Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

analytical model Related Abstracts

14 Theoretical Analysis and Design Consideration of Screened Heat Pipes for Low-Medium Concentration Solar Receivers

Authors: Davoud Jafari, Paolo Di Marco, Alessandro Franco, Sauro Filippeschi


This paper summarizes the results of an investigation into the heat pipe heat transfer for solar collector applications. The study aims to show the feasibility of a concentrating solar collector, which is coupled with a heat pipe. Particular emphasis is placed on the capillary and boiling limits in capillary porous structures, with different mesh numbers and wick thicknesses. A mathematical model of a cylindrical heat pipe is applied to study its behaviour when it is exposed to higher heat input at the evaporator. The steady state analytical model includes two-dimensional heat conduction in the HP’s wall, the liquid flow in the wick and vapor hydrodynamics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by considering different design criteria and working conditions. Different wicks (mesh 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and, 300), different porosities (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9) with different wick thicknesses (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm) are analyzed with water as a working fluid. Results show that it is possible to improve heat transfer capability (HTC) of a HP by selecting the appropriate wick thickness, the effective pore radius, and lengths for a given HP configuration, and there exist optimal design criteria (optimal thick, evaporator adiabatic and condenser sections). It is shown that the boiling and wicking limits are connected and occurs in dependence on each other. As different parts of the HP external surface collect different fractions of the total incoming insolation, the analysis of non-uniform heat flux distribution indicates that peak heat flux is not affecting parameter. The parametric investigations are aimed to determine working limits and thermal performance of HP for medium temperature SC application.

Keywords: screened heat pipes, analytical model, boiling and capillary limits, concentrating collector

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13 Parametric Study of Vertical Diffusion Stills for Water Desalination

Authors: A. Seleem, M. Mortada, M. Younan, M. El-Morsi


Diffusion stills have been effective in water desalination. The present work represents a model of the distillation process by using vertical single-effect diffusion stills. A semi-analytical model has been developed to model the process. A software computer code using Engineering Equation Solver EES software has been developed to solve the equations of the developed model. An experimental setup has been constructed, and used for the validation of the model. The model is also validated against former literature results. The results obtained from the present experimental test rig, and the data from the literature, have been compared with the results of the code to find its best range of validity. In addition, a parametric analysis of the system has been developed using the model to determine the effect of operating conditions on the system's performance. The dominant parameters that affect the productivity of the still are the hot plate temperature that ranges from (55-90 °C) and feed flow rate in range of (0.00694-0.0211 kg/m2-s).

Keywords: analytical model, solar distillation, vertical diffusion still, sustainable water systems

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12 Development of an Analytical Model for a Synchronous Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: T. Sahbani, M. Bouteraa, R. Wamkeue


Wind Turbine are considered to be one of the more efficient system of energy production nowadays, a reason that leads the main industrial companies in wind turbine construction and researchers in over the world to look for better performance and one of the ways for that is the use of the synchronous permanent magnet generator. In this context, this work is about developing an analytical model that could simulate different situation in which the synchronous generator may go through, and of course this model match perfectly with the numerical and experimental model.

Keywords: Wind turbine, MATLAB, analytical model, synchronous permanent magnet generator

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11 3D Model of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Inclined Cable

Authors: Seung-Eock Kim, Viet-Hung Truong


Rain–wind induced vibration of inclined cable is a special aerodynamic phenomenon because it is easily influenced by many factors, especially the distribution of rivulet and wind velocity. This paper proposes a new 3D model of inclined cable, based on single degree-of-freedom model. Aerodynamic forces are firstly established and verified with the existing results from a 2D model. The 3D model of inclined cable is developed. The 3D model is then applied to assess the effects of wind velocity distribution and the continuity of rivulets on the cable. Finally, an inclined cable model with small sag is investigated.

Keywords: analytical model, rain - wind induced vibration, rivulet

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10 A Numerical Study on the Connection of an SC Wall to an RC Foundation

Authors: Siamak Epackachi, Andrew S. Whittaker, Amit H. Varma


There are a large number of methods to connect SC walls to RC foundations. An experimental study of the cyclic nonlinear behavior of SC walls in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo used a connection detail involving the post-tensioning of a steel baseplate to the SC wall to a RC foundation. This type of connection introduces flexibility that influenced substantially the global response of the SC walls. The assumption of a rigid base, which would be commonly made by practitioners, would lead to a substantial overestimation of initial stiffness. This paper presents an analytical approach to characterize the rotational flexibility and to predict the initial stiffness of flexure-critical SC wall piers with baseplate connection. The good agreement between the analytical and test results confirmed the utility of the proposed method for calculating the initial stiffness of an SC wall with baseplate connection.

Keywords: cyclic loading, analytical model, steel-plate composite shear wall, flexure-critical wall

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9 Analytical Response Characterization of High Mobility Transistor Channels

Authors: L. Varani, F. Z. Mahi, H. Marinchio, C. Palermo


We propose an analytical approach for the admittance response calculation of the high mobility InGaAs channel transistors. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals determine the frequency-dependent small-signal admittance response. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand, to control the appearance of plasma resonances, and on the other hand, can give significant information about the admittance phase frequency dependence.

Keywords: Poisson equation, analytical model, small-signal admittance, currents and potentials matrix, the drain and the gate terminals

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8 Lattice Network Model for Calculation of Eddy Current Losses in a Solid Permanent Magnet

Authors: Jan Schmidt, Pierre Köhring


Permanently excited machines are set up with magnets that are made of highly energetic magnetic materials. Inherently, the permanent magnets warm up while the machine is operating. With an increasing temperature, the electromotive force and hence the degree of efficiency decrease. The reasons for this are slot harmonics and distorted armature currents arising from frequency inverter operation. To prevent or avoid demagnetizing of the permanent magnets it is necessary to ensure that the magnets do not excessively heat up. Demagnetizations of permanent magnets are irreversible and a breakdown of the electrical machine is inevitable. For the design of an electrical machine, the knowledge of the behavior of heating under operating conditions of the permanent magnet is of crucial importance. Therefore, a calculation model is presented with which the machine designer can easily calculate the eddy current losses in the magnetic material.

Keywords: eddy current, losses, permanent magnet, analytical model, lattice network

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7 Practical Modelling of RC Structural Walls under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

Authors: Reza E. Sedgh, Rajesh P. Dhakal


Shear walls have been used extensively as the main lateral force resisting systems in multi-storey buildings. The recent development in performance based design urges practicing engineers to conduct nonlinear static or dynamic analysis to evaluate seismic performance of multi-storey shear wall buildings by employing distinct analytical models suggested in the literature. For practical purpose, application of macroscopic models to simulate the global and local nonlinear behavior of structural walls outweighs the microscopic models. The skill level, computational time and limited access to RC specialized finite element packages prevents the general application of this method in performance based design or assessment of multi-storey shear wall buildings in design offices. Hence, this paper organized to verify capability of nonlinear shell element in commercially available package (Sap2000) in simulating results of some specimens under monotonic and cyclic loads with very oversimplified available cyclic material laws in the analytical tool. The selection of constitutive models, the determination of related parameters of the constituent material and appropriate nonlinear shear model are presented in detail. Adoption of proposed simple model demonstrated that the predicted results follow the overall trend of experimental force-displacement curve. Although, prediction of ultimate strength and the overall shape of hysteresis model agreed to some extent with experiment, the ultimate displacement(significant strength degradation point) prediction remains challenging in some cases.

Keywords: analytical model, nonlinear shell element, structural wall, shear behavior

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6 An Integrated Mathematical Approach to Measure the Capacity of MMTS

Authors: Robert L. Burdett, Bayan Bevrani, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda


This article focuses upon multi-modal transportation systems (MMTS) and the issues surrounding the determination of system capacity. For that purpose a multi-objective framework is advocated that integrates all the different modes and many different competing capacity objectives. This framework is analytical in nature and facilitates a variety of capacity querying and capacity expansion planning.

Keywords: Capacity Analysis, analytical model, capacity query, multi-modal transportation system (MMTS)

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5 Analytical Terahertz Characterization of In0.53Ga0.47As Transistors and Homogenous Diodes

Authors: Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani, Abdelmadjid Mammeri, H. Marinchoi


We propose an analytical model for the admittance and the noise calculations of the InGaAs transistor and diode. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The frequency-dependent of the small-signal admittance response is determined by the total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals. The noise is evaluated by using the real part of the transistor/diode admittance under a small-signal perturbation. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand; to control the appearance of the plasma resonances, and on other hand; can give significant information about the noise frequency dependence in the InGaAs transistor and diode.

Keywords: analytical model, InGaAs transistors, InGaAs diode, admittance, resonant peaks, plasma waves

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4 Experimental and Analytical Study on the Bending Behavior of Concrete-GFRP Hybrid Beams

Authors: Alaa Koaik, Bruno Jurkiewiez, Sylvain Bel


Recently, the use of GFRP pultruded profiles increased in the domain of civil engineering especially in the construction of sandwiched slabs and footbridges. However, under heavy loads, the risk of using these profiles increases due to their high deformability and instability as a result of their weak stiffness and orthotropic nature. A practical solution proposes the assembly of these profiles with concrete slabs to create a stiffer hybrid element to support higher loads. The connection of these two elements is established either by traditional means of steel studs (bolting in our case) or bonding technique. These two techniques have their advantages and disadvantages regarding the mechanical behavior and in-situ implementation. This paper presents experimental results of interface characterization and bending behavior of two hybrid beams, PB7 and PB8, designed and constructed using both connection techniques. The results obtained are exploited to design and build a hybrid footbridge BPBP1 which is tested within service limits (elastic domain). Analytical methods are also developed to analyze the behavior of these structures in the elastic range and the ultimate phase. Comparisons show acceptable differences mainly due to the sensitivity of the GFRP moduli as well as the non-linearity of concrete elements.

Keywords: Concrete, flexural behavior, analytical model, hybrid structure, GFRP pultruded profile, interconnection slip, push-out

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3 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Sang Whan Han, Chang Seok Lee, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim


Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, shear failure, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns

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2 Influence of Counter-Face Roughness on the Friction of Bionic Microstructures

Authors: Haytam Kasem


The problem of quick and easy reversible attachment has become of great importance in different fields of technology. For the reason, during the last decade, a new emerging field of adhesion science has been developed. Essentially inspired by some animals and insects, which during their natural evolution have developed fantastic biological attachment systems allowing them to adhere and run on walls and ceilings of uneven surfaces. Potential applications of engineering bio-inspired solutions include climbing robots, handling systems for wafers in nanofabrication facilities, and mobile sensor platforms, to name a few. However, despite the efforts provided to apply bio-inspired patterned adhesive-surfaces to the biomedical field, they are still in the early stages compared with their conventional uses in other industries mentioned above. In fact, there are some critical issues that still need to be addressed for the wide usage of the bio-inspired patterned surfaces as advanced biomedical platforms. For example, surface durability and long-term stability of surfaces with high adhesive capacity should be improved, but also the friction and adhesion capacities of these bio-inspired microstructures when contacting rough surfaces. One of the well-known prototypes for bio-inspired attachment systems is biomimetic wall-shaped hierarchical microstructure for gecko-like attachments. Although physical background of these attachment systems is widely understood, the influence of counter-face roughness and its relationship with the friction force generated when sliding against wall-shaped hierarchical microstructure have yet to be fully analyzed and understood. To elucidate the effect of the counter-face roughness on the friction of biomimetic wall-shaped hierarchical microstructure we have replicated the isotropic topography of 12 different surfaces using replicas made of the same epoxy material. The different counter-faces were fully characterized under 3D optical profilometer to measure roughness parameters. The friction forces generated by spatula-shaped microstructure in contact with the tested counter-faces were measured on a home-made tribometer and compared with the friction forces generated by the spatulae in contact with a smooth reference. It was found that classical roughness parameters, such as average roughness Ra and others, could not be utilized to explain topography-related variation in friction force. This has led us to the development of an integrated roughness parameter obtained by combining different parameters which are the mean asperity radius of curvature (R), the asperity density (η), the deviation of asperities high (σ) and the mean asperities angle (SDQ). This new integrated parameter is capable of explaining the variation of results of friction measurements. Based on the experimental results, we developed and validated an analytical model to predict the variation of the friction force as a function of roughness parameters of the counter-face and the applied normal load, as well.

Keywords: friction, analytical model, bio-mimetic micro-structure, counter-face roughness

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1 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne


The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: Pesticide, steady state, analytical model, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods

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