Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Amino Acid Related Abstracts

9 Modified Ninhydrin Reagent for the Detection of Amino Acids on TLC Paper

Authors: H. Elgubbi, A. Mlitan, A. Alzridy


Ninhydrin is the most well known spray reagent for identification of amino acids. Spring with Ninhydrin as a non-specific reagent is well-known and widely used for its remarkable high sensitivity. Using Ninhydrin reagent alone to detect amino acid on thin layer chromatography (TLA) paper is not advisable due to its lower sensitivity. A new spray reagent, Stannus chloride solution (Sn CL2) has been used to detect amino acids on filtter paper (witman 14) and TLC paper, silica Gel, 60 F254 TLC Aluminium Sheet 20x20cm Merck- Germany. Also, modified TLC pre-staining method was used, which only consisted of 3 steps: spotting, separating and color. The improved method was rapid and inexpensive and the results obtained were clear and reliable. In addition, it is suitable for screening different amino acid.

Keywords: Amino Acid, ninhydrin, modified ninhydrin reagent, stannus chloride reagent, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), TLC pre-staining

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8 Molecular Characterization of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Strains Based on Selected Glycoprotein and Tegument Genes

Authors: Fulufhelo Amanda Doboro, Kgomotso Sebeko, Stephen Njiro, Moritz Van Vuuren


Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) genome obtained from the lymphopblastoid cell line of a BJ1035 cow was recently sequenced in the United States of America (USA). Information on the sequences of OvHV-2 genes obtained from South African strains from bovine or other African countries and molecular characterization of OvHV-2 is not documented. Present investigation provides information on the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences and genetic diversity of Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes, of these genes from OvHV-2 strains circulating in South Africa. Gene-specific primers were designed and used for PCR of DNA extracted from 42 bovine blood samples that previously tested positive for OvHV-2. The expected PCR products of 495 bp, 253 bp, 890 bp and 1632 bp respectively for Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes were sequenced and multiple sequence analysis done on the selected regions of the sequenced PCR products. Two genotypes for ORF 27 and ORF 73 gene sequences, and three genotypes for Ov 7 and Ov 8 ex2 gene sequences were identified, and similar groupings for the derived amino acid sequences were obtained for each gene. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence variations that led to the identification of the different genotypes included SNPs, deletions and insertions. Sequence analysis of Ov 7 and ORF 27 genes revealed variations that distinguished between sequences from SA and reference OvHV-2 strains. The implication of geographic origin among SA sequences was difficult to evaluate because of random distribution of genotypes in the different provinces, for each gene. However, socio-economic factors such as migration of people with animals, or transportation of animals for agricultural or business use from one province to another are most likely to be responsible for this observation. The sequence variations observed in this study have no impact on the antibody binding activities of glycoproteins encoded by Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2 and ORF 27 genes, as determined by prediction of the presence of B cell epitopes using BepiPred 1.0. The findings of this study will be used for selection of gene candidates for the development of diagnostic assays and vaccine development as well.

Keywords: Genes, Genetic Diversity, Amino Acid, nucleotide

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7 Amino Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles: A Green Catalyst for Methylene Blue Reduction

Authors: Abhishek Chandra, Man Singh


Highly stable and homogeneously dispersed amino acid coated silver nanoparticles (ANP) of ≈ 10 nm diameter, ranging from 420 to 430 nm are prepared on AgNO3 solution addition to gum of Azadirachta indica solution at 373.15 K. The amino acids were selected based on their polarity. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The coated nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the reduction of methylene blue dye in presence of Sn(II) in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media. The rate of reduction of dye was determined by measuring the absorbance at 660 nm, spectrophotometrically and followed the order: Kcationic > Kanionic > Kwater. After 12 min and in absence of the ANP, only 2%, 3% and 6% of the dye reduction was completed in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively while, in presence of ANP coated by polar neutral amino acid with non-polar -R group, the reduction completed to 84%, 95% and 98% respectively. The ANP coated with polar neutral amino acid having non-polar -R group, increased the rate of reduction of the dye by 94, 3205 and 6370 folds in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively. Also, the rate of reduction of the dye increased by three folds when the micellar media was changed from anionic to cationic when the ANP is coated by a polar neutral amino acid having a non-polar -R group.

Keywords: Amino Acid, surfactant, methylene blue, silver nanoparticle

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6 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: R. Ramli, M. S. M. Yusof, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah


This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Amino Acid, methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, threonine

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5 Spectrophotometric Detection of Histidine Using Enzyme Reaction and Examination of Reaction Conditions

Authors: Akimitsu Kugimiya, Kouhei Iwato, Toru Saito, Jiro Kohda, Yasuhisa Nakano, Yu Takano


The measurement of amino acid content is reported to be useful for the diagnosis of several types of diseases, including lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and diabetes. The conventional detection methods for amino acid are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), but they have several drawbacks as the equipment is cumbersome and the techniques are costly in terms of time and costs. In contrast, biosensors and biosensing methods provide more rapid and facile detection strategies that use simple equipment. The authors have reported a novel approach for the detection of each amino acid that involved the use of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) as a molecular recognition element because aaRS is expected to a selective binding ability for corresponding amino acid. The consecutive enzymatic reactions used in this study are as follows: aaRS binds to its cognate amino acid and releases inorganic pyrophosphate. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was produced by the enzyme reactions of inorganic pyrophosphatase and pyruvate oxidase. The Trinder’s reagent was added into the reaction mixture, and the absorbance change at 556 nm was measured using a microplate reader. In this study, an amino acid-sensing method using histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS; histidine-specific aaRS) as molecular recognition element in combination with the Trinder’s reagent spectrophotometric method was developed. The quantitative performance and selectivity of the method were evaluated, and the optimal enzyme reaction and detection conditions were determined. The authors developed a simple and rapid method for detecting histidine with a combination of enzymatic reaction and spectrophotometric detection. In this study, HisRS was used to detect histidine, and the reaction and detection conditions were optimized for quantitation of these amino acids in the ranges of 1–100 µM histidine. The detection limits are sufficient to analyze these amino acids in biological fluids. This work was partly supported by Hiroshima City University Grant for Special Academic Research (General Studies).

Keywords: Biosensing, Amino Acid, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, enzyme reaction

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4 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama


Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: HPLC, Amino Acid, GC-MS, fatty acid, Moonfish (M. maculata)

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3 Development and Total Error Concept Validation of Common Analytical Method for Quantification of All Residual Solvents Present in Amino Acids by Gas Chromatography-Head Space

Authors: V. Murugan, A. Ramachandra Reddy, Prema Kumari


Residual solvents in Pharmaceutical samples are monitored using gas chromatography with headspace (GC-HS). Based on current regulatory and compendial requirements, measuring the residual solvents are mandatory for all release testing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Generally, isopropyl alcohol is used as the residual solvent in proline and tryptophan; methanol in cysteine monohydrate hydrochloride, glycine, methionine and serine; ethanol in glycine and lysine monohydrate; acetic acid in methionine. In order to have a single method for determining these residual solvents (isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid) in all these 7 amino acids a sensitive and simple method was developed by using gas chromatography headspace technique with flame ionization detection. During development, no reproducibility, retention time variation and bad peak shape of acetic acid peaks were identified due to the reaction of acetic acid with the stationary phase (cyanopropyl dimethyl polysiloxane phase) of column and dissociation of acetic acid with water (if diluent) while applying temperature gradient. Therefore, dimethyl sulfoxide was used as diluent to avoid these issues. But most the methods published for acetic acid quantification by GC-HS uses derivatisation technique to protect acetic acid. As per compendia, risk-based approach was selected as appropriate to determine the degree and extent of the validation process to assure the fitness of the procedure. Therefore, Total error concept was selected to validate the analytical procedure. An accuracy profile of ±40% was selected for lower level (quantitation limit level) and for other levels ±30% with 95% confidence interval (risk profile 5%). The method was developed using DB-Waxetr column manufactured by Agilent contains 530 µm internal diameter, thickness: 2.0 µm, and length: 30 m. A constant flow of 6.0 mL/min. with constant make up mode of Helium gas was selected as a carrier gas. The present method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which is suitable for rapid analysis of isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid in amino acids. The range of the method for isopropyl alcohol is 50ppm to 200ppm, ethanol is 50ppm to 3000ppm, methanol is 50ppm to 400ppm and acetic acid 100ppm to 400ppm, which covers the specification limits provided in European pharmacopeia. The accuracy profile and risk profile generated as part of validation were found to be satisfactory. Therefore, this method can be used for testing of residual solvents in amino acids drug substances.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography, Amino Acid, head space, total error

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2 Supplementation of Citrulline with Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects Foodborne Pathogens Adhesion and Improves the Cell Integrity on the Intestinal Epithelial Cell

Authors: Sze Wing Ho, Nagendra P. Shah


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have shown the beneficial effects on human gastrointestinal tract, such as protects diarrhea induced by lactose intolerance or enteric pathogens. Citrulline is a non-protein amino acid and also the precursors of arginine and nitric oxide, it has shown to enhance intestinal barrier function. Citrulline has shown to improve the growth of some strains of LAB, it is important for LAB to have a sufficient cell concentration to contribute the effects. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of combining citrulline with LAB on the anti-adhesion effect against pathogens and the effect on the cell integrity. The effect of citrulline on selected LAB was determined by incubating in 0%, 0.1% or 0.2% citrulline enriched MRS broth for 18 h. The adhesion ability of LAB and the anti-adhesion effect of LAB and citrulline against pathogens were performed on IPEC-J2 cell line. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay was used to measure the tight junction (TJ) integrity. TJ proteins (claudin-1, occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1)) were determined by western blot analysis. It found that the growth of Lactobacillus helveticus ASCC 511 was significantly stimulated by 0.2% citrulline compared with control during 18 h fermentation. The adhesion of L. helveticus ASCC 511 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) ASCC 756 was increased when supplemented with citrulline. Citrulline has shown significant inhibitory effect on the adhesion of Escherichia coli PELI0480 (O157:H7), Shigella sonnei ATCC 25931, Staphyloccocus aureus CMCC26003 and Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544. The anti-adhesion effect of L. helveticus ASCC 511, L. bulgaricus ASCC 756 and Lactobacillus paracasei ASCC 276 against Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 was significantly enhanced with citrulline supplementation. Treatments with citrulline and LAB were able to maintain the TEER of IPEC-J2 cell and shown the positive effect on the TJ proteins. In conclusion, citrulline had stimulating effect on some strains of LAB and determined to improve the adhesion of LAB on intestinal epithelial cell, to enhance the inhibitory effect on enteric pathogens adhesion as well as had beneficial effects on maintaining cell integrity. It implied LAB supplemented with citrulline might have advantageous effects on gastrointestinal tracts.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Amino Acid, citrulline, anti-adhesion effect, cell integrity

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1 The Increase in Functionalities of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Mycelia Depending on the Increase in Nutritional Components

Authors: Eun-Ji Lee, Hye-Sung Park, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong


This study was conducted to research king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) mycelia with reinforced functionalities. 0 to 4% of saccharide components, such as glucose (glu), lactose (lac), mannitol (man), xylose (xyl), and fructose (fru) and 0 to 0.04% of amino acid components, such as aspartic acid (asp). Cysteine (cys), threonine (thr), glutamine (gln), and serine (ser) were added to liquid media, and antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents of the cultured mycelia were measured. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had high antioxidant activities when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 73.9%, which was the highest value. In the amino acid-added group, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 66.3% that was the highest value when 0.2% of ser was added. But all the 5 strains had lower antioxidant activities than the saccharide-added group overall. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had higher nitrite scavenging activities than other group when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the nitrite scavenging activity of ASI 2824 was 57.8% that was the highest value. It was revealed that the saccharide-added group and the amino acid-added group had a similar efficiency of nitrite scavenging activity. Although the same component-added group did not show a certain increase or decrease in total polyphenol contents, ASI 2839 with the highest antioxidant activity had 6.8mg/g, which was the highest content when 1% of xyl was added. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when 1% of xyl was added, functionalities of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents improved.

Keywords: Amino Acid, king oyster mushroom, saccharide, mycelia

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