Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

amine Related Abstracts

5 Synthesis and Characterization of Model Amines for Corrosion Applications

Authors: John Vergara, Giuseppe Palmese

Abstract:

Fundamental studies aimed at elucidating the key contributions to corrosion performance are needed to make progress toward effective and environmentally compliant corrosion control. Epoxy/amine systems are typically employed as barrier coatings for corrosion control. However, the hardening agents used for coating applications can be very complex, making fundamental studies of water and oxygen permeability challenging to carry out. Creating model building blocks for epoxy/amine coatings is the first step in carrying out these studies. We will demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of model amine building blocks from saturated fatty acids and simple amines such as diethylenetriamine (DETA) and Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. The structure-property relationship of thermosets made from these model amines and Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGBEA) will be discussed.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, building block, amine

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4 Synthesis of Amine Functionalized MOF-74 for Carbon Dioxide Capture

Authors: Ghulam Murshid, Samil Ullah

Abstract:

Scientific studies suggested that the incremented greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, particularly of carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major factors in global warming. The concentration of CO2 in our climate has crossed the milestone level of 400 parts per million (ppm) hence breaking the record of human history. A report by 49 researchers from 10 countries said, 'Global CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels will rise to a record 36 billion metric tons (39.683 billion tons) this year.' Main contributors of CO2 in to the atmosphere are usage of fossil fuel, transportation sector and power generation plants. Among all available technologies, which include; absorption via chemicals, membrane separation, cryogenic and adsorption are in practice around the globe. Adsorption of CO2 using metal organic frameworks (MOF) is getting interest of researcher around the globe. In the current work, MOF-74 as well as modified MOF-74 with a sterically hindered amine (AMP) was synthesized and characterized. The modification was carried out using a sterically hindered amine in order to study the effect on its adsorption capacity. Resulting samples were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analyser (TGA) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The FTIR results clearly confirmed the formation of MOF-74 structure and the presence of AMP. FESEM and TEM revealed the topography and morphology of the both MOF-74 and amine modified MOF. BET isotherm result shows that due to the addition of AMP in to the structure, significant enhancement of CO2 adsorption was observed.

Keywords: Global Warming, CO2, adsorbents, amine

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3 Syntheses of Biobased Hybrid Poly(epoxy-hydroxyurethane) Polymers

Authors: Adrien Cornille, Sylvain Caillol, Bernard Boutevon

Abstract:

The development of polyurethanes began in 1937 at I. G. Farbenindustrie where Bayer with coworkers discovered the addition polymerization reaction between diisocyanates and diols. Since their discovery, the demand in PU has continued to increase and it will attain in 2016 a production of 18 million tons. However, isocyanates compounds are harmful to human and environment. Methylene diphenyl 4,4’-diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), the most widely used isocyanates in PU industry, are classified as CMR (Carcinogen, Mutagen, and Reprotoxic). In order to design isocyanate-free materials, an interesting alternative is the use of Polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs) by reaction between cyclic carbonate and polyfunctional amines. The main problem concerning PHUs synthesis relates to the low reactivity of carbonate/amine reaction. To solve this issue, many studies in the literature have been conducted to design PHU from more reactive cyclic-carbonates, bearing electro-withdrawing substituent or by using six-membered, seven-membered or thio-cyclic carbonate. The main drawback of all these systems remains the low molar masses obtained for the synthesized PHUs, which hinders their use for material applications. Therefore, we developed another strategy to afford new hybrid PHU with high conversion. This very innovative two-step approach consists in the first step in the synthesis of aminotelechelic PHU oligomers with different chain length from bis-cyclic carbonate with different excess of primary amine functions. In the second step, these aminotelechelic PHU oligomers were used in formulation with biobased epoxy monomers (from cashew nut shell liquid and tannins) to synthesize hybrid polyepoxyurethane polymers. These materials were then characterized by thermal and mechanical analyses.

Keywords: carbonates, epoxy, polyurethane, amine, polyhydroxyurethane, aminotelechelic NIPU oligomers, epoxyurethane polymers, hybrid polymers

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2 New Platform of Biobased Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymers

Authors: Bernard Boutevin, Sylvain Caillol, Maxence Fache

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand on renewable resource-derived polymers owing to increasing environmental concern and restricted availability of petrochemical resources. Thus, a great deal of attention was paid to renewable resources-derived polymers and to thermosetting materials especially, since they are crosslinked polymers and thus cannot be recycled. Also, most of thermosetting materials contain aromatic monomers, able to confer high mechanical and thermal properties to the network. Therefore, the access to biobased, non-harmful, and available aromatic monomers is one of the main challenges of the years to come. Starting from phenols available in large volumes from renewable resources, our team designed platforms of chemicals usable for the synthesis of various polymers. One of these phenols, vanillin, which is readily available from lignin, was more specifically studied. Various aromatic building blocks bearing polymerizable functions were synthesized: epoxy, amine, acid, carbonate, alcohol etc. These vanillin-based monomers can potentially lead to numerous polymers. The example of epoxy thermosets was taken, as there is also the problematic of bisphenol A substitution for these polymers. Materials were prepared from the biobased epoxy monomers obtained from vanillin. Their thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and the effect of the monomer structure was discussed. The properties of the materials prepared were found to be comparable to the current industrial reference, indicating a potential replacement of petrosourced, bisphenol A-based epoxy thermosets by biosourced, vanillin-based ones. The tunability of the final properties was achieved through the choice of monomer and through a well-controlled oligomerization reaction of these monomers. This follows the same strategy than the one currently used in industry, which supports the potential of these vanillin-derived epoxy thermosets as substitutes of their petro-based counterparts.

Keywords: Lignin, epoxy, carbonate, amine, vanillin

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1 Split-Flow Method to Reduce Duty Required in Amine Gas Sweetening Units

Authors: Dara Satyadileep, Abdallah Sofiane Berrouk

Abstract:

This paper investigates the feasibility of retrofitting a middle-east based commercial amine sweetening unit with a split-flow scheme which involves withdrawing a portion of partially stripped semi-lean solvent from the stripping column and re-injecting it in the absorption column to reduce the overall energy consumption of the unit. This method is comprehensively explored by performing parametric analysis of the split fraction of the semi-lean solvent using a kinetics based process simulator ProMax V 3.2. Re-boiler duty, condenser duty, solvent cooling and pumping loads are analysed as functions of a split fraction of the semi-lean solvent from the stripper. It is shown that the proposed method significantly reduces the overall energy consumption of the unit resulting in an annual savings of 325,000 USD. The thorough economic analysis is performed using Aspen Economic Evaluation V 8.4 to reveal that the retrofit scheme pays back the capital cost in less than eight years and is highly recommended for any commercial plant having suitable provisions for solvent inlet/withdrawal on the columns.

Keywords: Optimization, Gas Processing, amine, split flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 213