Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Anatomy Related Abstracts

16 Gross Anatomical and Ultra Structural Microscopic Studies on the Nose of the Dromedary Camel (Camelus Dromederius)

Authors: Mahmoud S Gewaily, Atif Hasan, Mohamed Kassab, Ali A. Mansour

Abstract:

The current study was carried out on the nose of seventeenth healthy adult camels. Specimens were collected from slaughter houses then fixed, dissected and photographed. For ultra structural studies, fresh samples were fixed in different fixatives and prepared for examination by light, scanning and electron microscopes. Grossly, nose of the camel had narrow nostrils, slit like in outline. In the nasal cavity, the nasal vestibule was narrow and has scanty dorsal and lateral cartilaginous support. The Nasal conchae (dorsal, middle and ventral) enclosed the dorsal, middle conchal sinuses and no ventral conchal sinus; instead there was recess and bull a. The ethmoidal conchae (8 in number) were noticeably fewer than in the other domestic animals like ox and horse. The olfactory mucosa was restricted to a small area covering the caudal parts of the ethmoidal conchae. The lining epithelium of the nasal cavity changes gradually from stratified squamous epithelium in the nasal vestibule to pseudo stratified columnar ciliated in the respiratory region and finally, olfactory epithelium covering the caudal parts of the ethmoidal conchae. In the dromedary camel, a special feature was the presence of dense and relatively long hair covering the nostrils and the rostral part of the nasal vestibule. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the nose of the dromedary camel, especially in its rostral parts enable this animal to breathe properly in the sandy dry weather.

Keywords: Anatomy, camel nose, dromedary camel, nasal vestibule

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15 Gross Anatomical Study on the Tributaries of the Hepatic Portal Vein in Cattle Egret (Bubulcus Ibis)

Authors: Elsayed Fath Khalifa, Samer Mohamed Daghash

Abstract:

The aim of the current work study to increase the anatomical knowledge about the cattle egret which considered economically important for farmers. The study was carried out on ten adult, apparently healthy cattle egrets of both sexes. Each bird was exsanguinated; the caudal vena cava was cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with blue colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the tributaries of the hepatic portal vein. The origin, course and tributaries of the right and left hepatic portal veins were studied. The hepatic portal venous system collected venous blood from the abdominal viscera including; glandular and muscular stomachs, liver, pancreas, spleen, small intestine and large intestine. The hepatic portal vein was formed by the left and the right hepatic portal veins. The smaller left one drained blood from the glandular and muscular stomachs through the ventral and the left proventriculus as well as the left gastric veins. The most tributaries of the right hepatic portal vein drained blood from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract and the spleen by the proventriculosplenic, the gastropancreaticoduodenal and the common mesenteric veins.

Keywords: Anatomy, cattle egret, common mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein

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14 The Lamination and Arterial Blood Supply of the Masseter Muscle of Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Samer Mohamed Daghash, Elsyed Fath Khalifa

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the structure of the masseter muscle of camel and its attachments to the skull as well as the relationships with its arterial blood supply. Fourteen heads of clinically healthy camels of different ages and sexes were used in the present investigation. The both common carotid arteries of six specimens were cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with red colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the pattern of the blood supply to the masseter muscle. Two heads were injected with an eventually mixture of 75gm red lead oxide in 150cc latex and preserved in a cold room for 3-4 days then divided sagittaly along the median plane to avoid super imposition of the arteries. The arteries of the masseter muscle of each half were radiographed. Four heads were used in manual dissection to describe the laminar arrangement of the masseter muscle. The masseter muscle of the camel was very tendinous and was situated far caudally, which enable the camel to open its jaw very wide. In the camel, the masseter muscle was recognized into proper and improper masseter groups. The proper group included the first, second superficial, intermediate and deep masseter layers. The improper group consisted of maxillo-mandibularis and zygomatico-mandibularis. The remaining two heads were used for clearance.

Keywords: Anatomy, camel, masseter, lamination, blood supply

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13 The Effect of Vitamin "E" on the Peripheral Neurotoxicity of Antimony in Adult Male Albino Rat

Authors: Pymaneh Bairami Rad

Abstract:

The present work was planned with the aim to study the histological changes that might occur in the sciatic nerve of adult male albino rat following antimony trioxide exposure and to throw more light on the protective role of vitamin "E" on the peripheral neurotoxicity induced by this environmental toxin Sixty adult male albino rats, weighing 183 - 235 grams, were utilized in this work. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received antimony trioxide daily for 12 successive weeks , animals of group III received antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" daily for the same duration. Antimony trioxide was given in a daily dose of 500 mg/ kg body weight which represents 1/40 of the known LD50 and vitamin "E" was administered in a daily dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. Both antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" were given to the animals by gastric intubation. This research revealed many histological changes in the sciatic nerve, following exposure to antimony trioxide, including Wallerian degeneration in most myelinated nerve fibers with pleomorphic destruction, fragmentation, loss of normal lamination and rupture of myelin sheaths. The axoplasms of these nerve fibers were irregular, degenerated and contained myelin fragments with loss of neurofibrils. Obvious increase in endoneurium was also observed. Concomitant administration of vitamin "E" with antimony trioxide resulted in marked improvement in the histological changes observed in the sciatic nerve.

Keywords: Anatomy, Histology, vitamin E, neurotoxicity, antimony

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12 Review of the Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery and Its Anomalies

Authors: Karen Cilliers, Benedict John Page

Abstract:

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most complex cerebral artery although few anomalies are found compared to the other cerebral arteries. The branches of the MCA cover a large part of each hemisphere, therefore it is exposed in various operations. Although the segments of the MCA are similarly described by most authors, there is some disagreement on the branching pattern of the MCA. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the anatomy and variations of the MCA, and to compare this to a pilot study. For the pilot study, 20 hemispheres were perfused with coloured silicone and the MCA was dissected. According to the literature, the two most common branching configurations are the bifurcating and trifurcating patterns. In the pilot study, bifurcation was observed in 19 hemispheres, and in one hemisphere there was no branching (monofurcation). No trifurcation was observed. The most commonly duplicated branch was the anterior parietal artery in 30%, and most commonly absent was the common temporal artery in 65% and the temporal polar artery in 40%. Very few studies describe the origins of the branches of the MCA, therefore a detailed description is given. Middle cerebral artery variations that are occasionally reported in the literature include fenestration, and a duplicated or accessory MCA, although no variations were observed in the pilot study. Aneurysms can frequently be observed at the branching of cerebral vessels, therefore a thorough knowledge of the vascular anatomy is vital. Furthermore, knowledge of possible variations is important since variations can have serious clinical implications.

Keywords: Anatomy, Variation, anomaly, description, middle cerebral artery, origin

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11 Impact of Overall Teaching Program of Anatomy in Learning: A Students Perspective

Authors: Mamatha Hosapatna, Anne D. Souza, Vrinda Hari Ankolekar, Antony Sylvan Dsouza

Abstract:

Our study intends to know the effect of the overall teaching program of Anatomy on a students learning. The advancement of various teaching methodologies in the present era has led to progressive changes in education. A student should be able to correlate well between the theory and practical knowledge attained even in the early years of their education in medicine and should be able to implement the same in patient care. The present study therefore aims to assess the impact the current anatomy teaching program has on a students learning and to what extent is it successful in making the learning program effective. Specific objectives of our study to assess the impact of overall teaching program of Anatomy in a students’ learning. Description of process proposed: A questionnaire will be constructed and the students will be asked to put forth their views regarding the Anatomy teaching program and its method of assessment. Suggestions, if any will also be encouraged to be put forth. Type of study is cross sectional observations. Target population is the first year MBBS students and sample size is 250. Assessment plan is to obtaining students responses using questionnaire. Calculating percentages of the responses obtained. Tabulation of the results will be done.

Keywords: Anatomy, observational study questionnaire, observational study, M.B.B.S students

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10 Transforaminal Ligaments of the Lumbar Foramina: An Anatomic Study

Authors: Dušica L. Marić, Mirela Erić, Dušan M. Maić, Nebojša T. Milošević, Dragana Radošević, Nikola Vučinić

Abstract:

The anatomical existence of transforaminal ligaments has been studied widely. The crucial anatomic study of these structures describes the transforaminal ligaments as an anomalous structure. The ligaments associated with the intervertebral foramen were classified in the external, intraforaminal and internal foraminal ligaments. The external ligaments are the most frequently reported type of transforaminal ligaments in adult spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the appearance of the ligaments within the external space of the intervertebral foramen in adult cadavers. External transforaminal ligaments branch out forward from the root of the transverse process toward the vertebral body with superior, transverse and inferior directions. The ligament detected in the study was different from the other reported descriptions of L1 foraminal ligaments. This ligament extends from the root of the pedicle to the inferior border of the vertebral body below the level of the disc and forms the compartment through which pass the ventral root of the spinal nerve and a small branch of the spinal artery. The results of this study show that the external ligaments can be clearly macroscopic visualized, and it is very important to have prior knowledge of the cadaveric specimens, to identify these structures. The presence of these ligaments is clinically important. These ligaments could be the cause of nerve root compression and the low back syndrome.

Keywords: Anatomy, lumbar spine, ligaments, spinal nerve roots

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9 Anatomy Study of Seeds of Calligonium comosum in Vitro

Authors: Abobkar Saad, Qasmia Abdalla, Fatma Emhemed

Abstract:

Eighty-four of Calligonum comosum were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium on every combination supplemented with different concentrations of IAA, BA, Zeatin, and GA3. When 84 seeds were inoculated on MS free hormones, different types of cells contain dense cytoplasm were observed ater 23 days and long thick wall cells arranged in layers. In case of using MS +BA(0.5mg/L), different types and shapes of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm were detected after four weeks. In the case of using MS + BA(1mg/L) + GA3 (3mg/L), thick wall parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 19 days, but many layers of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 28 days. When MS +kin(0.5mg/L) a thick cells wall as Sclereids were observed after 29 days. No any response were observed on Zeatin (0.5, 1 mg/L).

Keywords: Anatomy, In vitro, Calligonum comosum, aeeds

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8 Growth and Anatomical Responses of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes) under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

Authors: Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Joseph Omojola, Ezekiel S. Joshua, Seyi C. Adediwura, Elijah T. Adesuji, Michael O. Odey, Oyinade A. Dedeke, Ayo H. Labulo

Abstract:

Microgravity is known to be a major abiotic stress in space which affects plants depending on the duration of exposure. In this work, tomatoes seeds were exposed to long hours of simulated microgravity condition using a one-axis clinostat. The seeds were sown on a 1.5% combination of plant nutrient and agar-agar solidified medium in three Petri dishes. One of the Petri dishes was mounted on the clinostat and allowed to rotate at the speed of 20 rpm for 72 hours, while the others were subjected to the normal gravity vector. The anatomical sections of both clinorotated and normal gravity plants were made after 72 hours and observed using a Phase-contrast digital microscope. The percentage germination, as well as the growth rate of the normal gravity seeds, was higher than the clinorotated ones. The germinated clinorotated roots followed different directions unlike the normal gravity ones which grew towards the direction of gravity vector. The clinostat was able to switch off gravistimulation. Distinct cellular arrangement was observed for tomatoes under normal gravity condition, unlike those of clinorotated ones. The root epidermis and cortex of normal gravity are thicker than the clinorotated ones. This implied that under long-term microgravity influence, plants do alter their anatomical features as a way of adapting to the stress condition.

Keywords: Anatomy, Microgravity, Germination, Lycopersicon esculentum, clinostat

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7 Biomechanical Analysis on Skin and Jejunum of Chemically Prepared Cat Cadavers Used in Surgery Training

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Marita V. Cardozo, Caio C. C. Santos, Alisson D. S. Fechis, Antonio C. Shimano, FabríCio S. Oliveira

Abstract:

Biomechanical analysis is an important factor in tissue studies. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new anatomical technique and quantify the changes in skin and the jejunum resistance of cats’ corpses throughout the process. Eight adult cat cadavers were used. For every kilogram of weight, 120ml of fixative solution (95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin) was applied via the external common carotid artery. Next, the carcasses were placed in a container with 96 GL ethyl alcohol for 60 days. After fixing, all carcasses were preserved in a 30% sodium chloride solution for 60 days. Before fixation, control samples were collected from fresh cadavers and after fixation, three skin and jejunum fragments from each cadaver were tested monthly for strength and displacement until complete rupture in a universal testing machine. All results were analyzed by F-test (P <0.05). In the jejunum, the force required to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 31.27±19.14N and 29.25±11.69N, respectively. For the samples preserved in the sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the strength was 26.17±16.18N and 30.57±13.77N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 2.79±0.73mm and 2.80±1.13mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 2.53±1.03mm and 2.83±1.27mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.68 with respect to strength, and P=0.75 with respect to displacement). In the skin, the force needed to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed for 60 days in alcohol was 223.86±131.5N and 211.86±137.53N respectively. For the samples preserved in sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the force was 227.73±129.06 and 224.78±143.83N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days were 3.67±1.03mm and 4.11±0.87mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 4.21±0.93mm and 3.93±0.71mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.65 with respect to strength, and P=0.98 with respect to displacement). The resistance of the skin and intestines of the cat carcasses suffered little change when subjected to alcohol fixation and preservation in sodium chloride solution, each for 60 days, which is promising for use in surgery training. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: Anatomy, Conservation, Small Animal, Fixation

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6 Microbiological Analysis on Anatomical Specimens of Cats for Use in Veterinary Surgery

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Marita V. Cardozo, Mariana T. Kihara, Fernando A. Ávila, Fabrício S. Oliveira

Abstract:

There are several fixative and preservative solutions for use on cadavers, many of them using formaldehyde as the fixative or anatomical part preservative. In some countries, such as Brazil, this toxic agent has been increasingly restricted. The objective of this study was to microbiologically identify and quantify the key agents in tanks containing 96GL ethanol or sodium chloride solutions, used respectively as fixatives and preservatives of cat cadavers. Eight adult cat corpses, three females and five males, with an average weight of 4.3 kg, were used. After injection via the external common carotid artery (120 ml/kg, 95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin), the cadavers were fixed in a plastic tank with 96GL ethanol for 60 days. After fixing, they were stored in a 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for 120 days in a similar tank. Samples were collected at the start of the experiment - before the animals were placed in the ethanol tanks, and monthly thereafter. The bacterial count was performed by Pour Plate Method in BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion) and the plates were incubated aerobically and anaerobically for 24h at 37ºC. MacConkey agar, SPS agar (Sulfite Polymyxin Sulfadizine) and MYP Agar Base were used to isolate the microorganisms. There was no microbial growth in the samples prior to alcohol fixation. After 30 days of fixation in the alcohol solution, total aerobic and anaerobic (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) were found and Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp. were the identified agents. After 60 days in the alcohol fixation solution, total aerobes (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<2.2 x 10 CFU/mL) were found, and the identified agents were the same. After 30 days of storage in the aqueous solution of 30% sodium chloride, total aerobic (<5.2 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<3.7 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the agents identified were Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. After 60 days of sodium chloride storage, total aerobic (<3.0 x 10 CFU / ml) and total anaerobes (<7.0 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the identified agents remained the same: Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. The microbiological count was low and visual inspection did not reveal signs of contamination in the tanks. There was no strong odor or purification, which proved the technique to be microbiologically effective in fixing and preserving the cat cadavers for the four-month period in which they are provided to undergraduate students of University of Veterinary Medicine for surgery practice. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: Surgery, Microbiology, Anatomy, Small Animal, Fixation

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5 Views of South African Academic Instructors to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Anatomy Education

Authors: Lelika Lazarus, Reshma Sookrajh, Kapil S. Satyapal

Abstract:

Reflecting on teaching is commonly cited as a fundamental practice for personal and professional development. Educational research into the scholarship of teaching and learning anatomy includes engaging in discipline specific literature on teaching, reflecting on individual teaching methods and communicating these findings to peers. The aim of this paper is to formally assess the opinions of senior anatomy instructors regarding the state of anatomical knowledge at their respective institutions. The context of the paper derives from ongoing debates about the perceived decline in standards of anatomical knowledge of medical students and postgraduate learners. An open ended questionnaire was devised consisting of eight direct questions seeking opinions on anatomy teaching, knowledge, and potential educational developments and general thoughts on the teaching of anatomy to medical students. These were distributed to senior anatomy Faculty (identified by the author by their affiliation with the Anatomical Society of Southern Africa) based at the eight national medical schools within the country. A number of key themes emerged. Most senior faculty felt that the standard of medical education at their respective institutions was ‘good.’. However, emphasis was also placed on the ‘quality of teaching’ incorporating clinical scenarios. There were also indications that staff are split into those that are keen to do research and those that are happy to provide teaching to medical students as their primary function. Several challenges were also highlighted such as time constraints within the medical curriculum, the lack of cadavers to reinforce knowledge and gain depth perception and lack of appropriately qualified staff. Recommendations included fostering partnerships with both clinicians and medical scientists into the anatomy curriculum thus improving teaching and research.

Keywords: Education, Teaching, Anatomy, reflection

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4 Anatomical and Histological Analysis of Salpinx and Ovary in Anatolian Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus aegagrus)

Authors: Gulseren Kirbas, Mushap Kuru, Buket Bakir, Ebru Karadag Sari

Abstract:

Capra (mountain goat) is a genus comprising nine species. The domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of the wild goat that is domesticated. This study aimed to determine the anatomical structure of the salpinx and ovary of the Anatolian wild goat (C. aegagrus aegagrus). Animals that were taken to the Kafkas University Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center, Kars, Turkey, because of various reasons, such as traffic accidents and firearm injuries, were used in this study. The salpinges and ovaries of four wild goats of similar ages, which could not be rescued by the Center despite all interventions, were dissected. Measurements were taken from the right-left salpinx and ovary using digital calipers. The weights of each ovary and salpinx were measured using a precision scale (min: 0.0001 g − max: 220 g, code: XB220A; Precisa, Swiss). The histological structure of the tissues was examined after weighing the organs. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h. Then a routine procedure was applied, and the tissues were embedded in paraffin. Mallory’s modified triple staining was used to demonstrate the general structure of the salpinx. The salpinx was found to consist of three different regions (infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus). These regions consisted of tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The prismatic epithelial cells were observed in the lamina epithelialis of tunica mucosa in every region, but the prismatic fimbrae cells occurred most in the infundibulum. The ampulla was distinguished by its many mucosal folds. It was the longest region of the salpinx and was joined to the isthmus via the ampullary–isthmus junction. Isthmus was the caudal end of the salpinx joined to the uterus and had the thickest tunica muscularis compared with the other regions. The mean length of the ovary was 13.22 ± 1.27 mm, width was 8.46 ± 0.88 mm, the thickness was 5.67 ± 0.79 mm, and weight was 0.59 ± 0.17 g. The average length of the salpinx was 58.11 ± 14.02 mm, width was 0.80 ± 0.22 mm, the thickness was 0.41 ± 0.01 mm, and weight was 0.30 ± 0.08 g. In conclusion, the Anatolian wild goat, which is included in wildlife diversity in Turkey, has been disappearing due to illegal and uncontrolled hunting as well as traffic accidents in recent years. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: Anatomy, Ovary, Anatolian wild goat, salpinx

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3 Evaluation of Computed Tomographic Anatomy of Respiratory System in Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica)

Authors: Saghar Karimi, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari Khafi, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi

Abstract:

In recent decades, keeping exotic species as pet animals has become widespread. Turtles are exotic species from chelonians, which are interested by many people. Caspian pond and European pond turtles from Emydidea family are commonly kept as pets in Iran. Presence of the shell in turtles makes achievement to a comprehensive clinical examination impossible. Respiratory system is one of the most important structures to be examined completely. Presence of the air in the respiratory system makes radiography the first modality to think of; however, image quality would be affected by the shell. Computed tomography (CT) as a radiography-based and non-invasive technique provides cross-sectional scans with little superimposition. The aim of this study was to depict normal computed tomographic anatomy of the respiratory system in Caspian Pond Turtle. Five adult Caspian pond turtle were scanned using a 16-detector CT machine. Our results showed that computed tomography is able to well illustrated different parts of respiratory system in turtle and can be used for detecting abnormalities and disorders.

Keywords: Anatomy, respiratory system, Computed Tomography, turtle

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2 Measurement of the Quadriceps Angle with Respect to Various Body Parameters in Arab Countries

Authors: Ramada R. Khasawneh, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Ejlal Abu-El Rub

Abstract:

The quadriceps angle (Q angle), formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon, is considered clinically as a very important parameter which displays the biomechanical effect of the quadriceps muscle on the knee, and it is also regarded as a crucial factor for the proper posture and movement of the knee patella. This study had been conducted to measure the normal Q angle values range in the Arab nationalities and determine the correlation between Q angle values and several body parameters, including gender, height, weight, dominant side, and the condylar distance of the femur. The study includes 500 healthy Arab students from Yarmouk University and Jordan University of Science and Technology. The Q angle of those volunteers was measured using a universal manual Goniometer with the subjects in the upright weight-bearing position. It was found that the Q angle was greater in women than in men. The analysis of the data revealed an insignificant increase in the dominant side of the Q angle. In addition, the Q was significantly higher in the taller people of both sexes. However, the Q angle did not present any considerable correlation with weight in the study population; conversely, it was observed that there was a link with the condylar distance of the femur in both sexes. It was also noticed that the Q angle increased remarkably when there was an increase in the condylar distance. Consequently, it turned out that the gender, height, and the condylar distance were momentous factors that had an impact on the Q angle in our study samples. However, weight and dominance factors did not show to have any influence on the values in our study.

Keywords: Anatomy, Jordanian, Q angle, condylar distance

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1 Anatomical and Pathological Evaluation of Anomaly Cases Presented to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, between 2017 and 2019

Authors: Mushap Kuru, Gülseren Kırbaş Doğan, Emin Karakurt, Hilmi Nuhoğlu

Abstract:

Developmental anomalies can be caused by defects in bone tissue, cartilage tissue, or primitive mesenchymal tissue. Genetic-, environmental-, teratogenic-, faulty breeding selection–, or feeding-related anomalies can be observed either locally or systemically. This study aimed to evaluate in detail the various anomalies in six calves according to pathological and anatomical investigations. Six calves were delivered to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine between 2017 and 2019. These calves comprised one with anencephaly, one with the diencephalic syndrome, one with Schistosoma reflexum, two with anasarca, and one with nasal and calvarium openings. After necropsy, samples were taken from the organs, foreseen, and routine pathological examinations were performed. Following these procedures, the calves were brought to the anatomy laboratory and anatomically examined. As a result, various anomalies in 6 calves were evaluated according to pathological and anatomical investigations. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: Anatomy, Pathology, Calf, anomaly

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