Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Amperometry Related Abstracts

3 Electroactive Ferrocenyl Dendrimers as Transducers for Fabrication of Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor

Authors: Sudeshna Chandra, Christian Gäbler, Christian Schliebe, Heinrich Lang


Highly branched dendrimers provide structural homogeneity, controlled composition, comparable size to biomolecules, internal porosity and multiple functional groups for conjugating reactions. Electro-active dendrimers containing multiple redox units have generated great interest in their use as electrode modifiers for development of biosensors. The electron transfer between the redox-active dendrimers and the biomolecules play a key role in developing a biosensor. Ferrocenes have multiple and electrochemically equivalent redox units that can act as electron “pool” in a system. The ferrocenyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer is capable of transferring multiple numbers of electrons under the same applied potential. Therefore, they can be used for dual purposes: one in building a film over the electrode for immunosensors and the other for immobilizing biomolecules for sensing. Electrochemical immunosensor, thus developed, exhibit fast and sensitive analysis, inexpensive and involve no prior sample pre-treatment. Electrochemical amperometric immunosensors are even more promising because they can achieve a very low detection limit with high sensitivity. Detection of the cancer biomarkers at an early stage can provide crucial information for foundational research of life science, clinical diagnosis and prevention of disease. Elevated concentration of biomarkers in body fluid is an early indication of some type of cancerous disease and among all the biomarkers, IgG is the most common and extensively used clinical cancer biomarkers. We present an IgG (=immunoglobulin) electrochemical immunosensor using a newly synthesized redox-active ferrocenyl dendrimer of generation 2 (G2Fc) as glassy carbon electrode material for immobilizing the antibody. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrodes was assessed in both aqueous and non-aqueous media using varying scan rates to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The potential shift was found to be higher in an aqueous electrolyte due to presence of more H-bond which reduced the electrostatic attraction within the amido groups of the dendrimers. The cyclic voltammetric studies of the G2Fc-modified GCE in 0.1 M PBS solution of pH 7.2 showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks. The peak current decreased significantly with the immobilization of the anti-goat IgG. After the immunosensor is blocked with BSA, a further decrease in the peak current was observed due to the attachment of the protein BSA to the immunosensor. A significant decrease in the current signal of the BSA/anti-IgG/G2Fc/GCE was observed upon immobilizing IgG which may be due to the formation of immune-conjugates that blocks the tunneling of mass and electron transfer. The current signal was found to be directly related to the amount of IgG captured on the electrode surface. With increase in the concentration of IgG, there is a formation of an increasing amount of immune-conjugates that decreased the peak current. The incubation time and concentration of the antibody was optimized for better analytical performance of the immunosensor. The developed amperometric immunosensor is sensitive to IgG concentration as low as 2 ng/mL. Tailoring of redox-active dendrimers provides enhanced electroactivity to the system and enlarges the sensor surface for binding the antibodies. It may be assumed that both electron transfer and diffusion contribute to the signal transformation between the dendrimers and the antibody.

Keywords: immunoglobulin, Amperometry, Electrochemical Immunosensors, ferrocenyl dendrimers

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2 Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-Functionalized Indium Tin Oxide Electrode for Electrochemical Sulfide Detection

Authors: Md. Abdul Aziz


Sulfide ion is water soluble, highly corrosive, toxic and harmful to the human beings. As a result, knowing the exact concentration of sulfide in water is very important. However, the existing detection and quantification methods have several shortcomings, such as high cost, low sensitivity, and massive instrumentation. Consequently, the development of novel sulfide sensor is relevant. Nevertheless, electrochemical methods gained enormous popularity due to a vast improvement in the technique and instrumentation, portability, low cost, rapid analysis and simplicity of design. Successful field application of electrochemical devices still requires vast improvement, which depends on the physical, chemical and electrochemical aspects of the working electrode. The working electrode made of bulk gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) are quite common, being very robust and endowed with good electrocatalytic properties. High cost, and electrode poisoning, however, have so far hindered their practical application in many industries. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a sulfide sensor based on an indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITONP)-modified ITO electrode. To prepare ITONP-modified ITO, various methods were tested. Drop-drying of ITONPs (aq.) on aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized ITO (APTMS/ITO) was found to be the best method on the basis of voltammetric analysis of the sulfide ion. ITONP-modified APTMS/ITO (ITONP/APTMS/ITO) yielded much better electrocatalytic properties toward sulfide electro-οxidation than did bare or APTMS/ITO electrodes. The ITONPs and ITONP-modified ITO were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Optimization of the type of inert electrolyte and pH yielded an ITONP/APTMS/ITO detector whose amperometrically and chronocoulοmetrically determined limits of detection for sulfide in aqueous solution were 3.0 µM and 0.90 µM, respectively. ITONP/APTMS/ITO electrodes which displayed reproducible performances were highly stable and were not susceptible to interference by common contaminants. Thus, the developed electrode can be considered as a promising tool for sensing sulfide.

Keywords: Amperometry, electrocatalytic properties, chronocoulometry, ITO-nanoparticle-modified ITO, sulfide sensor

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1 Electrochemical Detection of the Chemotherapy Agent Methotrexate in vitro from Physiological Fluids Using Functionalized Carbon Nanotube past Electrodes

Authors: Shekher Kummari, V. Sunil Kumar, K. Vengatajalabathy Gobi


A simple, cost-effective, reusable and reagent-free electrochemical biosensor is developed with functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode (f-CNTPE) for the sensitive and selective determination of the important chemotherapeutic drug methotrexate (MTX), which is widely used for the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. The electrochemical response of the fabricated electrode towards the detection of MTX is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). CV studies have shown that f-CNTPE electrode system exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of MTX in phosphate buffer (0.2 M) compared with a conventional carbon paste electrode (CPE). The oxidation peak current is enhanced by nearly two times in magnitude. Applying the DPV method under optimized conditions, a linear calibration plot is achieved over a wide range of concentration from 4.0×10⁻⁷ M to 5.5×10⁻⁶ M with the detection limit 1.6×10⁻⁷ M. further, by applying the SWV method a parabolic calibration plot was achieved starting from a very low concentration of 1.0×10⁻⁸ M, and the sensor could detect as low as 2.9×10⁻⁹ M MTX in 10 s and 10 nM were detected in steady state current-time analysis. The f-CNTPE shows very good selectivity towards the specific recognition of MTX in the presence of important biological interference. The electrochemical biosensor detects MTX in-vitro directly from pharmaceutical sample, undiluted urine and human blood serum samples at a concentration range 5.0×10⁻⁷ M with good recovery limits.

Keywords: Amperometry, methotrexate, MWCNT, electrochemical detection, human blood serum, SWV

Procedia PDF Downloads 215