Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

ammonium Related Abstracts

3 Concentration and Stability of Fatty Acids and Ammonium in the Samples from Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: Vesa Virtanen, Mari Jaakkola, Jasmiina Haverinen, Tiina Tolonen


These process monitoring of biogas plant gives valuable information of the function of the process and help to maintain a stable process. The costs of basic monitoring are often much lower than the costs associated with re-establishing a biologically destabilised plant. Reactor acidification through reactor overload is one of the most common reasons for process deterioration in anaerobic digesters. This occurs because of a build-up of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced by acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria. VFAs cause pH values to decrease, and result in toxic conditions in the reactor. Ammonia ensures an adequate supply of nitrogen as a nutrient substance for anaerobic biomass and increases system's buffer capacity, counteracting acidification lead by VFA production. However, elevated ammonia concentration is detrimental to the process due to its toxic effect. VFAs are considered the most reliable analytes for process monitoring. To obtain accurate results, sample storage and transportation need to be carefully controlled. This may be a challenge for off-line laboratory analyses especially when the plant is located far away from the laboratory. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between fatty acids, ammonium, and bacteria in the anaerobic digestion samples obtained from an industrial biogas factory. The stability of the analytes was studied comparing the results of the on-site analyses performed in the factory site to the results of the samples stored at room temperature and -18°C (up to 30 days) after sampling. Samples were collected in the biogas plant consisting of three separate mesofilic AD reactors (4000 m³ each) where the main feedstock was swine slurry together with a complex mixture of agricultural plant and animal wastes. Individual VFAs, ammonium, and nutrients (K, Ca, Mg) were studied by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Longer chain fatty acids (oleic, hexadecanoic, and stearic acids) and bacterial profiles were studied by GC-MSD (Gas Chromatography-Mass Selective Detector) and 16S rDNA, respectively. On-site monitoring of the analytes was performed by CE. The main VFA in all samples was acetic acid. However, in one reactor sample elevated levels of several individual VFAs and long chain fatty acids were detected. Also bacterial profile of this sample differed from the profiles of other samples. Acetic acid decomposed fast when the sample was stored in a room temperature. All analytes were stable when stored in a freezer. Ammonium was stable even at a room temperature for the whole testing period. One reactor sample had higher concentration of VFAs and long chain fatty acids than other samples. CE was utilized successfully in the on-site analysis of separate VFAs and NH₄ in the biogas production site. Samples should be analysed in the sampling day if stored in RT or freezed for longer storage time. Fermentation reject can be stored (and transported) at ambient temperature at least for one month without loss of NH₄. This gives flexibility to the logistic solutions when reject is used as a fertilizer.

Keywords: Bacteria, Anaerobic Digestion, capillary electrophoresis, ammonium

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2 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Pascal Mwenge


The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: COD, greywater, nitrate, TSS, chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, NH₄-N, NO₃-N, total suspended solids

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1 Thermosonic Devulcanization of Waste Ground Rubber Tires by Quaternary Ammonium-Based Ternary Deep Eutectic Solvents and the Effect of α-Hydrogen

Authors: Rashmi Walvekar, Ricky Saputra, Mohammad Khalid


Landfills, water contamination, and toxic gas emission are a few impacts faced by the environment due to the increasing number of αof waste rubber tires (WRT). In spite of such concerning issue, only minimal efforts are taken to reclaim or recycle these wastes as their products are generally not-profitable for companies. Unlike the typical reclamation process, devulcanization is a method to selectively cleave sulfidic bonds within vulcanizates to avoid polymeric scissions that compromise elastomer’s mechanical and tensile properties. The process also produces devulcanizates that are re-processable similar to virgin rubber. Often, a devulcanizing agent is needed. In the current study, novel and sustainable ammonium chloride-based ternary deep eutectic solvents (TDES), with a different number of α-hydrogens, were utilised to devulcanize ground rubber tire (GRT) as an effort to implement green chemistry to tackle such issue. 40-mesh GRT were soaked for 1 day with different TDESs and sonicated at 37-80 kHz for 60-120 mins and heated at 100-140oC for 30-90 mins. Devulcanizates were then filtered, dried, and evaluated based on the percentage of by means of Flory-Rehner calculation and swelling index. The result shows that an increasing number of α-Hs increases the degree of devulcanization, and the value achieved was around eighty-percent, thirty percent higher than the typical industrial-autoclave method. Resulting bondages of devulcanizates were also analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), Horikx fitting, and thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The earlier two confirms only sulfidic scissions were experienced by GRT through the treatment, while the latter proves the absence or negligibility of carbon-chains scission.

Keywords: Sustainable, deep eutectic solvent, ammonium, α-hydrogen, waste rubber tire

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