Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Ammonia Related Abstracts

14 Modification of Rk Equation of State for Liquid and Vapor of Ammonia by Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Mousavian, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad


Cubic equations of state like Redlich–Kwong (RK) EOS have been proved to be very reliable tools in the prediction of phase behavior. Despite their good performance in compositional calculations, they usually suffer from weaknesses in the predictions of saturated liquid density. In this research, RK equation was modified. The result of this study shows that modified equation has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Modification, Genetic Algorithm, Equation of state, Ammonia

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13 Ammonia Release during Photocopying Operations

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua


The paper represents the dependence of ammonia concentration on microclimate parameters and photocopying shop circulation. The concentration of ammonia was determined during 8-hours working time over five days including three sampling points of a photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The obtained results pointed out that the room temperature possesses the highest impact on ammonia release. The obtained ammonia concentration was in the range of 1.53 to 0.42ppm and decreased with the temperature decreasing from 24.6 to 20.7 °C. As the detected concentrations were within the permissible levels of The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and The Health and Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, in the range of 35 to 200ppm, there was no danger to the employee’s health in the photocopying shop.

Keywords: Emission, Indoor Environment, Ammonia, photocopying procedure

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12 Effect of Windrow Management on Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Swine Manure Composting

Authors: Nanh Lovanh, John Loughrin, Kimberly Cook, Phil Silva, Byung-Taek Oh


In the era of sustainability, utilization of livestock wastes as soil amendment to provide micronutrients for crops is very economical and sustainable. It is well understood that livestock wastes are comparable, if not better, nutrient sources for crops as chemical fertilizers. However, the large concentrated volumes of animal manure produced from livestock operations and the limited amount of available nearby agricultural land areas necessitated the need for volume reduction of these animal wastes. Composting of these animal manures is a viable option for biomass and pathogenic reduction in the environment. Nevertheless, composting also increases the potential loss of available nutrients for crop production as well as unwanted emission of anthropogenic air pollutants due to the loss of ammonia and other compounds via volatilization. In this study, we examine the emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide from swine manure windrows to evaluate the benefit of biomass reduction in conjunction with the potential loss of available nutrients. The feedstock for the windrows was obtained from swine farm in Kentucky where swine manure was mixed with wood shaving as absorbent material. Static flux chambers along with photoacoustic gas analyzer were used to monitor ammonia and nitrous oxide concentrations during the composting process. The results show that ammonia and nitrous oxide fluxes were quite high during the initial composting process and after the turning of each compost pile. Over the period of roughly three months of composting, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased by about 90%. Although composting of animal waste is quite beneficial for biomass reduction, composting may not be economically feasible from an agronomical point of view due to time, nutrient loss (N loss), and potential environmental pollution (ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions). Therefore, additional studies are needed to assess and validate the economics and environmental impact of animal (swine) manure composting (e.g., crop yield or impact on climate change).

Keywords: Management, fluxes, Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide, windrow, swine manure

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11 Biological Aquaculture System (BAS) Design and Water Quality on Marble Goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus): A Water Recirculating Technology

Authors: C. C. Chen, AnnWon Chew, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman, Mohd Omar Ab Kadir, Jaafar Chua


This paper presents an innovative process to solve the ammonia, nitrite and nitrate build-up problem in recirculating system using Biological Aquaculture System (BAS). The novel aspects of the process lie in a series of bioreactors that specially arrange and design to meet the required conditions for water purification. The BAS maximizes the utilization of bio-balls as the ideal surface for beneficial microbes to flourish. It also serves as a physical barrier that traps organic particles, which in turn becomes source for the microbes to perform their work. The operation in the proposed system gives a low concentration and average range of good maintain excellent water quality, i.e., with low levels of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, a suitable pH range for aquaculture and low turbidity. The BAS thus provides a solution for sustainable small-scale, urban aquaculture operation with a high recovery water and minimal waste disposal.

Keywords: bioreactor, Ammonia, Biological Aquaculture System (BAS), bio-balls, water recirculating technology

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10 Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery

Authors: Turan Çalban, Oral Lacin, Abdüsselam Kurtbas


The experimental production methods Chevreul’s salt being a intermediate stage product for copper recovery were investigated by dealing with the articles written on this topic. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O, being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound has been obtained by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has a intense brick-red color. It is a highly stable and expensive salt. The production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hiydrometallurgy. In recent years, researchs on this compound have been intensified. Silva et al. reported that this salt is thermally stable up to 200oC. Çolak et al. precipitated the Chevreul’s salt by using ammonia and sulphur dioxide. Çalban et al. obtained at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from leach solutions with NH3-(NH4)2SO4. Yeşiryurt and Çalban investigated the optimum precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt from synthetic CuSO4 solutions including Na2SO3. Çalban et al. achieved the precipitation of Chevreul’s salt at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from synthetic CuSO4 solutions. Çalban et al. examined the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt using (NH4)2SO3 from synthetic aqueous CuSO4 solutions. In light of these studies, it can be said that Chevreul’s salt can be produced practically from both a leach solutions including copper and synthetic CuSO4 solutions.

Keywords: Ammonia, Chevreul’s salt, copper sulpfite, sodium sülfite, optimum conditions

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9 Influence of Ammonia Emissions on Aerosol Formation in Northern and Central Europe

Authors: A. Aulinger, A. M. Backes, J. Bieser, V. Matthias, M. Quante


High concentrations of particles pose a threat to human health. Thus, legal maximum concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in ambient air have been steadily decreased over the years. In central Europe, the inorganic species ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles. Many studies investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulfur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. While emissions of sulphate and nitrogen oxides are quite well known, ammonia emissions are subject to high uncertainty. This is due to the uncertainty of location, amount, time of fertilizer application in agriculture, and the storage and treatment of manure from animal husbandry. For this study, we implemented a crop growth model into the SMOKE emission model. Depending on temperature, local legislation, and crop type individual temporal profiles for fertilizer and manure application are calculated for each model grid cell. Additionally, the diffusion from soils and plants and the direct release from open and closed barns are determined. The emission data was used as input for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Comparisons to observations from the EMEP measurement network indicate that the new ammonia emission module leads to a better agreement of model and observation (for both ammonia and ammonium). Finally, the ammonia emission model was used to create emission scenarios. This includes emissions based on future European legislation, as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors on particle formation. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of total PM2.5 concentrations during winter time in the model domain. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year.

Keywords: Ammonia, ammonia abatement strategies, ctm, seasonal impact, secondary aerosol formation

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8 Development of Adsorbents for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black form Waste Tires

Authors: Yang Gon Seo, Chang-Joon Kim, Dae Hyeok Kim


It is estimated that 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide each year which will eventually end up as waste tires representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. Pyrolysis has been great interest in alternative treatment processes for waste tires to produce valuable oil, gas and solid products. The oil and gas products may be used directly as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. The solid produced from the pyrolysis of tires ranges typically from 30 to 45 wt% and have high carbon contents of up to 90 wt%. However, most notably the solid have high sulfur contents from 2 to 3 wt% and ash contents from 8 to 15 wt% related to the additive metals. Upgrading tire pyrolysis products to high-value products has concentrated on solid upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are one of the common malodorous compounds that can be found in emissions from many sewages treatment plants and industrial plants. Therefore, removing these harmful gasses from emissions is of significance in both life and industry because they can cause health problems to human and detrimental effects on the catalysts. In this work, pyrolytic carbon black from waste tires was used to develop adsorbent with good adsorption capacity for removal of hydrogen and ammonia. Pyrolytic carbon blacks were prepared by pyrolysis of waste tire chips ranged from 5 to 20 mm under the nitrogen atmosphere at 600℃ for 1 hour. Pellet-type adsorbents were prepared by a mixture of carbon black, metal oxide and sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid, and their adsorption capacities were estimated by using the breakthrough curve of a continuous fixed bed adsorption column at ambient condition. The adsorbent was manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, iron oxide(III), and sodium hydroxide showed the maximum working capacity of hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, maximum working capacity was obtained by the adsorbent manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, copper oxide(II), and hydrochloric acid.

Keywords: Hydrogen Sulfide, Ammonia, adsorbent, pyrolytic carbon black, metal oxide

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7 Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector

Authors: Hiesik Kim, Jaheon Gu, Gyoutae Park, Sangguk Ahn, Jungil Park, Wooyong Chung, Mijung Koo, Seonbok Lee


In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.

Keywords: Gas, Ammonia, portable, detector

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6 WO₃-SnO₂ Sensors for Selective Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds for Breath Analysis

Authors: Debabrata Pradhan, Arpan Kumar Nayak


A simple, single-step and one-pot hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize WO₃-SnO₂ mixed nanostructured metal oxides at 200°C in 12h. The SnO₂ nanoparticles were found to be uniformly decorated on the WO₃ nanoplates. Though it is widely known that noble metals such as Pt, Pd doping or decoration on metal oxides improve the sensing response and sensitivity, we varied the SnO₂ concentration in the WO₃-SnO₂ mixed oxide and demonstrated their performance in ammonia, ethanol and acetone sensing. The sensing performance of WO₃-(x)SnO₂ [x = 0.27, 0.54, 1.08] mixed nanostructured oxides was found to be not only superior to that of pristine oxides but also higher/better than that of reported noble metal-based sensors. The sensing properties (selectivity, limit of detection, response and recovery times) are measured as a function of operating temperature (150-350°C). In particular, the gas selectivity is found to be highly temperature-dependent with optimum performance obtained at 200°C, 300°C and 350°C for ammonia, ethanol, and acetone, respectively. The present results on cost effective WO₃-SnO₂ sensors can find potential application in human breath analysis by noninvasive detection.

Keywords: Ethanol, Ammonia, Mixed Oxides, acetone, gas sensing, nanoplates

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5 Ammonia Sensing Properties of Nanostructured Hybrid Halide Perovskite Thin Film

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Omita Nanda, Rakhi Grover, Kanchan Saxena


Hybrid perovskite is new class of material which has gained much attention due to their different crystal structure and interesting optical and electrical properties. Easy fabrication, high absorption coefficient, and photoluminescence properties make them a strong candidate for various applications such as sensors, photovoltaics, photodetectors, etc. In perovskites, ions arrange themselves in a special type of crystal structure with chemical formula ABX3, where A is organic species like CH3NH3+, B is metal ion (e.g., Pb, Sn, etc.) and X is halide (Cl-, Br-, I-). In crystal structure, A is present at corner position, B at center of the crystal lattice and halide ions at the face centers. High stability and sensitivity of nanostructured perovskite make them suitable for chemical sensors. Researchers have studied sensing properties of perovskites for number of analytes such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, ethanol and other hazardous chemical compounds. Ammonia being highly toxic agent makes it a reason of concern for the environment. Thus the detection of ammonia is extremely important. Our present investigation deals with organic inorganic hybrid perovskite based ammonia sensor. Various methods like sol-gel, solid state synthesis, thermal vapor deposition etc can be used to synthesize Different hybrid perovskites. In the present work, a novel hybrid perovskite has been synthesized by a single step method. Ethylenediammnedihalide and lead halide were used as precursor. Formation of hybrid perovskite was confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. Morphological characterization of the synthesized material was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed the formation of one dimensional nanowire perovskite with mean diameter of 200 nm. Measurements for sensing properties of halide perovskite for ammonia vapor were carried out. Perovskite thin films showed a color change from yellow to orange on exposure of ammonia vapor. Electro-optical measurements show that sensor based on lead halide perovskite has high sensitivity towards ammonia with effective selectivity and reversibility. Sensor exhibited rapid response time of less than 20 seconds.

Keywords: Sensor, nanostructure, Ammonia, thin film, hybrid perovskite

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4 Intelligent Technology for Real-Time Monitor and Data Analysis of the Aquaculture Toxic Water Concentration

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsieh, Wei-Chun Lu, Yu-Hong Zeng


The situation of a group of fish die is frequently found due to the fish disease caused by the deterioration of aquaculture water quality. The toxic ammonia is produced by animals as a byproduct of protein. The system is designed by the smart sensor technology and developed by the mathematical model to monitor the water parameters 24 hours a day and predict the relationship among twelve water quality parameters for monitoring the water quality in aquaculture. All data measured are stored in cloud server. In productive ponds, the daytime pH may be high enough to be lethal to the fish. The sudden change of the aquaculture conditions often results in the increase of PH value of water, lack of oxygen dissolving content, water quality deterioration and yield reduction. From the real measurement, the system can send the message to user’s smartphone successfully on the bad conditions of water quality. From the data comparisons between measurement and model simulation in fish aquaculture site, the difference of parameters is less than 2% and the correlation coefficient is at least 98.34%. The solubility rate of oxygen decreases exponentially with the elevation of water temperature. The correlation coefficient is 98.98%.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Sensor, Ammonia, dissolved oxygen

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3 Safe Limits Concentration of Ammonia at Work Environments through CD8 Expression in Rats

Authors: Abdul Rohim Tualeka, Erick Caravan K. Betekeneng, Ramdhoni Zuhro, Reko Triyono, M. Sahri


It has been widely reported incidence caused by acute and chronic effects of exposure to ammonia in the working environment in Indonesia, but ammonia concentration was found to be below the threshold value. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety limit concentration of ammonia in the working environment through the expression of CD8 as a reference for determining the threshold value of ammonia in the working environment. This research was a laboratory experimental with post test only control group design using experimental animals as subjects experiment. From homogeneity test results indicated that the weight of white rats exposed and control groups had a homogeneous variant with a significant level of p (0.701) > α (0.05). Description of the average breathing rate is 0.0013 m³/h. Average weight rats based group listed exposure is 0.1405 kg. From the calculation IRS CD8, CD8 highest score in the doses contained 0.0154, with the location of the highest dose of ammonia without any effect on the lungs of rats is 0.0154 mg/kg body weight of mice. Safe Human Dose (SHD) ammonia is 0.002 mg/kg body weight workers. The conclusion of this study is the safety limit concentration of ammonia gas in the working environment of 0,025 ppm.

Keywords: rats, Ammonia, CD8, safe limits concentration

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2 Numerical Investigation of Wire Mesh Heat Pipe for Spacecraft Applications

Authors: V. K. Singh, Jayesh Mahitkar, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha


Wire Mesh Heat Pipe (WMHP) as an effective component of thermal control system in the payload of spacecraft, utilizing ammonia to transfer efficient amount of heat. One dimensional generic and robust mathematical model with partial-analytical hydraulic approach (PAHA) is developed to study inside behaviour of WMHP. In this model, inside performance during operation is investigated like mass flow rate, and velocity along the wire mesh as well as vapour core is modeled respectively. This numerical model investigate heat flow along length, pressure drop along wire mesh as well as vapour line in axial direction. Furthermore, WMHP is modeled into equivalent resistance network such that total thermal resistance of heat pipe, temperature drop across evaporator end and condenser end is evaluated. This numerical investigation should be carried out for single layer and double layer wire mesh each with heat input at evaporator section is 10W, 20 W and 30 W at condenser temperature maintained at 20˚C.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Modeling, Ammonia, wire mesh

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1 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir


In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: Absorption, Solar Collector, Ammonia, vacuum tube, cold room

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