Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

angiogenesis Related Abstracts

14 The Investigation of the Active Constituents, Danshen for Angiogenesis

Authors: Yin Lu, Liang Zhou, Xiaojing Zhu

Abstract:

Danshen can induce the angiogenesis in advanced ischemic heart disease while inhibiting the angiogenesis in cancer. Additionally, Danshen mainly contains two groups of ingredients: the hydrophilic phenolic acids (danshensu, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B), and the lipophilic tanshinones (dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone II A, and cryptotanshinone). The lipophilic tanshinones reduced the VEGF- and bFGF-induced proliferation of HUVECs in dose-dependent manner, but cannot perform in others. Conversely, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B had the opposite effect. Danshensu inhibited the VEGF- and bFGF-induced migration of HUVECs, and others were not. Most of them interrupted the forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs, except the danshensu and caffeic acid. Oppositely, caffeic acid enhanced the ability of forming capillary-like structures of HUVECs. Ultimately, the lipophilic tanshinones, danshensu and salvianolic acid B inhibited the angiogenesis, whereas the caffeic acid induced the angiogenesis. These data provide useful information for the classification of ingredients of Danshen for angiogenesis.

Keywords: ingredients, angiogenesis, Danshen, HUVECs

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13 Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Li Chen, Feng Zhang, Yin Lu, Shizhong Zheng, Xiaojing Zhu, Desong Kong, Xiaoping Zhang

Abstract:

Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.

Keywords: Curcumin, angiogenesis, hepatic stellate cell, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

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12 Modulation of Tamoxifen-Induced Cytotoxicity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 3-Bromopyruvate

Authors: Yasmin M. Attia, Hanan S. El-Abhar, Mahmoud M. Al Marzabani, Samia A. Shouman

Abstract:

Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) is the most commonly used hormone therapy for the treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer. Although it significantly decreases the tumor recurrence rate and provides an overall benefit, as much as 20–30% of women still relapse during or after long-term therapy. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors and cell lines. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the combined effect of (TAM) and (3-BP) in breast cancer cells and to explore their molecular interaction via assessment of apoptotic, angiogenic, and metastatic markers. Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity study was carried out for both compounds to determine the combination regimen producing a synergistic effect and mechanistic pathways were studied using RT-PCR and western techniques. Moreover, the anti-oncolytic and anti-angiogenic potentials were assessed in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). Results: The combined treatment significantly increased the expressions and protein levels of caspase 7, 9, and 3 and decreased of angiogenic markers VEGF, HIF-1α, and HK2 compared to cells treated with either drug individually. However, there were no significant changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels. Interestingly, the in vivo results supported the in vitro findings; there was a decrease in the tumor volume and VEFG using immunohistochemistry in the combination-treated groups compared to either TAM or 3-BP treated one. Conclusion: 3-BP synergizes the cytotoxic effect of TAM by increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis which makes this combination a promising regimen to be applied clinically.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Cytotoxicity, angiogenesis, tamoxifen

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11 The Angiogenic Activity of α-Mangostin in the Development of Zebrafish Embryo In Vivo

Authors: Titis Indah Adi Rahayu

Abstract:

Angiogenesis is the process of generating new capillary from pre-existing blood vessels. VEGFA is a major regulator in angiogenesis that binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1/KDR) which regulate pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Disruption of VEGFA and VEGFR2 regulation lead to many diseases. The study of α-Mangostin (derivate of xanthone) as anti-oxidant and anti inflammation has been explored recently and both of them have relation to vasculature however the effect of α-Mangostin in blood vessel formation in healthy tissue in vivo has not been studied. Zebrafish is a powerful model in studying angiogenesis and shared many advantages that is a viable whole animal model for screening small molecules that affect blood vessel formation. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate angiogenic activity of α-Mangostin in healthy tissue in vivo in zebrafish embryo in relation of patterning blood vessel. Blood vessel patterning is highly characteristic in the developing of zebrafish embryo and the subintestinal vessel (SIV) can be stained and visualized microscopically as a primary screen for α-Mangostin that effect angiogenesis. The zebrafish embryos are divided into 2 groups. Group one consists of the zebrafish embryos at 1 dpf for 4 days which are tested to α-Mangostin in several concentration 2 µM, 4 µM, 6 µM, 8 µM and 10 µM whereas in group two the zebrafish larva at 4 dpf are exposed to α-Mangostin 1,75 µM, 2,3 µM, 2,9 µM, 3,8 µM dan 5 µM for 2 days. DMSO is served as a control for each group. The level expression of vegfa and vegfr2 are observed quantitatively using real time q-PCR and patterning of SIV are then analized via alkaline phospatase staining. Result shows that the level expression of vegfa and vegfr2 is repressed quantitatively as shown in real time q-PCR in the group of 1-4 days of α-Mangostin exposure where it is increased in the group of 4-6 days of α-Mangostin exposure. The result is then compared to alkaline phospatase staining of SIV using stereo microscope. It indicates that α-Mangostin does not disturb the patterning of SIV formation in zebrafish.

Keywords: angiogenesis, Danio rerio, α-Mangostin, SIV, vegfa, vegfr2

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10 Investigating Anti-Tumourigenic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Resveratrol in Breast Carcinogenesis Using in-Silico Algorithms

Authors: Saeed Khan, Asma Zaib, Ayaz Ahmed Noonari, Sehrish Bint-e-Mohsin

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and is estimated that more than 450,000 deaths are reported each year. It accounts for about 14% of all female cancer deaths. Angiogenesis plays an essential role in Breast cancer development, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer predominantly begins in luminal epithelial cells lining the normal breast ducts. Breast carcinoma likely requires coordinated efforts of both increased proliferation and increased motility to progress to metastatic stages.Resveratrol: a natural stilbenoid, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects that inhibits proliferation of variety of human cancer cell lines, including breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers.The objective of this study is:To investigate anti-neoangiogenesis effects of Resveratrol in breast cancer and to analyze inhibitory effects of resveratrol on aromatase, Erα, HER2/neu, and VEGFR.Docking is the computational determination of binding affinity between molecule (protein structure and ligand).We performed molecular docking using Swiss-Dock and to determine docking effects of (1) Resveratrol with Aromatase, (2) Resveratrol with ERα (3) Resveratrol with HER2/neu and (4) Resveratrol with VEGFR2.Docking results of resveratrol determined inhibitory effects on aromatase with binding energy of -7.28 kcal/mol which shows anticancerous effects on estrogen dependent breast tumors. Resveratrol also show inhibitory effects on ERα and HER2/new with binging energy -8.02, and -6.74 respectively; which revealed anti-cytoproliferative effects upon breast cancer. On the other hand resveratrol v/s VEGFR showed potential inhibitory effects on neo-angiogenesis with binding energy -7.68 kcal/mol, angiogenesis is the important phenomenon that promote tumor development and metastasis. Resveratrol is an anti-breast cancer agent conformed by in silico studies, it has been identified that resveratrol can inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation by acting as competitive inhibitor of aromatase, ERα and HER2 neo, while neo-angiogemesis is restricted by binding to VEGFR which authenticates the anti-carcinogenic effects of resveratrol against breast cancer.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, angiogenesis, Resveratrol, anti-cytoproliferative

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9 Antiangiogenic Potential of Phellodendron amurense Bark Extract Observed on Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Ľudmila Ballová, Slavomír Kurhajec, Eva Petrovová, Jarmila Eftimová

Abstract:

Angiogenesis, a formation of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature, plays an important role in pathologic processes such as the growth and metastasis of tumours. Tumours cannot grow beyond a few millimetres without blood supply from the newly formed blood vessels from the host tissue, a process called tumour-induced angiogenesis. The successful research of antiangiogenic treatment of cancer has focused on nutraceuticals with angiogenesis-modulating properties. Berberine, as a major active component of the bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr., has shown antitumour activity by intervening into different steps of carcinogenesis. The influence of ethanolic extract of Phellodendron amurese bark on the angiogenesis was tested in vivo on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The irritancy of the CAM after the application of the crude bark extract dissolved in normal saline (10 mg/mL) was investigated on embryonic day 7. No significant signs of the irritancy, such as vasoconstriction, hyperaemia, haemorrhage or coagulation were observed which indicates the harmless character of the extract. A significant reduction in vessel sprouting and higher percentage of avascular zone was observed in the case of CAM treated with the extract in comparison with non-treated CAM (control), which is a proof of the antiangiogenic potential of the extract. These results could contribute to the development of novel drugs for the treatment of cancer or other diseases, in which angiogenesis plays a significant role.

Keywords: angiogenesis, berberine, chorioallantoic membrane, irritancy, phellodendron amurense

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8 Drug Delivery to Solid Tumor: Effect of Dynamic Capillary Network Induced by Tumor

Authors: Hossein Bazmara, Kaamran Raahemifar, Mostafa Sefidgar, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

The computational methods provide condition for investigation related to the process of drug delivery, such as convection and diffusion of drug in extracellular matrices, and drug extravasation from microvascular. The information of this process clarifies the mechanisms of drug delivery from the injection site to absorption by a solid tumor. In this study, an advanced numerical method is used to solve fluid flow and solute transport equations simultaneously to show how capillary network structure induced by tumor affects drug delivery. The effect of heterogeneous capillary network induced by tumor on interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery is investigated by this multi scale method. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network induced by tumor. Fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network and fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues. The Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. Finally, convection-diffusion-reaction equation is used to simulate drug delivery. The dynamic approach which changes the capillary network structure based on signals sent by hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli is used in this study for more realistic assumption. The study indicates that drug delivery to solid tumors depends on the tumor induced capillary network structure. The dynamic approach generates the irregular capillary network around the tumor and predicts a higher interstitial pressure in the tumor region. This elevated interstitial pressure with irregular capillary network leads to a heterogeneous distribution of drug in the tumor region similar to in vivo observations. The investigation indicates that the drug transport properties have a significant role against the physiological barrier of drug delivery to a solid tumor.

Keywords: angiogenesis, solid Tumor, physiological barriers to drug delivery, microvascular network, solute transport

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7 Angiogenesis and Blood Flow: The Role of Blood Flow in Proliferation and Migration of Endothelial Cells

Authors: Hossein Bazmara, Kaamran Raahemifar, Mostafa Sefidgar, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

Angiogenesis is formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels. Due to flow of blood in vessels, during angiogenesis, blood flow plays an important role in regulating the angiogenesis process. Multiple mathematical models of angiogenesis have been proposed to simulate the formation of the complicated network of capillaries around a tumor. In this work, a multi-scale model of angiogenesis is developed to show the effect of blood flow on capillaries and network formation. This model spans multiple temporal and spatial scales, i.e. intracellular (molecular), cellular, and extracellular (tissue) scales. In intracellular or molecular scale, the signaling cascade of endothelial cells is obtained. Two main stages in development of a vessel are considered. In the first stage, single sprouts are extended toward the tumor. In this stage, the main regulator of endothelial cells behavior is the signals from extracellular matrix. After anastomosis and formation of closed loops, blood flow starts in the capillaries. In this stage, blood flow induced signals regulate endothelial cells behaviors. In cellular scale, growth and migration of endothelial cells is modeled with a discrete lattice Monte Carlo method called cellular Pott's model (CPM). In extracellular (tissue) scale, diffusion of tumor angiogenic factors in the extracellular matrix, formation of closed loops (anastomosis), and shear stress induced by blood flow is considered. The model is able to simulate the formation of a closed loop and its extension. The results are validated against experimental data. The results show that, without blood flow, the capillaries are not able to maintain their integrity.

Keywords: angiogenesis, endothelial cells, multi-scale model, cellular Pott's model, signaling cascade

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6 Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Metastatic Effect of Aqueous Fraction from Euchelus Asper Methanolic Extract

Authors: Sweta Agrawal, Sachin Chaugule, Gargi Rane, Shashank More, Madhavi Indap

Abstract:

Angiogenesis and metastasis are two of the most important hallmarks of cancer. Hence, most of the cancer therapies nowadays are multi-targeted so as to reduce resistance and have better efficacy. As synthetic molecules arise with a burden of their toxicities and side-effects, more and more research is being focussed on exploiting the vast natural resources of drugs, in the form of plants and animals. Although, the idea of using marine organisms as a source of pharmaceuticals is not new, the pace at which marine drugs are being discovered, has definitely up surged! In the present study, we have assessed the anti-angiogenic and in vitro anti-metastatic activity of aqueous fraction from the extract of marine gastropod Euchelus asper. The soft body of Euchelus Asper was extracted with methanol and named EAME. Partition chromatography of EAME gave three fractions EAME I, II and III. Biochemical analysis revealed the presence of proteins in EAME III. Preliminary analysis had revealed the anti-angiogenic activity was exhibited by EAME III out of the three fractions. Hereafter, EAME III (concentration 25µg/ml-400µg/ml) was tested on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model for the detailed analysis of its potential anti-angiogenic effect. In vitro testing of the fraction (concentration 0.25µg/ml - 1µg/ml), involved cytotoxicity by SRB assay, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and anti-proliferative effect by scratch wound healing assay on A549 lung carcinoma cells. Apart from this, a portion of treated CAM as well as conditioned medium from treated A549 were subjected to gelatin zymography for assessment of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Our results revealed that EAME III exhibited significant anti-angiogenic activity on CAM which was also supported by histological observations. During histological studies of CAM, it was found that EAME III caused reduction in angiogenesis by altering the extracellular matrix of the CAM membrane. In vitro analysis disclosed that EAME III exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect on A549 cells and its effect was not dose-dependent. The results of flow cytometry confirmed that EAME III caused cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line as almost all of the treated cells were found in G1 phase. Further, the migration and proliferation of A549 was significantly reduced by EAME III as observed from the scratch wound assay. Moreover, Gelatin zymography analysis revealed that EAME III caused suppression of MMP-2 in CAM membrane and reduced MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression in A549 cells. This verified that the anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects of EAME III were correlated with the suppression of MMP-2 and -9. To conclude, EAME III shows dual anti-tumour action by reducing angiogenesis and exerting anti-metastatic effect on lung cancer cells, thus it has the potential to be used as an anti-cancer agent against lung carcinoma.

Keywords: angiogenesis, Marine Drugs, anti-cancer, matrix metalloproteinases

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5 Angiomotin Regulates Integrin Beta 1-Mediated Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis

Authors: Yuanyuan Zhang, Yujuan Zheng, Giuseppina Barutello, Sumako Kameishi, Kungchun Chiu, Katharina Hennig, Martial Balland, Federica Cavallo, Lars Holmgren

Abstract:

Angiogenesis describes that new blood vessels migrate from pre-existing ones to form 3D lumenized structure and remodeling. During directional migration toward the gradient of pro-angiogenic factors, the endothelial cells, especially the tip cells need filopodia to sense the environment and exert the pulling force. Of particular interest are the integrin proteins, which play an essential role in focal adhesion in the connection between migrating cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding how these biomechanical complexes orchestrate intrinsic and extrinsic forces is important for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving angiogenesis. We have previously identified Angiomotin (Amot), a member of Amot scaffold protein family, as a promoter for endothelial cell migration in vitro and zebrafish models. Hence, we established inducible endothelial-specific Amot knock-out mice to study normal retinal angiogenesis as well as tumor angiogenesis. We found that the migration ratio of the blood vessel network to the edge was significantly decreased in Amotec- retinas at postnatal day 6 (P6). While almost all the Amot defect tip cells lost migration advantages at P7. In consistence with the dramatic morphology defect of tip cells, there was a non-autonomous defect in astrocytes, as well as the disorganized fibronectin expression pattern correspondingly in migration front. Furthermore, the growth of transplanted LLC tumor was inhibited in Amot knockout mice due to fewer vasculature involved. By using MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model, there was a significantly longer period before tumors arised when Amot was specifically knocked out in blood vessels. In vitro evidence showed that Amot binded to beta-actin, Integrin beta 1 (ITGB1), Fibronectin, FAK, Vinculin, major focal adhesion molecules, and ITGB1 and stress fibers were distinctly induced by Amot transfection. Via traction force microscopy, the total energy (force indicater) was found significantly decreased in Amot knockdown cells. Taken together, we propose that Amot is a novel partner of the ITGB1/Fibronectin protein complex at focal adhesion and required for exerting force transition between endothelial cell and extracellular matrix.

Keywords: angiogenesis, angiomotin, endothelial cell migration, focal adhesion, integrin beta 1

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4 A Mathematical Analysis of a Model in Capillary Formation: The Roles of Endothelial, Pericyte and Macrophages in the Initiation of Angiogenesis

Authors: Serdal Pamuk, Irem Cay

Abstract:

Our model is based on the theory of reinforced random walks coupled with Michealis-Menten mechanisms which view endothelial cell receptors as the catalysts for transforming both tumor and macrophage derived tumor angiogenesis factor (TAF) into proteolytic enzyme which in turn degrade the basal lamina. The model consists of two main parts. First part has seven differential equations (DE’s) in one space dimension over the capillary, whereas the second part has the same number of DE’s in two space dimensions in the extra cellular matrix (ECM). We connect these two parts via some boundary conditions to move the cells into the ECM in order to initiate capillary formation. But, when does this movement begin? To address this question we estimate the thresholds that activate the transport equations in the capillary. We do this by using steady-state analysis of TAF equation under some assumptions. Once these equations are activated endothelial, pericyte and macrophage cells begin to move into the ECM for the initiation of angiogenesis. We do believe that our results play an important role for the mechanisms of cell migration which are crucial for tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we estimate the long time tendency of these three cells, and find that they tend to the transition probability functions as time evolves. We provide our numerical solutions which are in good agreement with our theoretical results.

Keywords: Mathematical Analysis, angiogenesis, steady-state, capillary formation, transition probability function

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3 Anti-Angiogenic Effects of the Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snake Crude Venom and Obtustatin

Authors: Narine Ghazaryan, Joana Catarina Macedo, Sara Vaz, Naira Ayvazyan, Elsa Logarinho

Abstract:

Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (MLO) is a poisonous snake in Armenia. Obtustatin represents the shortest known monomeric disintegrin, isolated from the snake venom of MLO, and is known to specifically inhibit α1β1 integrin. Its oncostatic effect is due to the inhibition of angiogenesis, which likely arises from α1β1 integrin inhibition in the endothelial cells. To explore the therapeutic potential of the MLO snake venom and obtustatin, we studied activity of obtustatin and MLO venom in vitro, by testing their efficacy in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-D) and in vivo, using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Our in vitro results showed that obtustatin in comparison with MLO venom did not exhibit cytotoxic activity in HMVEC-D cells in comparison to MLO venom. But in vivo results have shown that 4µg /embryo (90 µM) of obtustatin inhibited angiogenesis induced by FGF2 by 17% while MLO snake venom induced 22% reduction of the angiogenic index. The concentration of obtustatin in the crude MLO venom was 0.3 nM, which is 300.000 times less than the concentration of the obtustatin itself. Given this enormous difference in concentration, it is likely that some components of the crude venom contribute to the observed anti-angiogenic effect. Hypotheses will be ascertained to justify this action: components in the MLO venom may increase obtustatin efficacy or have independent but synergic anti-angiogenic activities.

Keywords: angiogenesis, alpa1 beta 1 integrin, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, obtustatin

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2 The Effect of Different Exercise Intensities on Plasma Endostatin in Healthy Volunteers

Authors: Inayat Shah, Muhammad Omar Malik, Ghareeb Alshuwaier, Ronald H. Baxendale

Abstract:

Background: The balance between angiogenesis and angiostasis is important in growth and developmental processes in the body. Angiogenic and angiostatic mediators control this balance. Endostatin is one of the prominent angiostatic mediators. The marked angiostatic effect of endostatin includes inhibiting endothelial cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Physical activity decreases the risk and development of many angiogenesis related health problems including atherosclerosis and numerous cancers. Physiological influences of different physical activities on plasma endostatin concentration are controversial and not completely clear. Moreover, correlation of physical characteristics and metabolic predictors during physical activity on circulating endostatin is indistinct and poorly speculated. The study aimed to determine the effects of mild, moderate and vigorous exercise on the concentration of endostatin in plasma. Methodology: 22 participants, 16 males (age = 30.6 ± 7.8 years) and 6 females (age = 26.5 ± 5 years) were recruited. Weekly session of different intensities exercise based on the predicted maximum heart of the participants [60%(low), 70% (moderate) and 80% (vigorous)] were carried out. The duration and work rate for each participant was determined through sub-maximal exercise. Standardization of the session was done on total energy expenditure of the participants per session. One pre exercise and two post exercise samples were taken at intervals of 10 and 60 minutes. Results: Pre-exercise mean endostatin was 101 ± 20 ng/dl. Low intensity exercise insignificantly decreased the endostatin concentration in plasma at 10 and 60 minutes 97 ± 20 ng/dl (p= 0.5), 98 ± 23 ng/dl (p= 0.8)). However, moderate (p= 0.022, 0.004) and vigorous intensities (p ≤ 0.001, 0.02) increased the endostatin concentrations significantly at both 10 and 60 minutes intervals respectively. The effects were not significantly influenced by gender, exercise mode (walking vs. running), components of exercise (HR, Speed, Gradients, distance, duration) or metabolism during exercise (VO₂ max, VCO₂, RER, energy expenditure, rate of carbohydrate or fats oxidation). Conclusion: Low intensity exercises did not influence endostatin concentration. However, moderate to high intensity exercises significantly increase endostatin concentration and may have potential benefits.

Keywords: Exercise, Physical Activity, angiogenesis, endostatin

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1 Targeting Tumour Survival and Angiogenic Migration after Radiosensitization with an Estrone Analogue in an in vitro Bone Metastasis Model

Authors: Annie M. Joubert, Roy Lakier, Jolene M. Helena, Peace Mabeta, Magdalena Coetzee, Anne E. Mercier

Abstract:

Targeting the distant tumour and its microenvironment whilst preserving bone density is important in improving the outcomes of patients with bone metastases. 2-Ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) is an in-silico-designed 2- methoxyestradiol analogue which aimed at enhancing the parent compound’s cytotoxicity and providing a more favourable pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, the potential radiosensitization effects of ESE-16 were investigated in an in vitro bone metastasis model consisting of murine pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) and pre-osteoclastic (RAW 264.7) bone cells, metastatic prostate (DU 145) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells, as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity studies were conducted on all cell lines via spectrophotometric quantification of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The experimental set-up consisted of flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptosis detection (Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate) to determine the lowest ESE-16 and radiation doses to induce apoptosis and significantly reduce cell viability. Subsequent experiments entailed a 24-hour low-dose ESE-16-exposure followed by a single dose of radiation. Termination proceeded 2, 24 or 48 hours thereafter. The effect of the combination treatment was investigated on osteoclasts via tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity- and actin ring formation assays. Tumour cell experiments included investigation of mitotic indices via haematoxylin and eosin staining; pro-apoptotic signalling via spectrophotometric quantification of caspase 3; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage via micronuclei analysis and histone H2A.X phosphorylation (γ-H2A.X); and Western blot analyses of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. HUVEC experiments included flow cytometric quantification of cell cycle progression and free radical production; fluorescent examination of cytoskeletal morphology; invasion and migration studies on an xCELLigence platform; and Western blot analyses of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2. Tumour cells yielded half-maximal growth inhibitory concentration (GI50) values in the nanomolar range. ESE-16 concentrations of 235 nM (DU 145) and 176 nM (MDA-MB-231) and a radiation dose of 4 Gy were found to be significant in cell cycle and apoptosis experiments. Bone and endothelial cells were exposed to the same doses as DU 145 cells. Cytotoxicity studies on bone cells reported that RAW 264.7 cells were more sensitive to the combination treatment than MC3T3-E1 cells. Mature osteoclasts were more sensitive than pre-osteoclasts with respect to TRAP activity. However, actin ring morphology was retained. The mitotic arrest was evident in tumour and endothelial cells in the mitotic index and cell cycle experiments. Increased caspase 3 activity and superoxide production indicated pro-apoptotic signalling in tumour and endothelial cells. Increased micronuclei numbers and γ-H2A.X foci indicated increased DNA damage in tumour cells. Compromised actin and tubulin morphologies and decreased invasion and migration were observed in endothelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed reduced metastatic and angiogenic signalling. ESE-16-induced radiosensitization inhibits metastatic signalling and tumour cell survival whilst preferentially preserving bone cells. This low-dose combination treatment strategy may promote the quality of life of patients with metastatic bone disease. Future studies will include 3-dimensional in-vitro and murine in-vivo models.

Keywords: Cancer, apoptosis, angiogenesis, DNA damage, Cell migration, cytoskeleton, radiosensitization, bone metastasis, ESE-16

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