Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Animals Related Abstracts

6 Toward an Understanding of the Neurofunctional Dissociation between Animal and Tool Concepts: A Graph Theoretical Analysis

Authors: Skiker Kaoutar, Mounir Maouene

Abstract:

Neuroimaging studies have shown that animal and tool concepts rely on distinct networks of brain areas. Animal concepts depend predominantly on temporal areas while tool concepts rely on fronto-temporo-parietal areas. However, the origin of this neurofunctional distinction for processing animal and tool concepts remains still unclear. Here, we address this question from a network perspective suggesting that the neural distinction between animals and tools might reflect the differences in their structural semantic networks. We build semantic networks for animal and tool concepts derived from Mc Rae and colleagues’s behavioral study conducted on a large number of participants. These two networks are thus analyzed through a large number of graph theoretical measures for small-worldness: centrality, clustering coefficient, average shortest path length, as well as resistance to random and targeted attacks. The results indicate that both animal and tool networks have small-world properties. More importantly, the animal network is more vulnerable to targeted attacks compared to the tool network a result that correlates with brain lesions studies.

Keywords: Semantics, Network, Animals, Tools, small-world, resilience to damage

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5 The Neurofunctional Dissociation between Animal and Tool Concepts: A Network-Based Model

Authors: Skiker Kaoutar, Mounir Maouene

Abstract:

Neuroimaging studies have shown that animal and tool concepts rely on distinct networks of brain areas. Animal concepts depend predominantly on temporal areas while tool concepts rely on fronto-temporo-parietal areas. However, the origin of this neurofunctional distinction for processing animal and tool concepts remains still unclear. Here, we address this question from a network perspective suggesting that the neural distinction between animals and tools might reflect the differences in their structural semantic networks. We build semantic networks for animal and tool concepts derived from McRae and colleagues’s behavioral study conducted on a large number of participants. These two networks are thus analyzed through a large number of graph theoretical measures for small-worldness: centrality, clustering coefficient, average shortest path length, as well as resistance to random and targeted attacks. The results indicate that both animal and tool networks have small-world properties. More importantly, the animal network is more vulnerable to targeted attacks compared to the tool network a result that correlates with brain lesions studies.

Keywords: Semantics, Network, Animals, Tools, resilience to damage, small-worls

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4 Evolutionary Genomic Analysis of Adaptation Genomics

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: Genomics, Evolution, Animals, Adaptation

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3 Preliminary dosimetric Evaluation of a New Therapeutic 177LU Complex for Human Based on Biodistribution Data in Rats

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Golabi Dezfuli

Abstract:

Tris (1,10-phenanthroline) lanthanum(III)] trithiocyanate is a new compound that has shown to stop DNA synthesis in CCRF-CEM and Ehrlich ascites cells leading to a cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. One other important property of the phenanthroline nucleus is its ability to act as a triplet-state photosensitizer especially in complexes with lanthanides. In Nowadays, the radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method is known as the most common method for absorbed dose calculation. 177Lu was produced by irradiation of a natural Lu2O3 target at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 4 × 1013 n/cm2•s. 177Lu-PL3 was prepared in the optimized condition. The radiochemical yield was checked by ITLC method. The biodistribution of the complex was investigated by intravenously injection to wild-type rats via their tail veins. In this study, the absorbed dose of 177Lu-PL3 to human organs was estimated by RADAR method. 177Lu was prepared with a specific activity of 2.6-3 GBq.mg-1 and radionuclide purity of 99.98 %. The 177Lu-PL3 complex can prepare with high radiochemical yield (> 99 %) at optimized conditions. The results show that liver and spleen have received the highest absorbed dose of 1.051 and 0.441 mSv/MBq, respectivley. The absorbed dose values for these two dose-limiting tissues suggest more biological studies special in tumor-bearing animals.

Keywords: Animals, Radar, internal dosimetry, Lutetium-177

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2 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Health Benefits and Sources

Authors: Hilal Ahmad Punoo

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with two conjugated double bonds. Of more than a dozen isomers of CLA found naturally in dairy and meat products from ruminants, c-9, t-11 and t-10, c-12 are the two isomers with known physiological importance, including anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antilipogenic, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may influence the onset and severity of several chronic diseases, including various cancers, atherosclerosis, obesity, bone density loss, and diabetes. These findings are of special interest to the agriculture community, because dietary sources of CLA are almost exclusively beef and dairy products. Thus, a better understanding of the specific isomers and mechanisms responsible for these positive effects of CLA on human health would be both prudent and economically beneficial. To date, research related to the advantages of CLA consumption on human health has been conducted using experimental laboratory animals and cell culture systems. These data consistently show that relatively low levels of CLA can influence risk of cancer. Further, very recent investigations suggest that the predominate CLA isoform (cis-9, trans-11 CLA or rumenic acid) found in beef and milk fat possesses anticarcinogenic effects but does not alter body composition; the trans-10, cis-12 CLA has been shown to inhibit lipogenesis. Clearly, further work, especially using human subjects, will be required to characterize the potential benefits of CLA consumption on human health. Moreover, we suggest that foods naturally containing high amounts of CLA (e.g., beef and dairy products) be considered as meeting the definition of functional foods.

Keywords: Humans, Animals, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, potential health benefits, fats

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1 Ecocriticism and Sustainable Development: A Study of Kamila Shamsie's a God in Every Stone

Authors: Shaista Maseeh

Abstract:

English Literature from the beginning itself has had psychological, social and environment concerns. Virgil, Shakespeare, John Milton, William Wordsworth to the most current Robert Hass have shown and proved their environmental and ecological interests as well as distress related to its loss. Pastoral literature is also one such genre that links literature with environment. Thanks to the contemporary literary theories that they successfully are relating Literature formally to the subjects other than written text. One of such literary theory is 'Ecocriticism.' It stands under the umbrella of the Economics term, Sustainable Development,' or it can also be understood as an ecological extension of it. Ecocriticism helps the reader to study the dynamic relation between literature and our degrading environment. It draws attention towards the ravaged condition of nature and animals, that how nature is exploited by human beings for their own benefit leaving nature at a repairable loss. For instance, deforestation is reducing the size of forest every year, injuring permanently flora, fauna and also the habitat of animals. This paper will study the ecological and environmental concerns in the latest novel by Pakistani British writer Kamila Shamsie, A God in every Stone (2014). The book is not only a literary masterpiece in elegant prose, but also a novel posing a lot of questions about 'nature and environment' in general and 'animals' in particular. It gives the glimpses of the interesting history of Temple of Zeus in Greece and Ancient Caria, and covers many episodes of history the Indian freedom struggle. In course of novel's narrative Kamila Shamsie poses disturbing question about environmental abuse, about how human beings are more 'beasts' than so call beasts, poor animals. She also glorifies the simplicity of past. The novel has enough instances to prove Shamsie's positive stand on saving the earth that is being more abused than used by human beings. This paper will provide an ecocritical approach to study A God in Every Stone (2014).

Keywords: Environment, Animals, ecocriticism, Nature

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