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ammonium chloride Related Abstracts

4 Dissolution Kinetics of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Cloride Solutions

Authors: Turan Çalban, Sabri Çolak, Mustafa Sertçelik, Hacali Necefoğlu


In this study, Chevreul’s salt solubility and its dissolution kinetics in ammonium chloride solutions were investigated. Chevreul’s salt that we used in the studies was obtained by using the optimum conditions (ammonium sulphide concentration; 0,4 M, copper sulphate concentration; 0,25 M, temperature; 60°C, stirring speed; 600 rev/min, pH; 4 and reaction time; 15 mins) determined by T. Çalban et al. Chevreul’s salt solubility in ammonium chloride solutions and the kinetics of dissolution were investigated. The selected parameters that affect solubility were reaction temperature, concentration of ammonium chloride, stirring speed, and solid/liquid ratio. Correlation of experimental results had been achieved using linear regression implemented in the statistical package program statistica. The effect of parameters on Chevreul’s salt solubility was examined and integrated rate expression of dissolution rate was found using kinetic models in solid-liquid heterogeneous reactions. The results revealed that the dissolution rate of Chevreul’s salt was decreasing while temperature, concentration of ammonium chloride and stirring speed were increasing. On the other hand, dissolution rate was found to be decreasing with the increase of solid/liquid ratio. Based on result of the applications of the obtained experimental results to the kinetic models, we can deduce that Chevreul’s salt dissolution rate is controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product layer). Activation energy of the reaction of dissolution was found as 74.83 kJ/mol. The integrated rate expression along with the effects of parameters on Chevreul's salt solubility was found to be as follows: 1-3(1-X)2/3+2(1-X)= [2,96.1013.(CA)3,08 .(S/L)-038.(W)1,23 e-9001,2/T].t

Keywords: Copper, dissolution kinetics, Chevreul's salt, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphide

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3 The Combined Effect of the Magnetic Field and Ammonium Chlorides on Deposits Zn-Ni Obtained in Different Conditions

Authors: N.Benachour, S. Chouchane, J. P. Chopart


The zinc-nickel deposition on stainless steel substrate was obtained in a chloride bath composed of ZnCl2 (1.8M), NiCl2.6H2O (1.1M), boric acid H3BO3 (1M) and NH4Cl (4M). One configuration was studied the amplitude or field B (0.5 et1T) is parallel to the surface of the working electrodes .the other share the study of various layer was carried out by XRD. The study of the effect of ammonium chloride in combination with the magnetohydrodynamic effect gave several deposits supposedly good physical properties.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, co-deposition, ammonium chloride, nickel-zinc alloys

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2 Optimization of Dissolution of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Chloride Solutions

Authors: Turan Çalban, Soner Kuşlu, Mustafa Sertçelik, Hacali Necefoğlu


In this study, Chevreul’s salt was dissolved in ammonium chloride solutions. All experiments were performed in a batch reactor. The obtained results were optimized. Parameters used in the experiments were the reaction temperature, the ammonium chloride concentration, the reaction time and the solid-to-liquid ratio. The optimum conditions were determined by 24 factorial experimental design method. The best values of four parameters were determined as based on the experiment results. After the evaluation of experiment results, all parameters were found as effective in experiment conditions selected. The optimum conditions on the maximum Chevreul’s salt dissolution were the ammonium chloride concentration 4.5 M, the reaction time 13.2 min., the reaction temperature 25 oC, and the solid-to-liquid ratio 9/80 g.mL-1. The best dissolution yield in these conditions was 96.20%.

Keywords: Optimization, Dissolution, Chevreul's salt, ammonium chloride, factorial experimental design method

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1 Preparation and Characterization of α–Alumina with Low Sodium Oxide

Authors: Hong Bae Kim, Gyung Soo Jeon, Chi Jung Oh


In order to prepare the α-alumina with low content of sodium oxide from aluminum trihydroxide as a reactant, three kinds of methods were employed as follows; the mixture of Chamotte (aggregate composed of silica and alumina), ammonium chloride and aluminum fluoride with aluminum trihydroxide under 1600°C, respectively. The sodium oxide in α-alumina produced above methods was analyzed by XRF and the particle size distribution was determined by particle size analyzer, and the specific surface area of α-alumina was measured by BET method, and phase of α-alumina produced was confirmed by XRD. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Development Program of Technical Innovation funded by Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs (KTIP-2016-S2401821).

Keywords: α-Alumina, ammonium chloride, sodium oxide, aluminum trihydroxide, Chamotte, aluminum fluoride

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