Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Animal Welfare Related Abstracts

16 Animal Welfare through Stockmanship Competence and Its Relationship to Productivity and Economic Profitability: The Case of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

Authors: M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito, K. Maeda

Abstract:

A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of their animals. This influence may be good or bad depending on their stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of their animals by providing their animal’s needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the stockmanship competence of backyard goat raisers and to examine its relationship to productivity and economic profitability. This was made possible by interviewing 101 backyard goat raisers who have undergone farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS IGM) in Region I, Philippines on September 3-30, 2012 and March 4-17, 2013. Secondary data needed were gathered from the local government agencies involved. Data on stockmanship, goat productivity and farmer’s income before and after attending FLS-IGM were gathered through a semi-structured interview. Questions for stockamnship were based on the Philippine recommends on goat production, tips on goat raising and other scientific literature. Stockmanship competence index score (SCIS) was computed by summing the raw scores derived from each components of SC divided by the total number of components. Pearson correlation through SPSS was used to see the relationship between SC, productivity and income. Result showed that majority raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM was 38.53% and 75.81%, respectively, an improvement of 49.17%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM, where SC was low, was 14 kg and 50% respectively. On the other hand, after stockmanship had improved, the median mature weight increased to 19 kgs and mortality rate decreased to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers as compared before. With regards to income, there was 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved stockmanship competence can lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also welfare of the animal.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Philippines, stockmanship, backyard goat production

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15 Animal Welfare Assessment Method through Stockmanship Competence: The Context of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

Authors: M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito, K. Maeda

Abstract:

Measuring animal welfare is a newly emerging area of research and it needs multi-disciplinary way to do it. Due to the diversity of what constitutes the definition of animal welfare, different methods and models were developed and mostly conducted in semi and commercial farms in developed countries. Few studies have been conducted in developing countries and in backyard livestock operation. Recognizing that majority of livestock operations are categorized as backyard in developing countries, it is crucial to come up with parameters that can assess the welfare of the animal in the backyard level. This research had made use of stockmanship competence as the proxy indicator to assess animal welfare. Stockmanship competence in this study refers to the capacity of the animal owner to ensure the welfare of their animal by providing their needs for growth and reproduction. The Philippine recommend on goat production, tips on goat raising and goat scientific literatures were used as references to come up with indicators that are known to be important in meeting the needs of the animal and ensuring its welfare. Scores from -1 to +2 were assigned depending on how close it is of satisfying the animal’s need. It is hoped that this assessment method could contribute to the growing body of knowledge on animal welfare and can be utilized as logical and scientific framework in assessing welfare in backyard goat operation. It is suggested that further study needs to be conducted to refine and standardize indicators and identify other indicators for goat welfare assessment.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Philippines, backyard goat production, stockmanship competence

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14 Broiler Chickens Meat Qualities and Death on Arrival (DOA) In-Transit in Brazilian Tropical Conditions

Authors: Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana L. Soares, Rafael H. Carvalho, Arlan S. Freitas, Leila M. Carvalho, Arnoud Neto, Marta S. Madruga

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic profile of broiler transport trucks and holding time (340) min under commercial conditions over the breast meat quality and DOA (Dead On Arrival) in a tropical Brazilian regions as the NorthEast. In this particular region routinely the season is divided into dry and wet seasons. Three loads of 4,100 forty seven days old broiler were monitored from farm to slaughterhouse in a distance of 273 km (320 min), morning periods of August, September and October 2015 rainy days. Meat qualities were evaluated by determining the occurrence of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and DFD (dark, firm, dry) meat. The percentage of DOA per loaded truck was determined by counting the dead broiler during the hanging step at the slaughtering plant. Results showed the occurrence of 26.30% of PSE and 2.49% of DFD and 0.45% of DOA. By having PSE- and DFD- meat means that the birds were under thermal and cold stress leading as consequence to a relative high DOA index.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, PSE, DFD, microclimatic profile

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13 The Implementation of Animal Welfare for Garut Sheep Fighting Contest in West Java

Authors: Mustopa, Nadya R. Susilo, Rhizal D. Nuva

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the application of animal welfare in Garut sheep fighting contest at West Java. This study conducted by survey and discussion methods with 5 Garut sheep owners in the contest. The animal welfare is going to be proved by observing the condition of the cage, the cleanliness of it, the health of the sheep, feeding and water, also owner treatments for their sheep that will be served as a fighter. Observations made using stable conditions ACRES form with assessment scores ranged from 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = regular, 4 = good and 5 = very good, animal welfare conditions seen by conducting observations and interviews with garut sheep owners. The result shows that the Garut sheep fighting contest has fulfilled the criteria of animal welfare application. Application of animal welfare principle by the owner of Garut sheep terms of ACRES (Animal Concerns Research and Education Society) below standard, the average score obtained was 1.76 which is mean in a very bad ratings. Besides considering the animal welfare application, sheep owners also do special treatments for their Garut sheep with the purpose to produce fighters that are healthy and strong. So, if the sheep wins in Garut sheep fight contest, it will purchase a high-value prices.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, contest, garut sheep, sheep fighting

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12 The Application of Animal Welfare for Madura Cow Racing Competition in Madura Island

Authors: Mustopa, Setyawan Wahyu Pradana

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the application of animal welfare in Madura cow racing competition at Sumenep district, Madura Island. This study conducted by survey and discussion methods with 3 Madura cow owners in the competition. The animal welfare is going to be proved by observing the condition of the cage, the cleanliness of it, feeding and water, the health of the cow, also owner treatments for their Madura cow that will be served as a racer. Observations made using stable conditions ACRES form with assessment scores ranged from 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = regular, 4 = good and 5 = very good, animal welfare conditions seen by conducting observations and interviews with Madura cow owners. The result shows that the Madura cow competition has fulfilled the criteria of animal welfare application. Application of animal welfare principle by the owner of Madura cow terms of ACRES (Animal Concerns Research and Education Society) below standard, the average score obtained was 2.06, which is mean in a poor ratings. Besides considering the animal welfare application, Madura cow owners also do special treatments for their Madura cow with purpose to produce racers that are healthy and fast. Therefore, if the cow wins in Madura cow racing competition, it will purchase a high-value price.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Competition, racing, Madura cow

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11 The Aspect of Animal Welfare in Garut Ram’s Event (Seni Ketangkasan Domba Garut) in Indonesia

Authors: Aliyatul Widyan, Denie Heriyadi, An An Nurmeidiansyah

Abstract:

Garut Sheep is a commodity of sheep originally from West Java Indonesia, specifically it has combination rumpung ears less than 4 cm or ngadaun hiris (4-8cm) with ngabuntut bagong, or ngabuntut beurit. West Java culture diversity one of those is the Garut Ram’s Art and Fighting Contest. Garut Ram’s Art and Fighting Contest is an activity of competitive fighting between sheep which comes from Garut. The method used is a survey method in which watching and directly interviewing the farmers who competed in the event. This activity had some aspects of animal welfare in the context of the assessment of the fighting sheep, which are health 10%, performance and body conformation called adeg-adeg 25%, courage 10%, technical field 30% called with teknik pamidangan, technical crash 25%, the health assessment is the assessment conducted during registration by showing a letter issued by related agency declaring that the sheep is eligible to compete in the event, and then when the fighting time the health also will be assessed. Adeg-adeg assessed an aspect of conformity assessment of body posture Garut ram from the physical performance is assessed on the body posture, horn, and the face. Technical of pamidangan assessed by the harmony of music and the movement of sheep to carry out the attack. Courage is assessed based on a mental condition and stamina when the fighting time, in addition to the assessments the activity has some other the component of culture and arts, such as, the audience called bobotoh, the clothes worn called pangsi, tarumpah or sandals, belts, and totopong, hats called laken, instructor of the match, and nayaga or group of people who play traditional Sundanese music to accompany this activity. Art aspect of animal welfare of this activity included the percentage of stroke technique is only around 25%, it makes the beauty of this art is not only measured by the Technical crash but also health, courage, and technique in the field has the highest mark in the assessment with 75 %, the event is certainly very different from sports such as boxing, taekwondo, karate or other martial sports which 100% only based on stroke or crash technique. Local culture value of Garut Ram’s Art and Fighting Contest results in the art of the local animal welfare.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Indonesia, garut sheep, the art of Garut Ram’s Art and Fighting Contest

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10 The Application of Animal Welfare for Slaughterhouses in Bali Island

Authors: Mustopa, Budi B. Leksono

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the application of animal welfare at slaughterhouses in Bali island. The method used is purposive sampling. This study conducted by two slaughterhouses are in Denpasar districts and Badung districts in the Bali island. The result shows the percentage the application of animal welfare when the animal unloading the truck to shelter animal in the Denpasar slaughterhouse is 73.19%, whereas in Badung slaughterhouses are 63.04%. Percentage of the application of animal welfare when shelter animal to slaughter in the Denpasar slaughterhouses is 52.93%, whereas in Badung slaughterhouses are 75.96%. Based on these results, we can conclude that the slaughterhouses in the Bali island has been applying the principles of animal welfare, but needs to increase some aspects of animal welfare.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Bandung slaughterhouses, Bali Island, Denpasar slaughterhouses

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9 The Assesment of Animal Welfare at Slaughterhouses in Badung District, Bali Province

Authors: Mustopa, Ulil Afidah

Abstract:

The study aims to determine the assessment of animal welfare at slaughterhouses in Badung district, Bali province. The study was conducted for ten days with observed five cattle per day with a total 50 cattle. Observation begins when a cow came out of the pick up to be slaughtered, subsequently recorded in a questionnaire that has been provided.The result of the observation showed that the slaughterhouses in Bandung district have the implemented animal welfare which fulfills the requirement that is 63% before slaughtering process, and 76% at slaughtering process. Based on these results it can be concluded in slaughterhouses of Badung district already fulfill the requirements.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, assesment, Badung district, slaughterhousess

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8 Management in the Transport of Pigs to Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia

Authors: Natalia Uribe Corrales, María Fernanda Benavides Erazo, Santiago Henao Villegas

Abstract:

Introduction: Transport is a crucial link in the porcine chain because it is considered a stressful event in the animal, due to it is a new environment, which generates new interactions, together with factors such as speed, noise, temperature changes, vibrations, deprivation of food and water. Therefore, inadequate handling at this stage can lead to bruises, musculoskeletal injuries, fatigue, and mortality, resulting in canal seizures and economic losses. Objective: To characterize the transport and driving practices for the mobilization of standing pigs directed to slaughter plants in the Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia in 2017. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with the transporters arriving at the slaughterhouses approved by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA) during 2017 in the Valle de Aburrá. The process of obtaining the samples was made from probabilistic sampling. Variables such as journey time, mechanical technical certificate, training in animal welfare, driving speed, material, and condition of floors and separators, supervision of animals during the trip, load density and mortality were analyzed. It was approved by the ethics committee for the use and care of animals CICUA of CES University, Act number 14 of 2015. Results: 190 trucks were analyzed, finding that 12.4% did not have updated mechanical technical certificate; the transporters experience in pig’s transportation was an average of 9.4 years (d.e.7.5). The 85.8% reported not having received training in animal welfare. Other results were that the average speed was 63.04km/hr (d.e 13.46) and the 62% had floors in good condition; nevertheless, the 48% had bad conditions on separators. On the other hand, the 88% did not supervise their animals during the journey, although the 62.2% had an adequate loading density, in relation to the average mortality was 0.2 deaths/travel (d.e. 0.5). Conclusions: Trainers should be encouraged on issues such as proper maintenance of vehicles, animal welfare, obligatory review of animals during mobilization and speed of driving, as these poorly managed indicators generate stress in animals, increasing generation of injuries as well as possible accidents; also, it is necessary to continue to improve aspects such as aluminum floors and separators that favor easy cleaning and maintenance, as well as the appropriate handling in the density of load that generates animal welfare.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Pigs, driving practices, truck infrastructure

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7 Stun Practices in Swine in the Valle De Aburrá and Animal Welfare

Authors: Natalia Uribe Corrales, Santiago Henao Villegas, Carolina Cano Arroyave

Abstract:

Introduction: Stunning is an important stage in the meat industry due to the repercussions on the characteristics of the carcass. It has been demonstrated that inadequate stun can lead to hematomas, fractures and promote the appearance of pale, soft and exudative meat due to the stress caused in animals. In Colombia, gas narcosis and electrical stunning are the two authorized methods in pigs. Objective: To describe the practices of stunning in the Valle de Aburrá and its relation with animal welfare. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá slaughterhouses, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as stunning method, presence of vocalization, falls, slips, rhythmic breathing, corneal reflex and attempts to incorporate after stunning, stun time and time between stun and bleeding were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 50.2% had electrical stun, whose amperage and voltage were 1.23 (A) and 120 (V) respectively; 49.8% of the animals were stunned with CO2 chamber whose concentration was always above 95%, the mean desensitization time was 16.8 seconds (d.e.5.37); the mean time of stunning - bleeding was 47.9 seconds (d.e.13.9); similarly, it was found that 27.1% had vocalizations after stunning; 12% had falls; 10.7% showed rhythmic breathing; 33.3% exhibited corneal reflex; and 10.7% had reincorporation attempts. Conclusions: The methods of stunning used in the Valle de Aburrá, although performed with those permitted by law, are shortcomings in relation to the amperage and voltage used for each type of pig, as well, it is found that welfare animal is being violated to find signology of an inadequate desensitization. It is necessary to promote compliance with the principles of stunning according to Animal Welfare, and keep in mind that in electrical desensitization, the calibration of the equipment must be guaranteed (pressure according to the type of animal or current applied and the position where the electrodes are) and in the narcosis the equipment should be calibrated to ensure proper gas concentration and exposure time.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Pigs, quality of meat, stun methods

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6 Management Practices in Holding Pens in Pig’s Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia and Animal Welfare

Authors: Natalia Uribe Corrales, Santiago Henao Villegas

Abstract:

Introduction: The management of pigs in the holding pens at the slaughterhouses is a key point to minimize levels of stress and fear, improve efficiency, maintain a good quality of meat and avoid economic losses. Holding pens should guarantee drinking water continuously, a minimum space of 1.2 m2/ animal; As well as an adequate management in the conduction of the animals towards stun. Objective: To characterize the management practices in holding pens in slaughterhouses in the Valle de Aburrá. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá benefit plants, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as management mechanisms to the pens, time of housing, water supply, load density, vocalization, slips and falls of the animals in the pens and mechanism of conduction towards desensitization were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 35.6% were lowered with slaps from the trucks to the waiting pens; The lairage time was greater than 10 hours in 16% of the animals; 12.9% of pigs had no water permanently; 40.9% was subjected to a high load density, while 19.6% had a low load density. Regarding aspects of animal welfare, 37.3% presented high vocalizations; 29.3% and 14.2% presented slips or falls respectively. Regarding the mechanism of conduction towards desensitization, slapping was used in 56% and electrical prod in 4%. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue promoting the learning of the densities of load, since both high and low densities generate inconveniences in animal welfare, favoring the appearance of lesions and stress in the animals. Also, to promote the rule of permanent water in the pens and a time of housing less than 10 hours. In relation to the driving mechanisms, it is necessary to continue animal husbandry campaigns, encouraging the use of other alternatives such as boards or panels to assist the movement of pigs.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Swine, quality of meat, waiting pens

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5 Assessment of Cattle Welfare Traveling Long Distance from Jessore (Indian Border) to Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Hasanuzzaman, Mahabub Alam, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, M. Ahasanul Hoque

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Animals are transported from one place to another for different purposes in Bangladesh. However, the potential effect of long-distance transport on cattle health has not frequently been studied. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess health conditions of cattle transported from a long distance to Chittagong in Bangladesh. A total of 100 adult cattle, regardless of breed and sex, were selected at Benapole live cattle market in Jessore between August and September 2015 for the study. Blood samples were taken from 50 randomly selected cattle at 0 hours before transportation, just after transportation, at 12-16 hours post-conclusion of transportation, and 24 hours after transportation. The external health conditions and injuries of the cattle were assessed by close inspection, and the trader was interviewed using the structured questionnaire. Images of cattle injuries were taken with a camera. The basic internal health of the cattle was evaluated using standard hemato-biochemical tests. Animals were fasted and remained standing within a small space allocation (8-10 sq feet/animal) in the vehicle during transportation. Animals were provided only with paddy straw and water prior to selling at the destination market. The overall frequency of cattle injuries varied significantly (26% before vs. 47% after transportation; p < 0.001). The frequency of different cattle injuries also significantly varied by types such as abrasion (11% vs. 21%; p < 0.05) and barbed wire injury (9% vs. 18%; p < 0.05). Single cattle injury differed significantly (21% vs. 36%; p < 0.001). Cattle health conditions varied significantly (nasal discharge: 15% vs. 28%; p < 0.05; diarrhea: 15% vs. 23%; p < 0.05 and severe dehydration: 8% vs. 20%; p < 0.001). The values of hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte (L), neutrophil (N) and eosinophil (E) varied significantly (p ≤ 0.01) (Hb: 11.1mg/dl vs. 12.3mg/dl; TEC: 4.7 million/ml vs. 5.7million/ml; TLC: 6.2 thousand/ml vs. 7.3 thousand/ml; L: 61.7% vs. 58.1%; N: 29.7% vs. 32.8%; E: 3.8% vs. 4.7%). The values of serum total protein (TP), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride (TG), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) significantly differed (p ≤ 0.05) (TP: 6.8g/dl vs. 8.2g/dl; CK:574.9u/l vs. 1288u/l; TG: 104.7mg/dl vs. 127.7mg/dl; Ca: 11.3mg/dl vs. 13mg/dl; P: 7.3mg/dl vs. 7.6mg/dl; ALP: 303u/l vs. 363u/l). The identified status of external and internal health conditions of the cattle for trading purpose due to long-distance transportation in the present study indicates a high degree of transport stress and poor animal welfare.

Keywords: Transportation, Animal Welfare, Cattle, external and internal health conditions

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4 Animal Welfare Violations during Treatment at Different Level of Veterinary Hospitals

Authors: Mahabub Alam, Aparna Datta

Abstract:

Animal welfare is comparatively new area of research in Bangladesh and welfare concern for animal is increasing day by day. The study was conducted to investigate the animal welfare violations during treatment at different level of hospitals in Bangladesh and India. This study was conducted between January and May, 2017. The recorded data (N=180) were categorized into eight major types of violation like - delay in starting treatment, non-specific treatment, surgery without anesthesia, use of unsterilized needle, rough and painful handling, fearful approach, multiple pricking during injection and use of blunt needle. Categorized groups were analyzed according to different hospitals like Upazila Veterinary Hospitals, Bangladesh (UVHs), SAQ-Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Bangladesh (SAQTVH) and Veterinary College and Research Institute, India (VCRI). Among all hospitals, violation during treatment more frequently occurred in UVH. Among all violations, surgery without anesthesia was only found in UVH (80%) and it was belong to considerable number of cases (80%). In the view of other major violations like - non-specific treatment was 69% in UVHs, 13% in SAQTVH and 5% in VCRI. Use of unsterilized instruments during treatment was also higher in UVHs (65%) than SAQTVH (5%) and VCRI (1%). But delay in starting treatment varied insignificantly and it was 26-42% across the different levels of hospitals. Although multiple pricking during injection was found 30% cases in UVH, but statistical variations with other level of hospitals were unnoticed (p>0.05). The findings of this study will help to take necessary steps to control violation against animal welfare during treatment. A comprehensive study considering all levels of hospitals including field treatment is also recommended to find out the welfare violations during treatment.

Keywords: treatment, Animal Welfare, violations, veterinary hospitals

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3 The Application of Animal Welfare Certification System for Farm Animal in South Korea

Authors: Ahlyum Mun, Ji-Young Moon, Moon-Seok Yoon, Dong-Jin Baek, Doo-Seok Seo, Oun-Kyong Moon

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There is a growing public concern over the standards of farm animal welfare, with higher standards of food safety. In addition, the recent low incidence of Avian Influenza in laying hens among certificated farms is receiving attention. In this study, we introduce animal welfare systems covering the rearing, transport and slaughter of farm animals in South Korea. The concepts of animal welfare farm certification are based on ensuring the five freedoms of animal. The animal welfare is also achieved by observing the condition of environment including shelter and resting area, feeding and water and the care for the animal health. The certification of farm animal welfare is handled by the Animal Protection & Welfare Division of Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA). Following the full amendment of Animal Protection Law in 2011, animal welfare farm certification program has been implemented since 2012. The certification system has expanded to cover laying hen, swine, broiler, beef cattle and dairy cow, goat and duck farms. Livestock farmers who want to be certified must apply for certification at the APQA. Upon receipt of the application, the APQA notifies the applicant of the detailed schedule of the on-site examination after reviewing the document and conducts the on-site inspection according to the evaluation criteria of the welfare standard. If the on-site audit results meet the certification criteria, APQA issues a certificate. The production process of certified farms is inspected at least once a year for follow-up management. As of 2017, a total of 145 farms have been certified (95 laying hen farms, 12 swine farms, 30 broiler farms and 8 dairy cow farms). In addition, animal welfare transportation vehicles and slaughterhouses have been designated since 2013 and currently 6 slaughterhouses have been certified. Animal Protection Law has been amended so that animal welfare certification marks can be affixed only to livestock products produced by animal welfare farms, transported through animal welfare vehicles and slaughtered at animal welfare slaughterhouses. The whole process including rearing–transportation- slaughtering completes the farm animal welfare system. APQA established its second 5-year animal welfare plan (2014-2019) that includes setting a minimum standard of animal welfare applicable to all livestock farms, transportation vehicles and slaughterhouses. In accordance with this plan, we will promote the farm animal welfare policy in order to truly advance the Korean livestock industry.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, farm animal, South Korea, certification system

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2 Recent Advances in the Valorization of Goat Milk: Nutritional Properties and Production Sustainability

Authors: A. M. Tarola, R. Preti, A. M. Girelli, P. Campana

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Goat dairy products are gaining popularity worldwide. In developing countries, but also in many marginal regions of the Mediterranean area, goats represent a great part of the economy and ensure food security. In fact, these small ruminants are able to convert efficiently poor weedy plants and small trees into traditional products of high nutritional quality, showing great resilience to different climatic and environmental conditions. In developed countries, goat milk is appreciated for the presence of health-promoting compounds, bioactive compounds such as conjugated linoleic acids, oligosaccharides, sphingolipids and polyammines. This paper focuses on the recent advances in literature on the nutritional properties of goat milk and on innovative techniques to improve its quality as to become a promising functional food. The environmental sustainability of different methodologies of production has also been examined. Goat milk is valued today as a food of high nutritional value and functional properties as well as small environmental footprint. It is widely consumed in many countries due to high nutritional value, lower allergenic potential, and better digestibility when compared to bovine milk, that makes this product suitable for infants, elderly or sensitive patients. The main differences in chemical composition between a cow and goat milk rely on fat globules that in goat milk are smaller and in fatty acids that present a smaller chain length, while protein, fat, and lactose concentration are comparable. Milk nutritional properties have demonstrated to be strongly influenced by animal diet, genotype, and welfare, but also by season and production systems. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the dairy industry in goat milk for its relatively high concentration of prebiotics and a good amount of probiotics, which have recently gained importance for their therapeutic potential. Therefore, goat milk is studied as a promising matrix to develop innovative functional foods. In addition to the economic and nutritional value, goat milk is considered a sustainable product for its small environmental footprint, as they require relatively little water and land, and less medical treatments, compared to cow, these characteristics make its production naturally vocated to organic farming. Organic goat milk production has becoming more and more interesting both for farmers and consumers as it can answer to several concerns like environment protection, animal welfare and economical sustainment of rural populations living in marginal lands. These evidences make goat milk an ancient food with novel properties and advantages to be valorized and exploited.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Bioactive Compounds, Sustainable Production, Nutritional Quality, goat milk

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1 Capacity for Care: A Management Model for Increasing Animal Live Release Rates, Reducing Animal Intake and Euthanasia Rates in an Australian Open Admission Animal Shelter

Authors: Ann Enright

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More than ever, animal shelters need to identify ways to reduce the number of animals entering shelter facilities and the incidence of euthanasia. Managing animal overpopulation using euthanasia can have detrimental health and emotional consequences for the shelter staff involved. There are also community expectations with moral and financial implications to consider. To achieve the goals of reducing animal intake and the incidence of euthanasia, shelter best practice involves combining programs, procedures and partnerships to increase live release rates (LRR), reduce the incidence of disease, length of stay (LOS) and shelter intake whilst overall remaining financially viable. Analysing daily processes, tracking outcomes and implementing simple strategies enabled shelter staff to more effectively focus their efforts and achieve amazing results. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of implementing the capacity for care (C4C) management model. Data focusing on the average daily number of animals on site for a two year period (2016 – 2017) was exported from a shelter management system, Customer Logic (CL) Vet to Excel for manipulation and comparison. Following the implementation of C4C practices the average daily number of animals on site was reduced by >50%, (2016 average 103 compared to 2017 average 49), average LOS reduced by 50% from 8 weeks to 4 weeks and incidence of disease reduced from ≥ 70% to less than 2% of the cats on site at the completion of the study. The total number of stray cats entering the shelter due to council contracts reduced by 50% (486 to 248). Improved cat outcomes were attributed to strategies that increased adoptions and reduced euthanasia of poorly socialized cats, including foster programs. To continue to achieve improvements in LRR and LOS, strategies to decrease intake further would be beneficial, for example, targeted sterilisation programs. In conclusion, the study highlighted the benefits of using C4C as a management tool, delivering a significant reduction in animal intake and euthanasia with positive emotional, financial and community outcomes.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Euthanasia, Cat, shelter, length of stay, capacity for care, managed intake

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