Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

anime Related Abstracts

3 Music of the Openings’ Japanese Animes as a Tool for People with Reduced Visibility: The Case of Shingeki No Kyojin (Attack on Titan)

Authors: María Del Carmen Baena Lupiáñez

Abstract:

Music has been considered for decades as a tool to express emotions. In the case of people with some physical disabilities, they are able to develop what is known as echolocation. It means that the development of some of the senses to compensate the lack of one of them. For instance, it has been proved that people with reduced visibility have a more developed hearing capacity. In series or films, music is fundamental to contextualize the viewer in the story. Music becomes an indispensable element to make people with reduced visibility to understand the plot and to avoid ambiguities, in the absence of an audio description. Since the songs of Japanese animes have not been as studied as other soundtracks from this point of view to our knowledge, the three openings of the anime Shingeki no Kyojin have been chosen to carry out the experiment from which this study will start. It will test the perceptions of people with reduced visibility by reproducing the three opening songs of Shingeki no Kyojin and asking the users questions related to their thoughts about the anime, their feelings when listening to these songs and the possible story that this anime could be about. In fact, users could identify in general the plot of the story and their perceptions corresponded to what the songs should transmit, taking into account its chords and harmonies.

Keywords: Emotions, anime, argumental contextualization, echolocations

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2 The Images of Japan and the Japanese People: A Case of Japanese as a Foreign Language Students in Portugal

Authors: Tomoko Yaginuma, Rosa Cabecinhas

Abstract:

Recently, the studies of the images about Japan and/or the Japanese people have been done in a Japanese language education context since the number of the students of Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL) has been increasing worldwide, including in Portugal. It has been claimed that one of the reasons for this increase is the current popularity of Japanese pop-culture, namely anime (Japanese animations) and manga (Japanese visual novels), among young students. In the present study, the images about Japan and the Japanese held by JFL students in Portugal were examined by a questionnaire survey. The JFL students in higher education in Portugal (N=296) were asked to answer, among the other questions, their degree of agreement (using a Likert scale) with 24 pre-defined descriptions about the Japanese, which appear as relevant in a qualitative pilot study conducted before. The results show that the image of Japanese people by Portuguese JFL students is stressed around four dimensions: 1) diligence, 2) kindness, 3) conservativeness and 4) innovativeness. The students considered anime was the main source of information about the Japanese people and culture and anime was also strongly associated with the students’ interests in learning Japanese language.

Keywords: Cultural Studies, Portugal, anime, images about Japan and Japanese people

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1 Analysing Anime as the Narration of Resistance: Case Study of Japanese Vampire Anime

Authors: Patrycja Pichnicka

Abstract:

Anime is the Japanese art of animation and a kind of Japanese animated movie, different from the Western ones by its specific features. In the world dominated by live action movies, mostly the ones produced in the United States, Japanese animated movies, which constitute a large part of the Japanese movie industry, play the role of the Other. They adapt elements of Western culture and technology to create something that resists global Western domination. This phenomenon is particularly interesting to observe in the case of narration borrowed from the Western culture, yet transformed in a specific manner: such as Vampire Narration. The phenomenon should be examined using the theory of cultural adaptation of Siergiei Arutiunow, as well as theory of cultural hegemony and postcolonial theories, including the theory of the discourse of resistance. Relations of cultural hegemony and resistance have been mentioned in works of Susan Napier, however they are worth to be fully developed. Anime relations to globally dominating culture reveal tension between submission and resistance in which non-Western identity is constructed and performed. Nonetheless, the tension between the Global/Western and the Japanese is not the only one existing in contemporaneous Japanese society and culture. Sexual, gender, class, and ethnic issues are also expressed in and through pop culture narrations. Using the basic division of the types of cultural adaptation we can trace the line of the evolution of the Japanese cultural attitude towards the West, expressed in the Vampire Narration from the time of American occupation till now. These attitudes changed from the submissive assimilation or reproduction of cultural models, through the simple opposition, to the more nuanced attitude of nowadays. However, according to Kimberlé Crenshaw’s intersectional theory, there is no one category of discrimination or submission. There are individuals or groups existing on the cross of two or more categories of emancipation. If the Japanese were culturally subdued to the Westerner, the Japanese woman was doubly subdued: as a woman and as a Japanese. The emancipation of one group can deepen the submission of another one, of internal Other, of the group in which two or more categories of domination/submission intersect. That is why some Japanese female authors enthusiastically reproduce the Western cultural models, even if this means a cultural hegemony of the West over the Japanese. They see, as women, more liberal attitudes towards their gender in the Western culture than in the Japanese culture, as it is constructed and produced by Japanese men. The Japanese anime is the realm in which sophisticated art meets social tendencies and cultural attitudes. Anime examination permits to study of the composed contemporaneous Japanese identity, as well as general rules of cultural relations.

Keywords: Resistance, Cultural Hegemony, anime, intercultural relations, vampire narration

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