Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

amendment Related Abstracts

3 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey

Abstract:

The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: Sport, amendment, legal problem, right

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2 The Problems with the Amendment of a Living Trust in South Africa

Authors: Rika van Zyl

Abstract:

It was ruled that an inter vivos trust must be amended according to the rules of the stipulatio alteri, or ‘contract in favour of a third party’, that South African adopted from its Roman-Dutch common law. The application of the principles of the stipulatio alteri on the inter vivos trust has developed in case law to imply that once the beneficiary has accepted benefits, he becomes a party to the contract. This consequently means that he must consent to any amendments that the trustees want to make. This poses practical difficulties such as finding all the beneficiaries that have accepted to sign the amendment that the trustees would want to circumvent in administering the trust. One of the questions relating to this issue is, however, whether the principles of the stipulatio alteri are correctly interpreted and consequently applied to the inter vivos trust to mean that the beneficiaries who accepted must consent to any amendment. The subsequent question relates to the rights the beneficiary receives upon acceptance. There seems to be a different view of what a vested right or a contingent right of the beneficiary means in relation to the inter vivos trust. These rights also have an impact on the amendment of a trust deed. Such an investigation and refining of the interpretation of the stipulatio alteri’s application on the inter vivos trust may result in solutions to circumvent the adverse effects of getting the beneficiary’s consent for amendments.

Keywords: amendment, inter vivos trust, stipulatio alteri, beneficiary rights

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1 Evolving Jurisprudence of Rape Laws in India: A Study of Last One Decade

Authors: Drutika Upadhyay

Abstract:

Rape is one of the most heinous crimes committed against the body of a woman violating her privacy and dignity. The Right to Privacy and the Right to Live with Dignity constitute the very essence of the Right to Life and Personal Liberty, a Fundamental Right guaranteed under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. The study is conducted with the primary objective of analyzing the efficacy of rape laws in India. The study begins by explaining the origin, meaning, and kinds of rape recognised under Indian jurisprudence. Further, it explains various statutory and penal provisions relating to rape and the loopholes in such provisions. It focuses on the procedure followed during investigation and trial and also aims at developing an understanding of the rights of the victim and the sentence in cases of rape. The study also throws some light upon the amendments made to the criminal law and the recommendations of the Law Commission of India to meet the demands of the changing criminal justice delivery system. The outcome of the study suggests that the laws relating to rape have proved to be a major failure owing to the lack of proper implementation. Also, the lack of education among the masses leads to gender biasness, which is the ultimate cause for the commission of such crime. At last, the author concludes that the present criminal law system of the country contains various lacunae that need to be filled in so as to make the criminal justice system more stringent. Further, the scope of the definition of ‘rape’ needs to be widened in order to include such other acts of non-consensual and sexual nature that are currently not included in the definition. The author has adopted a non-doctrinal and analytical approach and relied upon the secondary sources of data for the purpose of the study. The scope of the study is limited to the crime committed against women.

Keywords: Privacy, Criminal Law, amendment, rape, fundamental right, personal liberty

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