-consideration of particle size distribution. In this work, analysis of magnetization data on NiO nanoparticles is presented considering the effect of particle size distribution. Nanoparticles of NiO of two different sizes are prepared by heating freshly synthesized Ni(OH)₂ at different temperatures. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of single phase of NiO. The diffraction lines are seen to be quite broad indicating the nanocrystalline nature of the samples. The average crystallite size are estimated to be about 6 and 8 nm. The samples are also characterized by transmission electron microscope. Magnetization of both sample is measured as function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization are measured as a function of temperature to determine the bifurcation temperature. The magnetization is also measured at several temperatures in superparamagnetic region. The data are fitted to an appropriate expression considering a distribution in particle size following a least square fit procedure. The computer codes are written in PYTHON. The presented analysis is found to be very useful for estimating the particle size distribution present in the samples. The estimated distributions are compared with those determined from transmission electron micrographs.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, magnetization, anisotropy, superparamagnetism

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3 Effect of Compaction Method on the Mechanical and Anisotropic Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Mai Sirhan, Arieh Sidess

Abstract:

Asphaltic mixture is a heterogeneous material composed of three main components: aggregates; bitumen and air voids. The professional experience and scientific literature categorize asphaltic mixture as a viscoelastic material, whose behavior is determined by temperature and loading rate. Properties characterization of the asphaltic mixture used under the service conditions is done by compacting and testing cylindric asphalt samples in the laboratory. These samples must resemble in a high degree internal structure of the mixture achieved in service, and the mechanical characteristics of the compacted asphalt layer in the pavement. The laboratory samples are usually compacted in temperatures between 140 and 160 degrees Celsius. In this temperature range, the asphalt has a low degree of strength. The laboratory samples are compacted using the dynamic or vibrational compaction methods. In the compaction process, the aggregates tend to align themselves in certain directions that lead to anisotropic behavior of the asphaltic mixture. This issue has been studied in the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) research, that recommended using the gyratory compactor based on the assumption that this method is the best in mimicking the compaction in the service. In Israel, the Netivei Israel company is considering adopting the Gyratory Method as a replacement for the Marshall method used today. Therefore, the compatibility of the Gyratory Method for the use with Israeli asphaltic mixtures should be investigated. In this research, we aimed to examine the impact of the compaction method used on the mechanical characteristics of the asphaltic mixtures and to evaluate the degree of anisotropy in relation to the compaction method. In order to carry out this research, samples have been compacted in the vibratory and gyratory compactors. These samples were cylindrically cored both vertically (compaction wise) and horizontally (perpendicular to compaction direction). These models were tested under dynamic modulus and permanent deformation tests. The comparable results of the tests proved that: (1) specimens compacted by the vibratory compactor had higher dynamic modulus values than the specimens compacted by the gyratory compactor (2) both vibratory and gyratory compacted specimens had anisotropic behavior, especially in high temperatures. Also, the degree of anisotropy is higher in specimens compacted by the gyratory method. (3) Specimens compacted by the vibratory method that were cored vertically had the highest resistance to rutting. On the other hand, specimens compacted by the vibratory method that were cored horizontally had the lowest resistance to rutting. Additionally (4) these differences between the different types of specimens rise mainly due to the different internal arrangement of aggregates resulting from the compaction method. (5) Based on the initial prediction of the performance of the flexible pavement containing an asphalt layer having characteristics based on the results achieved in this research. It can be concluded that there is a significant impact of the compaction method and the degree of anisotropy on the strains that develop in the pavement, and the resistance of the pavement to fatigue and rutting defects.

Keywords: anisotropy, Mechanical Properties, permanent deformation, dynamic modulus, gyratory compactor, asphalt compaction, vibratory compactor

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2 Surface Motion of Anisotropic Half Space Containing an Anisotropic Inclusion under SH Wave

Authors: Zailin Yang, Guanxixi Jiang, Yuanda Ma, Zhiyong Zhang

Abstract:

Anisotropy is very common in underground media, such as rock, sand, and soil. Hence, the dynamic response of anisotropy medium under elastic waves is significantly different from the isotropic one. Moreover, underground heterogeneities and structures, such as pipelines, cylinders, or tunnels, are usually made by composite materials, leading to the anisotropy of these heterogeneities and structures. Both the anisotropy of the underground medium and the heterogeneities have an effect on the surface motion of the ground. Aiming at providing theoretical references for earthquake engineering and seismology, the surface motion of anisotropic half-space with a cylindrical anisotropic inclusion embedded under the SH wave is investigated in this work. Considering the anisotropy of the underground medium, the governing equation with three elastic parameters of SH wave propagation is introduced. Then, based on the complex function method and multipolar coordinates system, the governing equation in the complex plane is obtained. With the help of a pair of transformation, the governing equation is transformed into a standard form. By means of the same methods, the governing equation of SH wave propagation in the cylindrical inclusion with another three elastic parameters is normalized as well. Subsequently, the scattering wave in the half-space and the standing wave in the inclusion is deduced. Different incident wave angle and anisotropy are considered to obtain the reflected wave. Then the unknown coefficients in scattering wave and standing wave are solved by utilizing the continuous condition at the boundary of the inclusion. Through truncating finite terms of the scattering wave and standing wave, the equation of boundary conditions can be calculated by programs. After verifying the convergence and the precision of the calculation, the validity of the calculation is verified by degrading the model of the problem as well. Some parameters which influence the surface displacement of the half-space is considered: dimensionless wave number, dimensionless depth of the inclusion, anisotropic parameters, wave number ratio, shear modulus ratio. Finally, surface displacement amplitude of the half space with different parameters is calculated and discussed.

Keywords: anisotropy, complex function method, sh wave, surface displacement amplitude

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1 Magnetic Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Superparamagnetic State

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Superparamagnetism is an interesting phenomenon and observed in small particles of magnetic materials. It arises due to a reduction in particle size. In the superparamagnetic state, as the thermal energy overcomes magnetic anisotropy energy, the magnetic moment vector of particles flip their magnetization direction between states of minimum energy. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been attracting the researchers due to many applications such as information storage, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical applications, and sensors. For information storage, thermal fluctuations lead to loss of data. So that nanoparticles should have high blocking temperature. And to achieve this, nanoparticles should have a higher magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy constant. In this work, the magnetic anisotropy constant of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles system is determined. Magnetic studies on nanoparticles of NiO (nickel oxide) are reported well. This antiferromagnetic nanoparticle system has high blocking temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant of order 105 J/m3. The magnetic study of NiO nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic region is presented. NiO particles of two different sizes, i.e., 6 and 8 nm, are synthesized using the chemical route. These particles are characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The magnetization vs. applied magnetic field and temperature data for both samples confirm their superparamagnetic nature. The blocking temperature for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 200 and 172 K, respectively. Magnetization vs. applied magnetic field data of NiO is fitted to an appropriate magnetic expression using a non-linear least square fit method. The role of particle size distribution and magnetic anisotropy is taken in to account in magnetization expression. The source code is written in Python programming language. This fitting provides us the magnetic anisotropy constant for NiO and other magnetic fit parameters. The particle size distribution estimated matches well with the transmission electron micrograph. The value of magnetic anisotropy constants for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 1.42 X 105 and 1.20 X 105 J/m3, respectively. The obtained magnetic fit parameters are verified using the Neel model. It is concluded that the effect of magnetic anisotropy should not be ignored while studying the magnetization process of nanoparticles.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, magnetization, anisotropy, superparamagnetic

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