Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Aluminum Alloy Related Abstracts

14 Microstructure and SEM Analysis of Joints Fabricated by FSW of Aluminum Alloys 5083 and 6063

Authors: Jaskirat Singh, Roshan Lal Virdi, Khushdeep Goyal


The purpose of this paper is to perform a microstructural analysis of Friction Stir Welded joints of aluminum alloys 6063 and 5083, also to check the properties of the weld zone by SEM analysis. FSW experiments were carried on CNC Vertical milling machine. The tools used for welding were the round cylindrical pin shape and square pin shape. It is found that Microstructure shows the uniformly distributed material with minimum heat affected zone and dense welded zone without any defect. Microstructures indicate that the weld material is defect free. The SEM shows the diffusion of material with base metal with proper bonding without any defect.

Keywords: Microstructure, Friction Stir Welding, Aluminum Alloy, SEM analysis

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13 Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure and Microhardness of AA7039 Rods Joined by Friction Welding

Authors: H. Karakoc, A. Uzun, G. Kırmızı, H. Çinici, R. Çitak


The main objective of this investigation was to apply friction welding for joining of AA7039 rods produced by powder metallurgy. Friction welding joints were carried out using a rotational friction welding machine. Friction welds were obtained under different rotational speeds between (2700 and 2900 rpm). The friction pressure of 10 MPa and friction time of 30 s was kept constant. The cross sections of joints were observed by optical microscopy. The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Vickers micro hardness measurement of the interface was evaluated using a micro hardness testing machine. Finally the results obtained were compared and discussed.

Keywords: Microstructure, powder metallurgy, Aluminum Alloy, friction welding

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12 Atom Probe Study of Early Stage of Precipitation on Binary Al-Li, Al-Cu Alloys and Ternary Al-Li-Cu Alloys

Authors: Muna Khushaim


Aluminum-based alloys play a key role in modern engineering, especially in the aerospace industry. Introduction of solute atoms such as Li and Cu is the main approach to improve the strength in age-hardenable Al alloys via the precipitation hardening phenomenon. Knowledge of the decomposition process of the microstructure during the precipitation reaction is particularly important for future technical developments. The objective of this study is to investigate the nano-scale chemical composition in the Al-Cu, Al-Li and Al-Li-Cu during the early stage of the precipitation sequence and to describe whether this compositional difference correlates with variations in the observed precipitation kinetics. Comparing the random binomial frequency distribution and the experimental frequency distribution of concentrations in atom probe tomography data was used to investigate the early stage of decomposition in the different binary and ternary alloys which were experienced different heat treatments. The results show that an Al-1.7 at.% Cu alloy requires a long ageing time of approximately 8 h at 160 °C to allow the diffusion of Cu atoms into Al matrix. For the Al-8.2 at.% Li alloy, a combination of both the natural ageing condition (48 h at room temperature) and a short artificial ageing condition (5 min at 160 °C) induces increasing on the number density of the Li clusters and hence increase number of precipitated δ' particles. Applying this combination of natural ageing and short artificial ageing conditions onto the ternary Al-4 at.% Li-1.7 at.% Cu alloy induces the formation of a Cu-rich phase. Increasing the Li content in the ternary alloy up to 8 at.% and increasing the ageing time to 30 min resulted in the precipitation processes ending with δ' particles. Thus, the results contribute to the understanding of Al-alloy design.

Keywords: atom probe tomography, Decomposition, Aluminum Alloy, early stage

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11 The Effects of Microstructure of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Fe Alloys on Micro Hardness, Tensile Strength, and Electrical Resistivity

Authors: Ugur Buyuk, Sevda Engin, Necmettin Marasli


Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention because of microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity influenced by eutectic structures. In this research, we examined processing of Al–Si–Fe (Al–11.7wt.%Si–1wt.%Fe) eutectic by directional solidification. The alloy was prepared by vacuum furnace and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 8.25 m/s to 164.80 m/s. The Al–Si–Fe system showed an eutectic transformation, which resulted in the matrix Al, Si and Al5SiFe plate phases. The eutectic spacing between (λ_Si-λ_Si, λ_(Al_5 SiFe)-λ_(Al_5 SiFe)) was measured. Additionally, the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity of the alloy were determined using directionally solidified samples. The effects of growth rates on microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified Al–Si–Fe eutectic alloy were investigated, and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained. It was found that the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity were affected by both eutectic spacing and the solidification parameter.

Keywords: Microstructure, Electrical Properties, Aluminum Alloy, tensile test, directional solidification, hardness test

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10 Perforation Analysis of the Aluminum Alloy Sheets Subjected to High Rate of Loading and Heated Using Thermal Chamber: Experimental and Numerical Approach

Authors: A. Bendarma, T. Jankowiak, A. Rusinek, T. Lodygowski, M. Klósak, S. Bouslikhane


The analysis of the mechanical characteristics and dynamic behavior of aluminum alloy sheet due to perforation tests based on the experimental tests coupled with the numerical simulation is presented. The impact problems (penetration and perforation) of the metallic plates have been of interest for a long time. Experimental, analytical as well as numerical studies have been carried out to analyze in details the perforation process. Based on these approaches, the ballistic properties of the material have been studied. The initial and residual velocities laser sensor is used during experiments to obtain the ballistic curve and the ballistic limit. The energy balance is also reported together with the energy absorbed by the aluminum including the ballistic curve and ballistic limit. The high speed camera helps to estimate the failure time and to calculate the impact force. A wide range of initial impact velocities from 40 up to 180 m/s has been covered during the tests. The mass of the conical nose shaped projectile is 28 g, its diameter is 12 mm, and the thickness of the aluminum sheet is equal to 1.0 mm. The ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to simulate the perforation processes. The comparison of the ballistic curve was obtained numerically and was verified experimentally, and the failure patterns are presented using the optimal mesh densities which provide the stability of the results. A good agreement of the numerical and experimental results is observed.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Aluminum Alloy, ballistic behavior, failure criterion

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9 Characterization of AlOOH Film Containing Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Prepared on Al Alloy by Steam Coating

Authors: Takahiro Ishizaki, Ai Serizawa, Kotaro Mori


Al alloys have been used as advanced structural materials in automobile and railway industries because of excellent physical and mechanical properties such as low density, good heat conductivity, and high specific strength. Their low corrosion resistance, however, limits their use in the corrosive environment. To improve the corrosion resistance of the Al alloys, the development of a novel coating technology has been highly desirable. Chemical conversion methods using layered double hydroxide (LDH) have attracted much attention because the LDH can suppress corrosion reaction due to their trapping ability of corrosive anions such as Cl- between layers. In this presentation, we report on a novel preparation method of AlOOH film containing Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) on Al alloy by steam coating. The corrosion resistance of the composite film including LDH was especially focused. Al-Mg-Si alloy was used as the substrate. The substrates were ultrasonically cleaned in ethanol for 10 min. The cleaned substrates were set in the autoclave with a 100 mL capacity. 20 ml of ultrapure water was located at the bottom of the autoclave to produce steam. The autoclave was heated up to a temperature of 100 to 200 °C, and then held at this temperature for up to 48 h, and was subsequently cooled naturally to room temperature, resulting in the formation of anticorrosive films on Al alloys. The resultant films were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM and electrochemical measurements. FE-SEM image of film surface treated at 180 °C for 48 h demonstrated that needle-like nanostructure was densely formed on the surface. XRD patterns revealed that the film formed on the Al alloys by steam coating was composed of crystal AlOOH and Mg-Al LDH. The corrosion resistance of the film was evaluated using electrochemical measurements. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of the film coated and uncoated substrates of Al-Mg-Si alloy after immersion in the 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution for 30 min revealed that the corrosion current density, jcorr, of the film coated sample decreased by more than two orders of magnitude as compared to the uncoated sample, indicating that the corrosion resistance of the substrates of Al-Mg-Si alloy were improved by the formation of the anticorrosive film via steam coating.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Aluminum Alloy, boehmite, steam process

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8 Selecting a Material for an Aircraft Diesel Engine Block

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Tytus Tulwin, Rafał Sochaczewski


Selecting appropriate materials is presently a complex task as material databases cover tens of thousands of different types of materials. Product designing proceeds in numerous stages and in most of them there are open questions with not only one correct solution but better and worse ones. This paper overviews the Diesel engine body construction materials mentioned in the literature and discusses a certain practical method to select materials for a cylinder head and a Diesel engine block as a prototype. The engine body, depending on its purpose, is most frequently iron or aluminum. If it is important to optimize parts to achieve low weight, aluminum alloys are usually applied, especially in the automotive and aviation industries. In the latter case, weight is even more important so new types of magnesium alloys which are even lighter than aluminum ones are developed and used. However, magnesium alloys are, for example, more flammable and not enough strong so, for safety reasons, this type of material is not used solely in engine bodies. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: Materials Selection, Diesel Engine, Aluminum Alloy, cylinder head

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7 Modeling of Age Hardening Process Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System: Results from Aluminum Alloy A356/Cow Horn Particulate Composite

Authors: Chidozie C. Nwobi-Okoye, Basil Q. Ochieze, Stanley Okiy


This research reports on the modeling of age hardening process using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The age hardening output (Hardness) was predicted using ANFIS. The input parameters were ageing time, temperature and percentage composition of cow horn particles (CHp%). The results show the correlation coefficient (R) of the predicted hardness values versus the measured values was of 0.9985. Subsequently, values outside the experimental data points were predicted. When the temperature was kept constant, and other input parameters were varied, the average relative error of the predicted values was 0.0931%. When the temperature was varied, and other input parameters kept constant, the average relative error of the hardness values predictions was 80%. The results show that ANFIS with coarse experimental data points for learning is not very effective in predicting process outputs in the age hardening operation of A356 alloy/CHp particulate composite. The fine experimental data requirements by ANFIS make it more expensive in modeling and optimization of age hardening operations of A356 alloy/CHp particulate composite.

Keywords: Aluminum Alloy, metal matrix composite, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), age hardening

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6 Characterizing the Fracture Toughness Properties of Aluminum I-Rod Removed from National Research Universal Reactor

Authors: Michael Bach


Extensive weld repair was carried out in 2009 after a leak was detected in the aluminum 5052 vessel of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. This was the second vessel installed since 1974. In support of the NRU vessel leak repair and fitness for service assessments, an estimate of property changes due to irradiation exposure is required to extend the service of the reactor until 2018. In order to fully evaluate the property changes in the vessel wall, an Iodine-125 rod (I rod) made from the same material and irradiated in the NRU reactor from 1974 1991, was retrieved and sectioned for microstructure characterization and mechanical testing. The different sections of the I rod were exposed to various levels of thermal neutron fluences from 0 to a maximum of 11.9 x 1022 n/cm2. The end of life thermal neutron fluence of the NRU vessel is estimated to be 2.2 x 1022 n/cm2 at 35 years of service. Tensile test and fracture toughness test was performed on the I-rod material at various axial locations. The changes in tensile properties were attributed primarily to the creation of finely dispersed Mg-Si precipitates that harden the material and reduced the ductility. Despite having a reduction in fracture toughness, the NRU vessel is still operation at the current fluence levels.

Keywords: Nuclear Reactor, Radiation Damage, Tensile Strength, Aluminum Alloy, fitness-for-service assessment, fracutre toughness, precipitate strengthening

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5 Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Welded EN AW 5754 Aluminum Alloy Using Load Increase Procedure

Authors: A. B. Chehreh, M. Grätzel, M. Klein, J. P. Bergmann, F. Walther


Friction stir welding (FSW) is an advantageous method in the thermal joining processes, featuring the welding of various dissimilar and similar material combinations, joining temperatures below the melting point which prevents irregularities such as pores and hot cracks as well as high strengths mechanical joints near the base material. The FSW process consists of a rotating tool which is made of a shoulder and a probe. The welding process is based on a rotating tool which plunges in the workpiece under axial pressure. As a result, the material is plasticized by frictional heat which leads to a decrease in the flow stress. During the welding procedure, the material is continuously displaced by the tool, creating a firmly bonded weld seam behind the tool. However, the mechanical properties of the weld seam are affected by the design and geometry of the tool. These include in particular microstructural and surface properties which can favor crack initiation. Following investigation compares the dynamic properties of FSW weld seams with conventional and stationary shoulder geometry based on load increase test (LIT). Compared to classical Woehler tests, it is possible to determine the fatigue strength of the specimens after a short amount of time. The investigations were carried out on a robotized welding setup on 2 mm thick EN AW 5754 aluminum alloy sheets. It was shown that an increased tensile and fatigue strength can be achieved by using the stationary shoulder concept. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the LIT is a valid method to describe the fatigue behavior of FSW weld seams.

Keywords: fracture, Friction Stir Welding, Aluminum Alloy, fatigue performance

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4 Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy AL 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature

Authors: Krishnan Balasubramaniam, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Sumeet Kumar


Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.

Keywords: High Temperature, Aluminum Alloy, surface roughness, normal spectral emissivity

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3 Investigation of Optimized Mechanical Properties on Friction Stir Welded Al6063 Alloy

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Narasa Raju Gosangi


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is relatively new, environmentally friendly, versatile, and widely used joining technique for soft materials such as aluminum. FSW has got a lot of attention as a solid-state joining method which avoids many common problems of fusion welding and provides an improved way of producing aluminum joints in a faster way. FSW can be used for various aerospace, defense, automotive and transportation applications. It is necessary to understand the friction stir welded joints and its characteristics to use this new joining technique in critical applications. This study investigated the mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum 6063 alloys. FSW is carried out based on the design of experiments using L16 mixed level array by considering tool rotational speeds, tool feed rate and tool tilt angles as process parameters. The optimization of process parameters is carried by Taguchi based regression analysis and the significance of process parameters is analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that the considered process parameters are high influences the mechanical properties of Al6063.

Keywords: Optimization, Mechanical Properties, Aluminum Alloy, ANOVA, Taguchi, FSW

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2 Macroscopic Support Structure Design for the Tool-Free Support Removal of Laser Powder Bed Fusion-Manufactured Parts Made of AlSi10Mg

Authors: Tobias Schmithuesen, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum


The additive manufacturing process laser powder bed fusion offers many advantages over conventional manufacturing processes. For example, almost any complex part can be produced, such as topologically optimized lightweight parts, which would be inconceivable with conventional manufacturing processes. A major challenge posed by the LPBF process, however, is, in most cases, the need to use and remove support structures on critically inclined part surfaces (α < 45 ° regarding substrate plate). These are mainly used for dimensionally accurate mapping of part contours and to reduce distortion by absorbing process-related internal stresses. Furthermore, they serve to transfer the process heat to the substrate plate and are, therefore, indispensable for the LPBF process. A major challenge for the economical use of the LPBF process in industrial process chains is currently still the high manual effort involved in removing support structures. According to the state of the art (SoA), the parts are usually treated by simple hand tools (e.g., pliers, chisels) or by machining (e.g., milling, turning). New automatable approaches are the removal of support structures by means of wet chemical ablation and thermal deburring. According to the state of the art, the support structures are essentially adapted to the LPBF process and not to potential post-processing steps. The aim of this study is the determination of support structure designs that are adapted to the mentioned post-processing approaches. In the first step, the essential boundary conditions for complete removal by means of the respective approaches are identified. Afterward, a representative demonstrator part with various macroscopic support structure designs will be LPBF-manufactured and tested with regard to a complete powder and support removability. Finally, based on the results, potentially suitable support structure designs for the respective approaches will be derived. The investigations are carried out on the example of the aluminum alloy AlSi10Mg.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, Aluminum Alloy, laser powder bed fusion, laser beam melting, post processing, tool-free, wet chemical ablation, thermal deburring, AlSi10Mg

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1 The Effect of Different Surface Cleaning Methods on Porosity Formation and Mechanical Property of AA6xxx Aluminum Gas Metal Arc Welds

Authors: Fatemeh Mirakhorli


Porosity is the main issue during welding of aluminum alloys, and surface cleaning has a critical influence to reduce the porosity level by removing the oxidized surface layer before fusion welding. Developing an optimum and economical surface cleaning method has an enormous benefit for aluminum welding industries to reduce costs related to repairing and repeating welds as well as increasing the mechanical properties of the joints. In this study, several mechanical and chemical surface cleaning methods were examined for butt joint welding of 2 mm thick AA6xxx alloys using ER5556 filler metal. The effects of each method on porosity formation and tensile properties are evaluated. It has been found that, compared to the conventional mechanical cleaning method, the use of chemical cleaning leads to an important reduction in porosity level even after a significant delay between cleaning and welding. The effect of the higher porosity level in the fusion zone to reduce the tensile strength of the welds is shown.

Keywords: Surface Cleaning, Aluminum Alloy, mechanical property, Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), porosity formation

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