Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

ames test Related Abstracts

4 Mutagenic in vitro Activity and Genotoxic Effect of Zygophyllum Cornutun Methanolic Extract

Authors: Awatif Boumaza, Abderraouf Hilali, Hayat Talbi, Houda Sbayou


The methanolic extract of Zygophyllum cornutun coss, an Algerian medicinal plant, was screened to the presence of mutagenic activity and genotoxic effect using the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome) and the micronucleus assay respectively. Positive results were obtained with both tests. The Ames test showed mutagenic activity in the presence of microsomal activation, while negative result was observed without microsomal activation. In the micronucleus test, two parameters were evaluated: the frequency of the micronucleus that increased in a dose dependent way and the proliferation index that decreased according to the micronucleus frequency. Even that further studies must be carried out, the mutagenic activity and the genotoxic effect of Zygophyllum cornutum should be taken in consideration when used as therapeutic plant.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, ames test, micronucleus test, mutagenic activity, Zygophyllum cornutum

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3 Evaluation of Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities of Some Biological Active Benzoxazoles in the Ames Test

Authors: Özlem Arpacı, Zeliha Soysal, Nuran Diril


Benzoxazoles are heterocyclic compounds that have a fused benzene and an oxazole ring. These heterocyclic compounds are reported to have antibacterial, antitubercular, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, some benzoxazole derivatives that have broad antimicrobial and potent antitumoral activities, are investigated their mutagenic activities with using the Ames Test. The Ames test was conducted using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102 tester strains in the standard plate incorporation assay in the absence of liver S9 fraction. The results are evaluated using SPSS and none of the benzoxazole derivatives showed mutagenic activity using the Ames test in the absence of S9 liver fraction.

Keywords: ames test, mutagenic activity, benzoxazoles, antimutagenic activity, antitumoral activity

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2 Assessment of Airborne PM0.5 Mutagenic and Genotoxic Effects in Five Different Italian Cities: The MAPEC_LIFE Project

Authors: T. Schilirò, S. Bonetta, E. Ceretti, D. Feretti, I. Zerbini, V. Romanazzi, S. Levorato, T. Salvatori, S. Vannini, M. Verani, C. Pignata, F. Bagordo, G. Gilli, S. Bonizzoni, A. Bonetti, E. Carraro, U. Gelatti


Air pollution is one of the most important worldwide health concern. In the last years, in both the US and Europe, new directives and regulations supporting more restrictive pollution limits were published. However, the early effects of air pollution occur, especially for the urban population. Several epidemiological and toxicological studies have documented the remarkable effect of particulate matter (PM) in increasing morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and natural cause mortality. The finest fractions of PM (PM with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm and less) play a major role in causing chronic diseases. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recently classified air pollution and fine PM as carcinogenic to human (1 Group). The structure and composition of PM influence the biological properties of particles. The chemical composition varies with season and region of sampling, photochemical-meteorological conditions and sources of emissions. The aim of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) study is to evaluate the associations between air pollution and biomarkers of early biological effects in oral mucosa cells of 6-8 year old children recruited from first grade schools. The study was performed in five Italian towns (Brescia, Torino, Lecce, Perugia and Pisa) characterized by different levels of airborne PM (PM10 annual average from 44 µg/m3 measured in Torino to 20 µg/m3 measured in Lecce). Two to five schools for each town were chosen to evaluate the variability of pollution within the same town. Child exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by collecting ultrafine PM (PM0.5) in the school area, on the same day of biological sampling. PM samples were collected for 72h using a high-volume gravimetric air sampler and glass fiber filters in two different seasons (winter and spring). Gravimetric analysis of the collected filters was performed; PM0.5 organic extracts were chemically analyzed (PAH, Nitro-PAH) and tested on A549 by the Comet assay and Micronucleus test and on Salmonella strains (TA100, TA98, TA98NR and YG1021) by Ames test. Results showed that PM0.5 represents a high variable PM10 percentage (range 19.6-63%). PM10 concentration were generally lower than 50µg/m3 (EU daily limit). All PM0.5 extracts showed a mutagenic effect with TA98 strain (net revertant/m3 range 0.3-1.5) and suggested the presence of indirect mutagens, while lower effect was observed with TA100 strain. The results with the TA98NR and YG1021 strains showed the presence of nitroaromatic compounds as confirmed by the chemical analysis. No genotoxic or oxidative effect of PM0.5 extracts was observed using the comet assay (with/without Fpg enzyme) and micronucleus test except for some sporadic samples. The low biological effect observed could be related to the low level of air pollution observed in this winter sampling associated to a high atmospheric instability. For a greater understanding of the relationship between PM size, composition and biological effects the results obtained in this study suggest to investigate the biological effect of the other PM fractions and in particular of the PM0.5-1 fraction.

Keywords: ames test, micronucleus test, comet assay, airborne PM

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1 Mutagenicity Evaluation of Locally Produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Using Ames Test

Authors: Hanafi Ismail, Nur Fathin Alia Che Wahab, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Zuliani Mahmood, Ismail Ab. Rahman


Locally produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which is a promising material for dentin and bone regeneration as well as in tissue engineering applications. The study was carried out to investigate the mutagenic effect of locally produced BCP using Ames test. Mutagenicity was evaluated with and without the addition of metabolic activation system (S9). This study was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA102, TA1537, and TA1538 strains using preincubation assay method. The doses tested were 5000, 2500, 1250, 625, 313 µg/plate. Negative and positive controls were also included. The bacteria were incubated for 48 hours at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Then, the revertant colonies were counted. Data obtained were evaluated using non-statistical method. The mean number of revertant colonies in strains with and without S9 mix treated with locally produced BCP was less than double when compared to negative control for all the tested concentrations. The results from this study indicate that the locally produced BCP is non-mutagenic under the present test conditions.

Keywords: ames test, biphasic calcium phosphate, dentin regeneration, mutagenicity

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